Predictive Factors of Acute Respiratory Failure in Esophagectomy for Esophageal Malignancy
Department of Surgery, University of California, Irvine, Medical Center, Orange, California, USA.The American surgeon (Impact Factor: 0.82). 10/2012; 78(10):1024-8.
Acute respiratory failure (ARespF) is a common complication after esophagectomy that contributes to higher morbidity and mortality. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we sought to identify predictors of ARespF in 6352 patients who underwent esophagectomy for malignancy between 2006 and 2008. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify preoperative factors (patient characteristics, comorbidities, procedural type, tumor's location, hospital teaching status, and payer type) predictive of ARespF in esophagectomy. The overall rate of ARespF was 27.08 per cent. For comorbidities, independent risk factors for higher rate of ARF included weight loss (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.02 to 4.37), pulmonary hypertension (AOR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.85 to 3.45), congestive heart failure (AOR, 2.35; 95% CI, 1.77 to 3.13), liver disease (AOR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.22 to 3.12), chronic lung disease (AOR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.66), and anemia (AOR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.51). Cervical location of malignancy (AOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.51 to 3.56), total esophagectomy (AOR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.90), and nonteaching hospital (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75) were independent risk factors for ARespF. There was no effect of age, gender, race, hypertension, diabetes, renal failure, obesity, smoking, peripheral vascular disorder, or payer type on ARespF. We identified multiple preoperative risk factors that have an impact on development of ARespF after esophagectomy. Surgeons can use these factors to inform patients of potential risks and should consider these factors during surgical-decision making.
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ABSTRACT: This chapter describes the surgeon's main goals when performing a potentially curative esophagectomy for esophageal cancer, regardless of the surgical approach that is chosen. The various indicators that have been identified to promote oncological control in open surgery will be discussed, including accurate preoperative staging, administration of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, complete surgical resection, and extended lymphadenectomy. Finally, tools that help to prevent complications will be discussed as well as the clinical audits for quality control.
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ABSTRACT: Undernutrition and cachexia have been suggested to be risk factors for postoperative complications and survival in cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI) is related to the short-term and long-term outcomes in patients who undergo an esophagectomy for the resection of esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Three hundred forty patients who underwent an esophagectomy for the resection of ESCC between 2003 and 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. The patients were divided into two groups: an L-BMI group characterized by a BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) and an N-BMI group characterized by a BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) . Clinical and pathological outcome were compared between groups. The study included 40 patients in the L-BMI group and 300 patients in the N-BMI group. A clinicopathological assessment showed that nodal involvement was seen more frequently in the L-BMI group (P = 0.016). Pulmonary complications seemed to occur more frequently in the L-BMI group (P = 0.006). The 5-year overall survival rate was higher in the N-BMI group (63.6%) than in the L-BMI group (32.3%) (P < 0.001). The 5-year disease-free survival rate was also higher in the N-BMI group (58.0%) than in the L-BMI group (33.6%) (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the BMI (hazard ratio, 2.154; 95% CI, 1.349-3.440, P = 0.001) was found to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Our data suggested that a lower BMI not only increased pulmonary complications but also impaired overall and disease-free survival after an esophagectomy for the resection of ESCC. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.
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