Article

Conflict Cultures in Organizations: How Leaders Shape Conflict Cultures and Their Organizational-Level Consequences

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Anecdotal evidence abounds that organizations have distinct conflict cultures, or socially shared norms for how conflict should be managed. However, research to date has largely focused on conflict management styles at the individual and small group level, and has yet to examine whether organizations create socially shared and normative ways to manage conflict. In a sample of leaders and members from 92 branches of a large bank, factor analysis and aggregation analyses show that 3 conflict cultures-collaborative, dominating, and avoidant-operate at the unit level of analysis. Building on Lewin, Lippitt, and White's (1939) classic work, we find that leaders' own conflict management behaviors are associated with distinct unit conflict cultures. The results also demonstrate that conflict cultures have implications for macro branch-level outcomes, including branch viability (i.e., cohesion, potency, and burnout) and branch performance (i.e., creativity and customer service). A conflict culture perspective moves beyond the individual level and provides new insight into the dynamics of conflict management in organizational contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... However, teams often fail and cannot satisfy their management's expectations due to unfairness issues and co-worker conflicts with teammates (Alipour et al., 2017;Tjosvold, 2008). Prior research indicates that unfairness and conflict are ubiquitous in every team, hindering team functioning and effective cooperation between team members (Deutsch, 2011;Gelfand et al., 2012;Montada, 2011). Conflict with teammates is often caused by a team member's perceived unfairness relating to either unfair outcomes, biased and non-accurate decision-making procedures, disrespect or dishonesty (Spell et al., 2011). ...
... One main goal of a cooperative conflict management approach is that all involved conflict parties are satisfied with the conflict resolution (Deutsch, 1973;Tekleab et al., 2009;Tjosvold, 2008). By applying a cooperative approach to manage relationships and process conflict with teammates, the individual team member shows that she or he is concerned of the teammates' interests and shows comprehension for their opinions and positions (Behfar et al., 2008;Gelfand et al., 2012). Such management of conflicts is likely to weaken the need for negative reciprocation and the dysfunctional effects of relationship and process conflict on the unfairness dimensions because teammates are more likely to respond to such conflict management approach with more fairness and kindness toward the individual team member. ...
... If a team member cooperatively manages conflicts with teammates, she or he enables the effective and open-minded resolution of conflict (Gelfand et al., 2012;Hempel et al., 2009), weakening dysfunctional conflict effects on unfairness. The involved team member relies on teammates (Tjosvold, 1998), facilitating the sharing and discussion of different perspectives and viewpoints that become evident in conflict with teammates (Gelfand et al., 2012). ...
Article
Purpose Teams often cannot fulfill their managers’ expectations due to unfairness issues and dysfunctional conflicts with teammates. This paper aims to create a fair team environment, it is important to analyze the interrelationship between unfairness and conflict. However, only a few studies have done this and reported inconsistent results. Using negative reciprocity research as a theoretical foundation, this paper analyzes the interconnection between unfairness and conflict dimensions in the team context. This paper further integrates conflict management research to show employees and managers how to handle unfairness and conflict in teams. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a longitudinal survey study (three points in time) with 237 employees from different German organizations. Findings The results of cross-lagged structural equation modeling provide some evidence that interpersonal, procedural and informational unfairness predict relationship conflict and process conflict. Several of these effects become non-significant over time. Further, relationship and process conflict have several significant relationships with the unfairness dimensions, while task conflict did not have any significant relationship. The results also suggest that employees can break up the vicious cycle of unfairness and conflict by using a cooperative conflict management approach. Research limitations/implications This paper focuses on members of autonomous, interdependent and existing teams and the interpersonal relationship of a team member with her or his teammates. Future research could analyze leader-member relationships in different team types. Practical implications The application of cooperative conflict management enables employees to break up the vicious cycle of unfairness. Originality/value This paper clarifies the interrelationship between unfairness and conflict and shows that a team member can apply a cooperative conflict management style to handle effectively unfairness and conflict.
... Conflict management research is based on Deutsch's conflict theory of cooperation and competition (e.g., Gelfand et al., 2012;Hempel et al., 2009;Tjosvold et al., 2006). ...
... Cooperatively managing conflicts creates the basis for cooperation with teammates, because the employee is concerned about the well-being of the counterparty and strives for a final solution which is accepted by both parties (Tjosvold, 1998;Tjosvold et al., 2014). The goal is that all conflict parties win (Deutsch, 2002), so the employees can continue to work effectively with coworkers (Gelfand et al., 2012). Further, giving everyone the right to formulate and to argue for her or his position should therefore increase perceptions of cooperation with teammates. ...
... The individual employee is concerned about the teammates' interests and shows respect and comprehension for their different positions. An open-minded environment is created (Al-Ghazali and Afsar, 2021;Hempel et al., 2009), enabling effective cooperation with teammates during a task conflict and creating an environment that supports creativity and innovation (Gelfand et al., 2012). The involved employee also relies on teammates and feels accepted (Tjosvold, 1998), facilitating the sharing and discussion of different ideas, perspectives, and viewpoints that become evident in task conflict with teammates. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose A dynamic and changing international business environment and higher needs for innovation have increased the importance of creativity in organizations. Organizations need creative employees to develop new methods and procedures that stimulate innovation. However, prior research indicates that employees are sometimes passive and avoid engaging in creative behavior. To promote individual creative behavior, this study aims to better understand the role of task conflict and conflict management. More specifically, the authors draw on Deutsch’s conflict theory of cooperation and competition to test whether an employee’s conflict management moderates the indirect relationship between task conflict and creativity through cooperation. Design/methodology/approach To test the hypotheses, the authors conducted a three-phase survey study with 428 employees from different German organizations. Findings The results suggest that task conflict has only a positive indirect relationship with creativity through cooperation with teammates when employees avoid a competitive conflict management style. Originality/value The authors draw on Deutsch’s conflict theory of cooperation and competition to integrate research on task conflict and conflict management, allowing them to explain why and when task conflict with teammates influences an employee’s creativity. The findings show that task conflict is particularly beneficial for cooperation and creativity if employees avoid closed-minded discussions and competitive interactions with coworkers.
... In this regard, followers become willing and capable of collaborating in their life and work relationships, including readiness to discuss thier hurts, and feelings of obstructions. These readiness to collaborate will likely de-escalate team conflict (Gelfand et al., 2012), and subsequently, curb followers' feelings of emotional exhaustion. As servant leaders inspire team consensus (Wong et al., 2018) rather than team conflict, and we argue that the negative relationship between servant leadership and emotional exhaustion will occur indirectly through reduced team conflict, we propose the following hypothesis: ...
... Here, our study interest is explicitly focused on leaders' behavior when they act as third parties in the conflict between their followers. The most typical conflict behaviors of leaders include avoiding, forcing, and problem-solving (Gelfand et al., 2012;R€ omer, 2017). For example, leaders may decide not to get involved in followers' conflict (avoiding), or they may opt to impose a solution on conflicting parties (forcing) to end the disputes. ...
... Individuals in conflict usually view their leaders' avoiding approach as a lack of support (R€ omer et al., 2012). This perception by the followers may be due to leaders' inability to facilitate open, fair, and honest dialogue in conflict situations (Gelfand et al., 2012), thereby fueling conflict escalation and unfavorable health outcomes for followers. In other words, conflict communication research has highlighted that (leaders') lack of communication or opting not to communicate (in followers' conflicts) is synonymous with communication (Wang et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Conflicts are ubiquitous in all life’s domain where people live and perform interdependent tasks, including convents. Managing conflicts among followers is an essential responsibility of leaders. The way leaders behave while managing such conflicts have received little academic attention; available studies have focused on business contexts. This study aimed to examine the relationship between servant leadership, and emotional exhaustion through team conflicts, and further investigates the mediating role of leaders’ third‐party conflict behaviors such as avoiding, forcing, and problem‐solving. Data were gathered from 453 religious sisters (followers), in 166 convents, in a Catholic Women Religious Institute mostly based in Nigeria. Structural equation modeling confirmed that servant leadership was associated with reduced team conflicts through leaders’ third‐party behaviors. Further findings showed that perceived servant leadership was negatively related to emotional exhaustion through a nonforcing expression. We discussed theoretical and practical implications.
... Studies in the field of multigenerational teams suggest that conflicts may create anxiety and reduced cognitive processing, thereby negatively impacting performance and effectiveness in the organisation (Burton et al., 2019;Ng & Parry, 2016). To manage such conflicts in organisations, leadership serves a crucial function (Gelfand et al., 2012;Stanley, 2010). However, very few studies in the past have explored leadership styles and conflict resolution strategies in multigenerational teams (Burton et al., 2019;Ng & Parry, 2016;Rahim & Katz, 2019). ...
... We contend that, through encouraging open communication, participation, respect for diverse viewpoints and building trust among members in multigenerational teams, shared leadership can promote cooperative styles of conflict management as opposed to avoidant or competitive styles (Gelfand et al., 2012;Mihalache et al., 2014) that may help mitigate some of the negative effects of conflicts (Bergman et al., 2012;Hu et al., 2017) and, thus, lead to positive team outcomes . ...
... Further, within active or confrontational forms of conflict management, other researchers have categorised the strategies based on the extent to which the intentions communicated to the other party are cooperative or competitive (Chung-Yan & Moeller, 2010;Somech et al., 2009;Yeung et al., 2015). Gelfand et al. (2012) suggested that the most commonly used framework for conflict management styles involve three broad styles-cooperation, competition, and avoidance-since it is more suited to studying small group or team outcomes over individual outcomes (Choi, 2013;Tjosvold et al., 2003;Yin et al., 2020). Moreover, such a categorisation is considered more parsimonious (see Kim & Leung, 2000;Somech et al., 2009) and is in line with other studies examining conflict management behaviours in teams and team effectiveness (Chen et al., 2005). ...
... Studies in the field of multigenerational teams suggest that conflicts may create anxiety and reduced cognitive processing, thereby negatively impacting performance and effectiveness in the organisation (Burton et al., 2019;Ng & Parry, 2016). To manage such conflicts in organisations, leadership serves a crucial function (Gelfand et al., 2012;Stanley, 2010). However, very few studies in the past have explored leadership styles and conflict resolution strategies in multigenerational teams (Burton et al., 2019;Ng & Parry, 2016;Rahim & Katz, 2019). ...
... We contend that, through encouraging open communication, participation, respect for diverse viewpoints and building trust among members in multigenerational teams, shared leadership can promote cooperative styles of conflict management as opposed to avoidant or competitive styles (Gelfand et al., 2012;Mihalache et al., 2014) that may help mitigate some of the negative effects of conflicts (Bergman et al., 2012;Hu et al., 2017) and, thus, lead to positive team outcomes . ...
... Further, within active or confrontational forms of conflict management, other researchers have categorised the strategies based on the extent to which the intentions communicated to the other party are cooperative or competitive (Chung-Yan & Moeller, 2010;Somech et al., 2009;Yeung et al., 2015). Gelfand et al. (2012) suggested that the most commonly used framework for conflict management styles involve three broad styles-cooperation, competition, and avoidance-since it is more suited to studying small group or team outcomes over individual outcomes (Choi, 2013;Tjosvold et al., 2003;Yin et al., 2020). Moreover, such a categorisation is considered more parsimonious (see Kim & Leung, 2000;Somech et al., 2009) and is in line with other studies examining conflict management behaviours in teams and team effectiveness (Chen et al., 2005). ...
Article
With multigenerational teams becoming ubiquitous in contemporary organisations, this article aims to address the need to understand the dynamics within such teams. The study proposes a conceptual framework to examine the role of shared leadership in multigenerational teams in promoting positive team outcomes for such teams. Potential differences in work values, attitudes and behaviours among different generations are likely to predispose multigenerational teams to a higher probability of conflicts, which may negatively impact team outcomes. The study posits that if shared leadership emerges in multigenerational teams, it is likely to promote the adoption of cooperative conflict management styles and inhibit the adoption of competitive and avoidant styles, thereby leading to positive outcomes like team performance and team member satisfaction. By proposing conflict management styles as an important mechanism through which shared leadership promotes positive team outcomes, the study intends to contribute to the emerging literature on shared leadership and conflict management in multigenerational teams.
... However, work that explicitly examines the potential impact that leaders have on shaping coworker conflict is surprisingly limited (Gelfand et al., 2012;Redmond et al., 2016). ...
... First, we developed and tested a model for understanding the influence of LEB on the emergence of coworker conflict. Conflict researchers generally posit a role for leadership in shaping coworker conflict dynamics, but with a limited evidence base to support this widely held view (Gelfand et al. 2012;Tjosvold, et al. 2014;Zhao et al., 2019). The paucity of empirical work on the role of leadership in shaping or reducing coworker conflict presents a major limitation in this area (Zhao et al., 2019) that requires an integrative and cumulative approach to the potentially very large body of research that could inform this topic. ...
... This means we also contribute to trust research that has identified affective and cognitive trust as important social exchange mechanisms (Colquitt et al., 2012;Cropanzano & Mitchell, 2005;Schaubroeck et al., 2011), helping to clarify the link between leadership and interactions among employees. Leaders must pay attention to how they are perceived by their employees, as these perceptions not only influence leader-member relationships but also coworker relationships (Gelfand et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
With the diffusion of team-based work organizations and flatter organizational hierarchies, many leaders empower employees to perform their work. Empowerment creates an interesting tension regarding coworker conflict, enhancing trust and giving employees more autonomy to prevent conflict, while also increasing workload and the potential for coworker conflict. Recent conflict research has focused on how characteristics of individuals, groups, and tasks contribute to conflict among coworkers. We extend this work by exploring the role of leader empowerment behavior (LEB) in influencing coworker conflict. Our model integrates research on LEB and coworker conflict to help organizations manage coworker conflict effectively. To test our model at the workplace level, we utilize data drawn from matched surveys of leaders and employees in 317 workplaces. We find that LEB relates negatively to relationship and task conflict through affective and cognitive trust in leaders. We further find that LEB relates negatively to relationship and task conflict through reduced workload, but only when employees have a clear role description. In contrast, if employees have unclear roles, LEB has a U-curve relationship with workload: a moderate level of LEB reduces workload, but a high level of LEB increases workload, in turn increasing coworker conflict. Finally, relationship conflict has a direct negative effect on task performance, whereas task conflict has an indirect negative effect through relationship conflict.
... TFL is applied by those PIs who seek to encourage their supporters to go beyond their limits, not only to reach their own goals, but also to further the achievement of the team's objectives (Bass, 1985). Even though the literature developed in the area of RTs highlights TFL as the leadership style with the most significant impact on team performance (Gelfand et al., 2012;Bai et al., 2016;Kammerhoff et al., 2019), and despite the fact that TFL is one of the most studied leadership styles, there is yet no unanimous understanding of its specific influence on team conflict (Zhao et al., 2019), since it has also been pointed out that TFL could spark unwanted friction (Kotlyar and Karakowsky, 2006). In this sense, some authors have questioned the benefits of TFL. ...
... We hypothesised that the PI's TFL would have a significant impact on the relationship between RT conflict and RT performance, making the positive conflict area bigger. We came to this conclusion because the transformational leader enhances team cooperation and team interaction, which benefits the management of the RT conflict (Zhang et al., 2011;Gelfand et al., 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
The lack of consensus about overcoming the negative impact of conflict on team performance within research teams has become a challenge. Based on the complex context of knowledge-intensive teams, this study examines the effect that a transformational leadership style of the Principal Investigator has on the relationship between team conflict and team performance. We propose an inverted U-shaped relationship between research team conflict and research team performance, and examine the impact that the Principal Investigators’ transformational leadership has on this curvilinear relationship. Using survey data from 205 research teams, our results confirm both hypotheses. Actually, those PIs who apply the transformational leadership style will extend the positive conflict area, so, they will be able to manage a higher level of conflict in the research team. Our findings contribute to enhancing the understanding of the impact of conflict and the principal investigator’s transformational leadership style on team performance. Both theoretical and practical considerations are discussed.
... PhD Candidate, Organizational Behavior Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio I am interested in the study of organizational conflict cultures (Gelfand et al., 2012) as collective embodiments of the values, attitudes and related ethical frameworks derived from the identity orientations of dominant groups in organizations. I investigate applications of embodiment theory to the study of conflict management and negotiations in organizations and groups. ...
... inferences about who causes, motivates and sustains conflict) in organizations, thereby extending the current stream of research on embodiment and social identity. Conflict situations are particularly salient in social interactions (Flynn, 2005) and are highly influenced by the cultural context of organizations (Gelfand et al., 2012). To this end, I will discuss how I use embodiment theory to investigate the relationship between organizational conflict culture and individual conflict enactments. ...
Article
Embodiment inquiry refers to research into organizational phenomena that foregrounds the inextricable links between the body, its senses, and actions, as well as cognition and its related processes. Congruent with the conference theme, Broadening Our Sight, the panel symposium will address opportunities embodiment research provides for addressing “dichotomies that stand in the way of producing actionable knowledge to address[ing] monumental challenges…that have emerged over time” (Aguinas, Academy of Management, 2019). Specifically, we aim to focus on two epistemological dichotomies: (1) a long tradition of Cartesian dualism (i.e. the primary identification of the individual with the mind as separate from the body) in scientific inquiry (including the social sciences), psychology and organizational studies (Hindmarsh & Pilnick, 2007; Michel, 2015), and (2) the bifurcation of cognition and emotion in traditional organizational behavior and psychology research (Lazarus, 1982 & 1984; Leventhal & Scherer, 1987). We note that the above epistemological stances ground both theoretical and methodological choices made by researchers who study phenomena in organizations.
... Perspective-taking (PT) refers to engaging with a person's mental state, and own and other perspective-taking can be critical for conflict regulation and argumentation (Kuhn & Udell, 2007). Conflict regulation involves negotiating perceived opposing interest, beliefs, values, or practices (Gelfand, Leslie, Keller, & de Dreu, 2012). Concern for self and for the others (Rahim, 2001) can motivate conflict regulation strategies (CRS): smoothing (high concern for others), forcing (high concern for self), compromising (medium concern for both), withdrawing (low concern for both ); problem-solving (high concern for both). ...
... The results indicate that self-compassion and compassion may contribute to compromising, that is accepting losses, whereas stepping back from one's own point of view (less own PT) may increase creative problem-solving, particularly important in argumentative learning (Kuhn & Udell, 2007). Self-compassion but also compassion may promote emotion regulation through compromising and free up cognitive capacity for productive PT and problem-solving (Gelfand et al, 2012). Fostering PT and problem-solving, while taking into account socio-emotional determinants of conflict regulation may counter-balance possible negative effects. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Emotions and their regulation are relevant in conflict situations that arise in collaborative learning. We investigated the role of emotions in collaborative argumentation. We tested how the psychological constructs compassion, and self-compassion influence perspective taking and conflict regulation. Effects were found on compromising, and perspective taking influenced problem-solving and mediated the effect of compassion on compromising.
... TFL is applied by those PIs who seek to encourage their supporters to go beyond their limits, not only to reach their own goals, but also to further the achievement of the team's objectives (Bass, 1985). Actually, TFL has been considered a leadership style which can have a positive impact, reducing or even suppressing conflict among RT members (Bai et al., 2016;Gelfand et al., 2012;Kammerhoff et al., 2019). Ayoko and Chua (2014) asserted that team conflict can be reduced if every RT member trusts each other's competence to fulfil their responsibilities, something to which the PI's TFL may contribute significantly. ...
... We hypothesised that the PI's TFL would have a significative impact on the level of conflict among RT members. We came to this conclusion because the transformational leader enhances team cooperation and team interaction, which diminish team conflict (Gelfand et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2011). Our results confirm this relationship placing in line with those studies which have stated that TFL is a leadership style that PIs could utilise to diminish the negative effects of team conflict among RT members (Ayoko & Chua, 2014;Cai et al., 2017). ...
Conference Paper
ABSTRACT. The lack of consensus overcoming the negative impact of conflict on team performance within research teams has become a challenge. Based on the complex context of knowledge-intensive teams, this study examines the relationship between team conflict and team performance. We specifically proposed a curvilinear relationship between them. Furthermore, to deepen the understanding of the principal investigator's leadership, we suggested two lines of study. We first examined a negative direct relationship between the principal investigator's transformational leadership and team performance. Then we proposed that the curvilinear relationship between team conflict and team performance is moderated by the principal investigator's transformational leadership. Using survey data from 205 research teams, our results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between team conflict and team performance. Even though the principal investigator's transformational leadership had a negative impact on team conflict, it did not moderate the relationship between team conflict and team performance. Our findings contribute to enhancing the understanding of the impact of conflict and the principal investigator's leadership on team performance. Both theoretical and practical considerations were discussed. 2 Palabras clave: Principal Investigator; Team Conflict; Transformational Leadership; Research Team.
... Generally, "conflict arises by escalating spirals of manipulation, threat and coercion, avoidance spirals, retaliation, inflexibility and rigidity, a competitive pattern of dominance and subordination, and demeaning and degrading verbal and nonverbal communication" (Greeff & de Bruyne, 2000, p. 322). One of the main sources of interpersonal conflict are leaders who "refuse to take sides in a dispute, are disorganized in dealing with priorities, and talk about getting down to work, but never really do" (Bass, 2008, p. 143), and leaders who avoid conflict by suppressing discussions and dissenting opinions are not valued; this avoiding behavior will facilitate conflict culture (Gelfand, Leslie, Keller & Dreu, 2012). ...
... As it is evident from the literature that public sector employees are considered to be ineffective, unable and unwilling (Kamoche , 1997), therefore, they don't care much about passive style of leader, and hence are not affected directly in terms of burnout and conflict with coworkers. Moreover, when passive leaders avoid taking responsibilities and avoid resolving the disputes and incompetent in dealing with priorities (Bass, 2008), keeping themselves away from conflicts and trying to suppress discussions and good opinions are not valued (Gelfand et al., 2012), then followers who themselves are not mature enough as per life cycle theory (Hersey & Blanchard, 1969), they take little negative effects of these behaviors. We can rather argue that employees in public sector organizations of Pakistan are more comfortable in working with passive leaders than transformational or any other type of positive leadership attributes. ...
Article
The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between passive leadership and its outcomes in public sector organizations, with mediating role of workplace incivility. Data was collected from 245 government sector employees of Pakistan. SPSS was used to analyze data. Mediation analysis was carried out as per Preacher and Hayes (2008) bootstrapping method. Results indicate that both burnout and interpersonal conflict are not the direct outcomes of passive leadership; however, work place incivility is fully mediating the relationship between passive leadership and its outcomes that includes burnout and interpersonal conflict.
... These objectives or requirements typically originate from top leadership members of the HSC. The work required in achieving these directives or objectives commonly require the work inputs of HSC faculty and staff, led by mid-level academic managers (Gelfand, Keller, Leslie & Dreu, 2012). The source of conflict may arise over the intersecting expectations of leaders for the department and institutional goals for development, growth, and organizational change (Coleman, 2006). ...
... An organization's culture and history often shape the conflict engagement style employed by the organization's leaders (Gelfand, Keller, Leslie, & de Dreu, 2012). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Mid-level academic department leaders in an HSC must possess and utilize expertise in dealing with conflict during the execution of their leadership work. Departmental conflict can arise from sources originating inside or outside of the academic department, and handling this conflict is an essential component of leadership. It is rational to posit that conflict resolution strategies selected by mid-level academic leaders are influenced by the highest academic degree held by those involved from additional education, and the prestige of their terminal degree.
... Accordingly, people of color may feel pressure to behave in line with the norms of an organization's diversity strategy (i.e., experience identity management pressure). Indeed, workplace norms and cultures send messages about desired behavior (e.g., Gelfand, Leslie, Keller, & de Dreu, 2012), and people are particularly attuned to impression management in workplace contexts (DuBrin, 2011). ...
Article
Special Issue description: Despite equal rights, minority groups such as ethnic minorities, LGBTQ + people, and people with mental or physical disabilities face discrimination on a day-to-day basis in subtle and hard-to-recognize forms. As discrimination slips beneath the surface, it becomes difficult to fight the stigma using collective social identity coping mechanisms. Instead, individual mobility responses such as distancing the self from the stigmatized identity (“self-group distancing”) become more viable as a way to improve one's individual standing. In this overview of the state of the art, we take a social identity lens to reflect on the current empirical knowledge base on self-group distancing as a coping mechanism and provide a framework on what self-group distancing is; when, where and why self-group distancing likely occurs; and what its consequences are at the individual and the collective level. The contributions in this special issue provide novel insights into how these processes unfold, and serve as a basis to set a future research agenda, for example on what can be done to prevent self-group distancing (i.e., interventions). Together, the insights highlight that while self-group distancing may seem effective to (strategically and temporarily) alleviate discomfort or to improve one's own position, on a broader collective level and over time self-group distancing tends to keep the current unequal social hierarchy in place.
... Bagi sekolah, dapat menghargai keberagaman merupakan sebuah prestasi (Dumas, Phillips, Rothbard, 2013). Memang, dalam implementasinya, konflik sering terjadi, namun peran pimpinan sangat dibutuhkan dalam menyelesaikan masalah (Gelfand et al, 2012;Brook & Brook. 2018), misalnya dengan memberikan pelatihan dengan beragam aktivitas (Hall & Theriot, 2016 ...
Article
Full-text available
Tujuan dari penelitian mengetahui budaya organisasi, kinerja pegawai, dan perilaku prososial guru dan karyawan, serta mengetahui pengaruh budaya organisasi dan sikap prosial terhadap kinerja di lingkungan sekolah inklusi multikultur. Penelitian menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif-deskriptif-analitis. Pendekatan kuantitatif digunakan saat menguraikan data yang diperoleh dari angket dan mencari hubungan antara budaya organisasi, sikap prososial, dan kinerja. Pendekatan kualitatif digunakan untuk memberikan penjelasan yang lebih mendalam yang didapat dari wawancara. Penelitian dilakukan di Sekolah Tumbuh (SD Tumbuh 1, SD Tumbuh 2, SD Tumbuh 3, SD Tumbuh 4, SMP Tumbuh, dan SMA Tumbuh) dengan subjek 90 guru dan staf. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan, ada hubungan yang positif antara budaya organisasi, sikap prososial, dan kinerja di sekolah inklusi multikultur. Hal ini dikarenakan budaya organisasi di sekolah inklusi multikultur didasari oleh visi dan misi yang sama namun tetap menghargai keberagaman dan penunjukkan sikap prososial yang berdampak pada kinerja.
... Similar to cultures of companionate love (Barsade & O'Neil, 2014), cultures of compassion and gratitude (Fehr et al., 2017;Lawrence & Maitlis, 2012;Rynes et al., 2012) are characterized by interdependence, collaborative problem-solving styles, and expressions of genuine thankfulness and concern. Such cultures can not only stimulate positive emotional experiences and affective bonds but also support the use of relational strategies, such as perspective taking and interpersonal sensitivity that promote respectful interactions and interpersonal understanding (see also Fehr & Gelfand, 2012;Gelfand et al., 2012;Lawrence & Maitlis, 2012;Muller et al., 2014). These cultures both foster cognitive flexibility and support flexibility directed at interpersonal problem solving (Barsade & Knight, 2015;Knight & Eisenkraft, 2015). ...
Article
Despite a significant growth in the scholarly literature in the area of trust violations and repair in the last decade, extant work has largely ignored the complex and socially competent responses of the victims of these violations. Our framework integrates insights from affective events theory, the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, and theories of cognitive processing to suggest that cognitive flexibility is central to understanding how individuals respond to trust violations. Rather than viewing victims solely as gatekeepers to trust repair, we examine how victims’ cognitive processes are influenced by the affective context of those violations, which can, in turn, produce a spectrum of nuanced behavioral responses. We refer to this spectrum as the “swollen middle,” the range of behavior that resides between the extremes of impulsive revenge and forgiveness-based, communal cooperation. By integrating psychological theories of emotion and cognitive processing, we seek to highlight the central role of cognitive flexibility in the range of cooperative responses to trust violations. More broadly, we seek to contribute to the emergence of a new paradigm for studying interpersonal trust at work—a paradigm that explores trust-violating events as situated affect-laden experiences that interact with relevant organizational and interpersonal factors to influence employee behavior and trust dynamics in organizations.
... If team members engage in team conflict, they become more aware of their differences in knowledge and information. To foster task conflict, managers could design conflict cultures that support collaborative debates and disagreements about the task (Gelfand et al., 2012) and/or a team climate that values diversity (Homan et al., 2007). Instilling and maintaining appropriate diversity norms (Homan et al., 2007), stimulating interdependent work (Joshi & Roh, 2009), or bringing in outsiders (Price, 2014) may also help achieve the goals of stimulating task conflict. ...
Article
Transactive memory systems (TMS) facilitate the utilization and coordination of diverse knowledge inputs, and therefore TMS should be particularly important for teams with expertise diversity. However, TMS in diverse teams may be inhibited by conflict. Adopting a conflict perspective, this study examines whether expertise diversity fosters or inhibits TMS in creative teams. Using longitudinal data, TMS was inhibited when team members engaged in relationship conflict. In contrast, task conflict fostered TMS. Furthermore, the results showed that expertise diversity affected TMS through task conflict and relationship conflict. I discuss the implications for management theory and practice.
... It is proved that conflict culture has an impact on the macro results of an organization, including its vitality (such as cohesion, potential and burnout) and its performance (such as creativity and customer service). The view of conflict culture transcends the individual level and brings a new perspective to the dynamic conflict management at the organizational level [22]. For the purpose to study the relationship between task, relationship, process conflict and team performance, as well as the conflict types at team level, team conflict dynamic model is used to study the relationship between conflict types and key variables (including psychological safety, conflict management, team performance). ...
... To avoid relationship conflict, Meier et al. (2013) suggested to create trust climates-what will likely also prevent knowledge hiding (e.g., Černe et al., 2014). To improve conflict management, the creation of collaborative conflict cultures (Gelfand et al., 2012) and the implementation of conflict management interventions (e.g., Leon-Perez et al., 2016) seem worthy. In general, problem-focused conflict management strategies, such as active problem solving, are more functional than emotion-focused strategies (e.g., Dijkstra et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on knowledge hiding, the intentional attempt to withhold knowledge that others have requested, strikingly shows its detrimental consequences. But, if it has only negative effects, why do employees hide knowledge in their everyday work at all? With this diary study, we address this question, shedding light on the instrumentality of knowledge hiding. Specifically, placing it within the transactional stress model, we argue that deceptive knowledge hiding (playing dumb and evasive hiding) may function as coping, relating negatively to psychological strain responses to experienced interpersonal conflict. Accordingly, we tested evasive hiding and playing dumb as mediators of the day-specific relationship between conflict and end-of-work exhaustion and negative affect. Based on data of 101 employees who reported on 615 workdays, results of multilevel path analyses showed relationship conflict positively related to evasive hiding and playing dumb. Playing dumb was negatively related to end-of-work psychological strain responses, resulting in inconsistent mediation. Evasive hiding was unrelated to psychological strain. Showing the potential intrapersonal benefits of playing dumb, this paper helps to better understand the occurrence of enacted ‘negative’ interpersonal work behaviors, yielding important implications for research and practice.
... Actually, TFL has been considered a leadership style which can reduce or even remove relationship conflict. Although it has not the same impact on task conflict (Gelfand et al., 2012). On contrary, several authors stated that TFL has a positive impact reducing or even removing both, relationship and task conflicts in Western cultures (Kammerhoff et al., 2019) and in Eastern cultures (Bai et al., 2016). ...
... Examples include climates for learning (D. D. Bowen & Kilmann, 1975), innovation (Anderson & West, 1996), performance (Gelfand et al., 2012), safety (Katz-Navon et al., 2005;Zohar, 2002), and service (Schneider et al., 1998). Hence, employees experience the organizational context as a complex web of patterns, arrangements, and signals that stems from different organizational climates and sometimes creates conflicting or competing demands and expectations (e.g., Weick et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Frontline hotel employees face a complex organizational environment that constantly makes multiple demands, creating a persistent trade-off between service as a key element of the organization’s strategy and other competing or even conflicting goals. This study proposes an integrated and unique way of discerning the relationship between service climate and service performance through the prism of surface and deep acting emotional labor and suggests a new dimension of the service climate—the service priority climate. Specifically, we examined employees’ use of emotional labor strategies as a mechanism that explains the relationship between service priority climate and service performance. We also investigated whether workload pressure influences this relationship. Using a multilevel, multisource study, we surveyed a sample of 245 hotel employees working in 39 departments and their direct managers. The results demonstrated that when employees regarded service as a priority compared with other competing goals, they used more deep acting emotional labor strategies, resulting in better service performance. However, this was apparent only when workload pressure was low. Implications for hospitality organizations are discussed.
... Transformational leaders are believed to be able to reduce the CTRC in their workgroup due to their ability to prevent the emergence of relationship conflicts and simultaneously enhance the emergence of task conflict (Huttermann and Boerner, 2011). Gelfand et al. (2012) showed that diverse group leaders who exhibited TFL behaviors inhibited the occurrence of relationship conflict by creating a collaborative conflict culture. By conveying an inspiring vision, espousing collective goals and stimulating identification and feeling of pride in being part of the team, TFL decreases the likelihood of relationship conflict within a socially categorized group (Avolio, 1999;Huttermann and Brunner, 2011). ...
Article
Abstract Purpose –This study aims to develop a theoretical integrated model examining the role of the co-occurrence of task and relationship conflict (CTRC) as a mediator in the relationship between diversity and group effectiveness. The model also examines transformational leadership (TFL) as a moderator in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire survey from 354 faculty in 56 workgroups from three private universities in the Middle East. SEM and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the suitability of the model and its hypotheses. Findings – The results revealed that TFL moderated diversity’s direct effect on CTRC as well as the indirect effect linking diversity, CTRC, and group effectiveness. Specifically, diversity had an inverted U-shaped relationship with CTRC in groups with low TFL, but a negative linear relationship in those with high TFL. Originality/value – The findings expand understanding of how, and under what conditions, diversity influences group effectiveness by: offering a fresh treatment of this relationship, introducing CTRC as a bivariate construct and bringing into focus the centrality of its harmful effect on this association, and highlighting the influence of TFL in ameliorating this harmful effect. Keywords Group diversity, Group effectiveness, Transformational leadership, Task and relationship conflict Paper type Research paper
... Three key leaders' behaviors as third parties when they intervene in followers' conflicts are often manifestavoiding, forcing and problem-solving (Gelfand et al., 2012;Römer, 2017;Römer et al., 2012). Leaders' third-party conflict behaviors are typically perceived similarly by all parties in conflict (Römer, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The present study investigates the relationship between servant and authoritarian leadership, and leaders’ third-party conflict behaviors in followers’ conflicts, thereby contributing to integrating knowledge on leadership styles and leaders’ third-party conflict behaviors. This study aims to investigate leadership and conflict management in a context hardly studied: local religious communities or convents within a female religious organization. Design/methodology/approach The authors collected quantitative survey data from 453 religious sisters, measuring their perception of leaders’ behaviors. These religious sisters live in local religious communities within a Catholic Women Religious Institute based in Nigeria (West Africa) and in other countries across the globe. Findings Results show that servant leadership relates positively to leaders’ third-party problem-solving behavior and negatively to leaders’ avoiding and forcing. Moreover, authoritarian leadership relates positively to leaders’ third-party avoiding and forcing behaviors. Originality/value This study expands theory development and practices on leadership and leaders’ third-party conflict behaviors. The authors associate servant and authoritarian leadership with leaders’ third-party conflict behaviors: avoiding, forcing and problem-solving, in followers’ conflicts. The authors offer practical recommendations for religious leaders on servant leadership and leaders’ third-party conflict behaviors.
... First, according to RST, people seek specific types of support in their work environment-support that fits their individual needs rather than generalized social support (Ehrhardt and Ragins, 2019). For followers who are high in moral identity, the alignment between their personal values and the values of an ethical leader will be affirming, fostering smoother workplace interactions and more effective and proactive communication patterns, which will reduce the likelihood of relationship conflict in the work environment (Gelfand et al., 2012), ultimately strengthening their attachment to their job. Second, RST proposes that stressors and conflicts are often inevitable in the workplace, but that when they do arise, holding behaviors can act as a buffer to help individuals navigate these challenges (Kahn, 2001;Ragins et al., 2017). ...
Article
Purpose As ethical leadership has advanced as a construct, the degree to which healthy relational systems explain its effect on employee outcomes has been understudied. With this manuscript we conceptualize and test a model based on a Relational Systems approach to ethical leadership and its relationship with conflict and turnover intentions. Design/methodology/approach Two studies were conducted to test our hypothesized first- and second-stage moderated mediation model. In Study 1, online surveys were completed by 168 working adults across two different time points. Study 2 extended Study 1 by surveying 115 working adults across three time points using the Mechanical Turk platform. Findings The indirect relationship between ethical leadership and turnover intentions via relationship conflict was conditional based on follower moral identity. The negative influence of ethical leadership on relationship conflict and, in turn, turnover intentions was stronger for followers who had higher moral identities. In addition, our findings suggest that leader holding behaviors strengthen the negative indirect effects of ethical leadership on turnover intentions. Originality/value This paper demonstrates the usefulness of a Relational Systems theoretical approach to understanding ethical leadership. Specifically, ethical leaders, through their desire and ability to help employees feel known and not alone at work, are better able to reduce relationship conflict and, in turn, reduce employees' desire to leave the organization.
... Transformational leaders are believed to be able to reduce the CTRC in their workgroup due to their ability to prevent the emergence of relationship conflicts and simultaneously enhance the emergence of task conflict (Huttermann and Boerner, 2011). Gelfand et al. (2012) showed that diverse group leaders who exhibited TFL behaviors inhibited the occurrence of relationship conflict by creating a collaborative conflict culture. By conveying an inspiring vision, espousing collective goals and stimulating identification and feeling of pride in being part of the team, TFL decreases the likelihood of relationship conflict within a socially categorized group (Avolio, 1999;Huttermann and Brunner, 2011). ...
Abstract Purpose – This study aims to develop a theoretical integrated model examining the role of the co-occurrence of task and relationship conflict (CTRC) as a mediator in the relationship between diversity and group effectiveness. The model also examines transformational leadership (TFL) as a moderator in this relationship. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected using a questionnaire survey from 354 faculty in 56 workgroups from three private universities in the Middle East. SEM and hierarchical regression analysis were used to test the suitability of the model and its hypotheses. Findings – The results revealed that TFL moderated diversity’s direct effect on CTRC as well as the indirect effect linking diversity, CTRC, and group effectiveness. Specifically, diversity had an inverted U-shaped relationship with CTRC in groups with low TFL, but a negative linear relationship in those with high TFL. Originality/value – The findings expand understanding of how, and under what conditions, diversity influences group effectiveness by: offering a fresh treatment of this relationship, introducing CTRC as a bivariate construct and bringing into focus the centrality of its harmful effect on this association, and highlighting the influence of TFL in ameliorating this harmful effect. Keywords Group diversity, Group effectiveness, Transformational leadership, Task and relationship conflict Paper type Research paper
... Low ICC(2) values suggest that it may be difficult to uncover emergent relationships using group means (Bliese, 2000). Nevertheless, such circumstances should not preclude aggregation if it is warranted by theory and substantiated by reasonably high r wg scores (Chen & Bliese, 2002;Gelfand, Leslie, Keller, & de Dreu, 2012;Liao, Toya, Lepak, and Hong (2009). Therefore, we proceeded with aggregating individual scores to the team level. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study offers new theoretical insights into the dynamics of shared leadership. Integrating arguments from shared leadership and team development theory, we examine how shared leadership changes over the course of a project team's life cycle and how this pattern of change relates to team performance. Guided by shared leadership theory and project team literature, we also explore team level factors, which may alter the pattern of shared leadership development. In particular, we propose that in project teams shared leadership develops in a non‐uniform way, approximating an inverted U‐shape pattern, increasing early in the team's life cycle, peaking around the mid‐point, and then decreasing in the later phase. In turn, this development pattern relates positively to team performance. We also extend theory by explaining how specific team characteristics influence the pattern of shared leadership development. Using a three‐study approach, we empirically examine the hypothesized relationships and conclude with a general discussion of the theoretical and practical implications of our findings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Earnings calls are useful not only for assessing cognition, but also how CEOs wield influence. CEOs speak to others they are attempting to persuade of the need, or lack of need, for change, and they speak amidst internal stakeholders (including other TMT members), certifying that other key stakeholders are aware of the CEOs' plans for change and will likely take part in disseminating these plans to the rest of the organization (Gelfand, Leslie, Keller, & de Dreu, 2012). This "trickle-down" effect is consistent with research on the disproportionate influence CEOs have over their organizations' cultures (Berson, Oreg, & Dvir, 2008). ...
... While the advocacy behavior of an individual is likely influenced by their own personality and attitudes, we argue that the emergence of green advocacy at the level of a work group or team reflects the influence of the group supervisor or team leader. Consistent with evidence that leaders influence collective processes and outcomes (e.g., Gelfand, Leslie, Keller, & de Dreu, 2012;Lim & Ployhart, 2004), we assume leaders' influence on team dynamics reaches beyond directing and monitoring the task performance to stimulate discretionary behavior as well. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
As environmental concerns continue to draw attention from governments, businesses, and citizens worldwide, the so-called green behaviors of employees are being recognized as important for both the successful implementation of environmental management policies and as sources of upward influence that can hasten managerial responsiveness to environmental concerns. This three level study sought to replicate and extend prior research by examining how cultural collectivism shapes the dynamics through which personal attributes and the proximal social context within work teams and firms influence the dynamic processes that shape discretionary green behavior, green advocacy and organizational self-esteem. Results based on data from 1,117 individuals organized in 263 work teams in 17 firms and 8 industries and located in 5 countries (Austria, Brazil, China, India, and Germany) indicate that moral attentiveness, firm environmental practices and social cues from leaders and work team members all influence the discretionary green behaviors of employees working in firms, with the influence of social cues being stronger for employees in firms with more collectivistic cultures. The results point to the importance of accounting for cultural influence in studies of environmental behavior and suggest the value of leader authenticity in firms seeking to improve their environmental performance.
... The coefficient alpha (α) of the scale in this study was .67. Previous research (Daly, et al., 2010;Gelfand, et al., 2012;Leon-Perez, et al., 2015;Johnson & Hall, 2018) has reported on DUTCH instrument validity and supports it as a useful measure of conflict handling styles. Cronbach's alpha in this study was .81 ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This paper aims to reveal the effects of birth order in decision-making style, conflict handling style and propensity for participative decision-making. The intention is to open the perspective of birth order research in organizational studies, as an important individual difference of managers. Design/methodology/approach A survey was conducted with 230 managers from different industries in Kosovo. Self-report measures were used for decision-making style, conflict handling style and participatory decision-making constructs. Findings Results indicate that only children are more avoidant and spontaneous decision-makers. Firstborns are rational in decision-making and prefer problem-solving in conflict handling. Middleborns are intuitive decision-makers and use compromising in conflict handling. Lastborns make decisions rationally and use both compromising and problem-solving in conflicting situations. In addition, lastborns appeared to have a more positive attitude toward participative decision-making, followed by middleborns, firstborns and only children. Research limitations/implications Birth order affects managers’ behaviors in decision-making and conflict situations. Relationship dynamics in sibships are reflected in organizational settings, affecting how people behave in decision-making and conflict handling. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to attest how birth order influences the ways managers make decisions, handle conflicts and involve others in decision-making. As birth order cannot be changed, such knowledge is critical.
... Practically, our research underscores the importance for organizations to pay particular attention to cultivating employees' positive inclusion experience at work. In this respect, it is important for organizations to develop an inclusive climate that provides employees equal opportunities to succeed (e.g., equitable employment practices such as fair selection process, unbiased promotion, and equal pay for equal work), integrates employee differences (e.g., cultivating a collaborative conflict culture; Gelfand et al., 2012), and includes diverse employees in important decision-making processes (Nishii, 2013). Such organizational efforts could fundamentally alter the socioemotional context where heterogeneous individuals interact and fulfill employees' needs for belongingness and uniqueness (Shore et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The global trend of increasing age diversity in workforces has called for research on understanding and managing age differences to better integrate employees across the lifespan into organizations. Integrating aging and lifespan development research and inclusion work, we conduct a daily diary study to investigate age differences in employees’ responses to inclusion experience on a daily basis. In light of socioemotional selectivity theory, we argue that older workers exhibit stronger affective shifts (i.e., increase or upshift in positive affect and decrease or downshift in negative affect) in response to inclusion experience because they are likely to put higher value on social relationships, such that the daily effects of inclusion experience on changes in positive and negative affect are stronger for older (vs. younger) workers through the mediating mechanism of relationship value. We tested our hypotheses by surveying 128 employees from a manufacturing company for 10 consecutive workdays (N = 1,248). We found that the daily effects of inclusion experience on affective changes were stronger for older workers through the mediation of higher relationship value. Changes in positive and negative affect, in turn, related to employees’ work engagement over the course of a workday. Our study serves as an important initial step that examines age differences in affective responses to daily inclusion and sheds light on the importance of promoting workplace inclusion for older workers in particular. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... and .78, respectively (for similar values see Gelfand, Leslie, Keller, & de Dreu, 2012;Gibson, Cooper, & Conger, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
We conduct 3 experiments to examine how the effects of incivility on team creativity through team positive affect differ depending on the gender of the incivil team member. We argue that the incivil behavior of 1 team member decreases team positive affect, thereby decreasing team creativity. We then propose that the gender of the incivil team member plays a significant role in team member reactions. We draw on role congruity theory, which posits that individuals respond positively toward those whom they perceive as adhering to societal norms, and negatively to those who do not. Accordingly, we found that team positive affect decreased significantly when a woman behaved incivilly compared with when a man behaved incivilly due to the agentic and aggressive nature of the behavior. Lower team positive affect then decreased team creativity. Interestingly, team positive affect was not affected when a man behaved incivilly. We consider the implications of our work across several different literatures and discuss interesting directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Finally, our research is silent about when and why policymakers and institutions change the defaults they set for their group members. Default options help increase within-group coordination; thus, policymakers and institutions may set individual contributions to intergroup conflict as the norm to increase their group's chances of survival and success in intergroup conflict (De Dreu et al., 2016;Gelfand et al., 2012). For instance, countries with a fiercer conflict history should be more likely to stipulate military service (vs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intergroup conflict is a persistent companion of the human existence. Why do individuals engage in intergroup conflict as often as they do? We propose that groups’ tendencies to present intergroup conflict as the default option and individuals’ tendencies to disproportionately choose default options fuel individual participation in intergroup conflict. Three experiments (total N = 893) that used incentivized economic games found support for this hypothesis. Designating intergroup conflict as the default option significantly increased individual participation in conflict relative to a no-default condition and to designating other behavioral options as defaults. The effects of defaults on intergroup conflict generalized across different social identities and levels of group identification. Our findings explain the stickiness of conflict and identify choice architecture as a potential solution: changing existing defaults can redirect intergroup behavior. We discuss promising directions for future research on the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects.
Chapter
With an end goal to build and maintain a new workplace culture to support workplace performance, the central human resources shared services group for a large university initiated a pilot project to improve the performance of their processes, systems, and its human resources. Through the guidance of a performance improvement professional facilitator, the central group consulted various cultural models and change management methods to identify a pilot project. The implementation of a multilevel change methodology for performance improvement was applied to the work performed by the human resources information services (HRIS) group. Using their newly defined mission, vision, and values statements as a guide, the central human resources shared services group piloted one project with the subgroup then moved onto others. This case study focuses on the pilot project within the human resources information services (HRIS) group, the work of the performance improvement facilitator and the group's members, and the outcomes of their efforts.
Article
Full-text available
Colorblind and multicultural diversity strategies may create identity management pressure, leading minorities to assert or distance from their racial identity. In two experiments (N = 307, 279), Asian participants in the US completed racial identification measures, contemplated employment at a company expressing a multicultural, colorblind, or control strategy, and completed measures assessing ingroup similarity and comfort in the company. In the colorblind condition, those strongly identified with their racial ingroup downplayed similarity to the ingroup and expressed less comfort relative to multicultural and control conditions. Those weakly identified reported more similarity (but inconsistently) and more comfort in the colorblind relative to multicultural and control conditions. Thus, diversity strategies convey different meanings to strongly and weakly identified Asians, with the former responding to colorblindness with identity distancing and the latter with identity assertion. Multiculturalism does not alter the typical pattern expected, with strongly identified asserting their identity more than weakly identified.
Article
Drawing on Ployhart and Moliterno's (2011) multilevel theoretical model of human capital resource emergence (HCRE), this paper reviews existing empirical research to better understand the effect of leadership on this emergence process. Specifically, we summarize the current literature pertaining to how leaders may impact the process through which individual‐level human capital – the knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals – emerge into a valuable unit‐level human capital resource. We review 132 empirical articles and examine how leadership research on task‐ and relational‐oriented factors at different levels of analysis affect the important task and social environment enabling factors of HCRE. Our paper makes important progress towards integrating leadership research with extant theorizing on HCRE and identifies areas in both literatures where additional research is needed.
Preprint
Full-text available
Organizational justice is the perception that one is being treated fairly in an organization, especially by those who hold power, such as the leaders within a church, both lay and staff. These perceptions of fairness (or lack of fairness) will influence church members’ commitment to, satisfaction with, and involvement in their church, as well as their psychological and spiritual well-being. Young churches are especially susceptible to the consequences of violations of organizational justice because young churches experience frequent changes in programs and delegation of responsibilities. Leaders of young churches should seek to maximize organizational justice, grounded in biblical principles, in order to have a healthy, functional body of believers who work together to serve God. These leaders need to respond to justice violations with humility, managing any conflicts that occur in effective and constructive ways. They must also work to prevent organizational justice violations in young churches from becoming engrained in the churches’ culture.
Article
Purpose: Groups’ perceptions of their supervisors’ conflict management styles (CMSs) can have important implications for well-being. Rather than being examined in isolation, supervisor CMSs need to be considered in the context of supervisors’ emotional ability and the amount of conflict in workgroups. This paper aims to investigate the three-way interactions between group-level perceptions of supervisor CMSs (collaborating, yielding, forcing), supervisor emotion recognition skills and group relationship conflict in predicting collective employee burnout. Design/methodology/approach: Group-level hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted with 972 teaching professionals nested in 109 groups. Findings: The positive association between supervisor yielding climate and collective employee burnout was evident when supervisor emotion recognition was low but absent when supervisor emotion recognition was high. Groups with high supervisor forcing climate and high supervisor emotion recognition experienced lower group burnout, an effect evident at high but not low relationship conflict. Practical implications: Supervisors have a critical – and challenging – role to play in managing conflict among group members. The detrimental effects of supervisor yielding and forcing climates on collective employee burnout are moderated by personal (supervisor emotion recognition) and situational (the level of relationship conflict) variables. These findings have practical implications for how supervisors could be trained to handle conflict. Originality/value: This research challenges traditional notions that supervisor yielding and forcing CMSs are universally detrimental to well-being.
Chapter
As many educational institutions become more globally competitive, and the number of diverse teachers increases, it becomes even more imperative to avoid what some cultures might deem as inappropriate and unprofessional verbal and non-verbal forms of communication. Those behaviors are sometimes interpreted in different ways, depending on the cultural perspective. Any unwanted verbal and non-verbal actions often increase stress, unwelcomed job pressures, and hinder a positive work environment. At the institutional level where teachers are very diverse, understanding verbal and nonverbal behaviors must be addressed. The researchers propose a methodology which will help multilingual, multicultural teachers' communication styles within the workplace and how to improve cross-cultural team collaborations. Additionally, the information provided in this study allows educational leaders to make inferences about their teachers' team performance and expectations based on their motivation, experiences, and skills used when working with a multicultural team.
Article
Conflict management has been widely examined, with research focusing on different conflict management styles, strategies, and factors that influence effective conflict resolution. However, despite the significant research attention dedicated to this field, the search for new insights and discoveries continues to discover how best to resolve and manage conflicts. The present study contributes to the literature by applying a system dynamic perspective to gain understanding of conflict management and constructs a theorized leadership model based on the experiences of leaders in an indigenous community in the Philippines. We utilize a phenomenological approach to involve multiple indigenous leaders and obtain their experiences of the conflict management process and system dynamics in their indigenous communities. Our results achieve the following: (a) demonstrating the complex nature of conflict management, validating the utility of the system dynamic perspective; (b) demonstrating that conflict management occurs on and involves multiple levels; and (c) revealing the importance of the humility and unbiasedness of leaders in the conflict management process. These findings provide novel insights into alternative mechanisms for effective management of conflicts in modern workplaces and organizations.
Article
Conflict is a situation that occurs when two people did not come to agree with each other, having varying opinion about a subject matter. Wherever human beings are congregated or made to co-exist with one another, conflict is inevitable. This is because each individual emanated from different background, family cycle, educational background, class, race etc. Therefore we are meant to think differently, observe things differently and also react to issues differently. The ability of the manager to manage this conflict well to the advantage of the organization is our area of focus.
Thesis
Full-text available
Im schulischen Kontext gewinnen Leistungen der Eingliederungshilfe zur Unterstützung von Kindern und Jugendlichen zunehmend an Bedeutung. Immer häufiger kommen hierbei Schulassistent*innen zum Einsatz, die einzelne Schüler*innen beim Besuch der Schule und bei der Teilnahme am Unterricht unterstützen. Trotz hoher personeller und finanzieller Aufwendungen ist bislang weitgehend unklar, in welchem Maße sich die schulbezogenen Kompetenzen begleiteter Schüler*innen verändern und welche Bedingungen, Belastungen und Ressourcen den Arbeitsalltag von Schulassistent*innen kennzeichnen. Die vorliegende Arbeit nimmt das Handlungsfeld Schulassistenz mit der Zielsetzung in den Blick, Implikationen für die Gestaltung der Hilfeleistung und der Arbeitsumgebung von Schulassistent*innen zu erarbeiten. Hierfür wurden drei empirische Untersuchungen durchgeführt und miteinander in Beziehung gesetzt: In einer quantitativen Fragenbogenstudie mit N = 107 Schulassistent*innen wurden die situativen Bedingungen und personalen Merkmale des Arbeitsfeldes Schulassistenz untersucht. Die Bedingungen des Arbeitsfeldes Schulassistenz erwiesen sich überwiegend als günstig, jedoch zeigten sich im Einzelfall Unterschiede zwischen Fachkräften für Schulassistenz und Nichtfachkräften. Hieran anschließend erfolgte eine qualitativ-explorative Interviewstudie mit N = 8 Schulassistent*innen zu Belastungen und Ressourcen am Arbeitsplatz. Mithilfe eines explorativ-induktiven Vorgehens konnte eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Faktoren von Belastungen und Ressourcen identifiziert werden. Die dritte Erhebung nahm daneben die Leistungsempfänger*innen von Schulassistenz in den Blick. In einer Längsschnittbefragung mit Klassenlehrkräften wurden Informationen zum Lern- und Sozialverhalten von N = 65 Schüler*innen mit Schulassistenz erhoben und ausgewertet. Das Lern- und Sozialverhalten von Schüler*innen mit Schulassistenz war nach Einschätzung der Klassenlehrkräfte über den Zeitraum eines Schuljahres überwiegend stabil – mit Ausnahmen in einzelnen Teilbereichen wie der Konzentrationsfähigkeit und der Selbstständigkeit. Die vorliegende Arbeit diskutiert die Ergebnisse in ihrer Gesamtschau mit dem Ziel, Rahmenbedingungen und Ansatzpunkte auszuschärfen, die es Schulassistent*innen ermöglichen, Kinder und Jugendliche entwicklungsförderlich zu unterstützen, sich beruflich weiterzuentwickeln und körperlich wie mental gesund zu bleiben. Es werden Implikationen für die Schulpraxis entwickelt, die sich in der Gestaltung der Arbeitsumgebung einerseits und der Gestaltung der Hilfeleistung andererseits konkretisieren.
Article
Organizational culture (including ethical culture) is argued to be greatly influenced by the founder or leader of the organization. However, little is known about how a founder takes procedural steps to transmit his or her personal ethical values to the whole organization. Based on an in-depth case study of Alibaba, a Chinese internet-based company, this research develops a process model to uncover the dynamics of developing an ethical organizational culture. The model articulates four mechanisms in four processes adopted by both the leaders and followers. The analysis shows that the development of an ethical culture is nonlinear and interactional, and that the founder and subordinates play different roles in the various phases of the development of an ethical culture.
Article
Purpose Past research on team conflict has often conceptualized it as a collective phenomenon whereby members of the same team perceive similar levels of conflict. However, similarity in perspectives can more often be the exception than the norm. As such, the purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of relationship conflict (RC) asymmetry on information elaboration and team performance. Additionally, I introduce a new construct: perception of team RC asymmetry and propose that it strengthens the positive effects of RC asymmetry. Design/methodology/approach A total of 181 MBA students comprising 52 teams participated in the research. Students worked together for the duration of the semester to complete a team project that comprised 45% of their final grade. Surveys were administered at three points in time with performance measured at the end and other focal variables measured at the midpoint. Regression analyses and the PROCESS macro were used to examine a first stage moderated mediation model. Findings Results showed that RC asymmetry increased elaboration, which, in turn, improved team performance. The link between RC asymmetry and elaboration was moderated by the perception of team RC asymmetry. Originality/value The present research shows that to have a fuller understanding of RC one must consider the level of dispersion experienced by team members. Taking this approach has uncovered a way in which RC can actually benefit teams instead of lead to destructive outcomes.
Thesis
Full-text available
The theses to be defended The first thesis. Frequency of the negotiation strategy is related to the measure of taking into account the interests of another person. Of the five strategies studied, three types of strategies can be distinguished: win-win strategies, one-way-win strategies, no-win strategies for both sides. The first type is bilateral win strategies that take into account the interests of both sides (cooperation, compromise). The second type is the one-sided winning strategy, which takes into account mainly its interest (dominance). A manipulation strategy can also be interpreted as a one-way-win strategy, but with two meaningful caveats. The first caveat is that the strategy of manipulation is not applied in a top-down manner, unlike the strategy of dominance. The second reservation - the object of manipulation does receive some additional emotional gain, but does not achieve the main result in negotiations. The latter strategy - with no win for both sides - ignoring, in which no interest is taken into account, is the third type of strategy. In different situations, prevailing strategies change. In symmetrical business negotiations with long-term consequences (with the example of sharing business shares), people are more likely to consciously prefer either a domination strategy or a cooperation strategy. In symmetrical personal negotiations with short-term consequences (wiht the example of deciding which film to watch), people are more likely to consciously prefer a strategy of compromise and cooperation. In unsymmetrical business negotiations with medium-term consequences, where people have a weaker and more dependent position as sales manager (seller), they are more likely to consciously prefer a strategy of cooperation and compromise. In unsymmetrical business negotiations with medium-term implications, where people have a stronger and more independent position as purchasing manager, they are more likely to consciously prefer choosing a strategy of domination and ignoring. In the first three situations, a negotiator considers the strategy of bilateral gain (cooperation) as a super task. But if a negotiator does not feel enough strength to apply the strategy of bilateral cooperation in the first situation, he resorts to domination, that is, to try to win as much for himself as possible, without considering the partner. In the second and third situation, a negotiator, if he does not see the possibility of using a strategy of cooperation, he uses a compromise. In the application of a compromise, the negotiator also wins, but not as much as in the application of cooperation. In a compromise, there is a desire to minimize damage with a partial benefit for each side. In the fourth situation, the negotiator uses either a position of force in the form of a one-sided dominance gain strategy or applies a zero-gain strategy - disregard. And only the manipulation strategy is an exception, as it is applied relatively evenly in all four situations. The second thesis. We did not accidentally pay special attention to the analysis of the manipulation strategy. In our view, a strategy of manipulation reduces the emotional effect compared to strategies of ignoring and domination and saves time on reasoning compared to strategies of compromise and cooperation. The use of a manipulation strategy does not hurt the partner and protects the relationship (provided that manipulation will not be understood by the opponent afterwards) in comparison with dominance and ignoring strategies. In comparison with compromise and cooperation strategies, applying a manipulation strategy surreptitiously turns symmetric relationships into asymmetric ones for the manipulator, but reduces the opponent 's emotionally negative reaction in comparison with domination and ignoring strategies. It is important to emphasize that the choice of manipulation strategy depends less on the specific situation, that is, the manipulation strategy is chosen more evenly among the four types of situations. Men are more likely than women to plan to use a manipulation strategy. The third thesis. The operational composition of one-way win strategies is relatively stable. The strategy manipulation consists of the following key components: • Masking, disguising the fact of influence. The manipulator hides the fact of manipulation. • Masking the purpose of influence. The manipulator hides his true purpose (which is obtaining psychological, social or economic benefit) behind the demonstrated, ostensible purpose (which is false or not important for manipulator). • The manipulator has the attitude towards the opponent as to a means to an end, as to an object in the philosophical sense. • The manipulator influences the self-concept of another person. • During manipulation, there is a decrease in the use of the "persuasion, argumentation" method. The strategy of domination - consists of the following key components: • Pressure, coercion. • Using the words "has to, must, it is necessary". • Decreasing the use of the method "underlining a possible winning and benefits". • Decreasing the use of the "pronouncing common goals" method.
Article
Full-text available
Organizational conflict refers to the condition of misunderstanding or disagreement that is caused by the perceived or actual opposition in the needs, interests and values among people who work together. Organizational conflict may also be termed as workplace conflict. The conflicts occur during situations where there is an interaction between two or more members of an organization involving contradictory opinions. Organizational conflicts are influenced by a variety of factors like the lack of clarity in the responsibility of the team members, the interpersonal relationship that is shared by the members of the organization. The scarcity of the needed resources may lead to the rise of conflict between the members of the organization. This study attempts to look into the two theories of the organizational conflict. These theories are the organizational conflict theory and the conflict management theory.
Article
Full-text available
This review presents comprehensive analyses of extant research on culture creation and change. We use the framework of culture creation and change (Kim & Toh, 2019), which consists of three unique perspectives, to understand past research on the antecedents of cultures. The basis of the functionality perspective is that environmental changes shape cultures, and thus, the created cultures enable an organization to address the demands of its environments effectively. In contrast, the leadership perspective argues that leaders have disproportional influence on cultures, and when exercising such influence, they are often unsuccessful at creating functional cultures. The leadership perspective comprises two subperspectives-the leader-trait and cultural transfer perspectives. The leader-trait perspective argues that when creating cultures, leaders often overlook the functionality of cultures but rely heavily on their traits. The cultural transfer perspective suggests that leaders often recreate the cultures that they have experienced in the past. Building on this framework, we review 74 studies in 68 articles across multiple disciplines to widen our understanding of culture creation and change. We then present agendas for future research guided by a four-stage model and a theory of coordinated actions for creating functional cultures. Finally, we discuss methodological limitations in past studies and offer possible solutions.
Article
Focusing on conflict at the organizational level, this study explores Conflict Culture Theory by (a) conceptualizing perceived and ideal conflict cultures, (b) creating and implementing the Conflict Cultures Survey, and (c) testing Gelfand, Leslie and Keller's (2008) proposed two‐dimensional model. Tenured and tenure‐track faculty at a large, American university (N = 346) completed the survey. Ideal conflict cultures varied little whereas perceived conflict cultures varied across departments, suggesting that ideal and perceived conflict cultures are distinct constructs. Multi‐level modeling and interrater agreement indices for the conflict culture variables provide evidence that conflict cultures exist and vary by department. Results supported the two‐dimensional model rather than one‐ or four‐dimensional models, suggesting that conflict cultures vary along two dimensions: agreeableness and activeness. Practical implications for Conflict Culture Theory and the Conflict Culture Survey include predicting job satisfaction and commitment, identifying bullying or workplace harassment norms, and establishing individual‐organizational fit.
Chapter
Full-text available
The study investigated the effectiveness of skills retention in curbing staff turnover using a case study of an Insurance Health Company in Harare. The research was prompted by high labour turnover in the insurance sector in Zimbabwe. The major objectives of the study were to determine the effects of training and professional development on skills retention; identify the impact of rewards system on employee retention and analyzes the association between job satisfaction and retaining employees. The study adopted a quantitative approach in order to gain much information from a large sample of 169 in size drawn using stratified random sampling. A questionnaire was used as the research instrument in which it consisted of six (6) sections covering the effect of professional development and training on employee retention, the impact of rewards system on skills retention, the association between job satisfaction and employee retention and the effect of the work environment on retaining employees.The study concluded that Health Company employees regarded training and development programs to be at the core of organizational activities and employee success. The findings also established that management was appropriately recognizing efforts and results of all the employees through various monetary and non monetary rewards. The research results showed a paramount importance of job satisfaction as the driver and catalyst for employee retention in the organization. The Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis revealed that there is a high association between the implementation of effective skills retention strategies and curbing staff turnover for the organisation. In particular, management can look for congruence between the individual's values and goals with those of the organisation to avoid employee turnover. Additionally, the organization should take into consideration factors such as promotion, salaries, working conditions and the nature of work in order to reduce employee turnover.
Article
Full-text available
We develop a framework of service-unit behavior that begins with a unit's leader's service-focused behavior and progresses through intermediate links (service climate and customer-focused organizational citizenship behavior) to customer satisfaction and then unit sales. Data from a sample of 56 supermarket departments provide at least moderate support for our mediational hypotheses. We discuss findings with a particular focus on the relationship between internal organization functioning and external effectiveness in service settings. In addition, several issues related to testing for mediation using quantitative analysis are identified and discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a model of team learning and tests it in a multimethod field study. It introduces the construct of team psychological safety—a shared belief held by members of a team that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking—and models the effects of team psychological safety and team efficacy together on learning and performance in organizational work teams. Results of a study of 51 work teams in a manufacturing company, measuring antecedent, process, and outcome variables, show that team psychological safety is associated with learning behavior, but team efficacy is not, when controlling for team psychological safety. As predicted, learning behavior mediates between team psychological safety and team performance. The results support an integrative perspective in which both team structures, such as context support and team leader coaching, and shared beliefs shape team outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
In a longitudinal study, we found that higher group performance was associated with a particular pattern of conflict. Teams performing well were characterized by low but increasing levels of process conflict, low levels of relationship conflict, with a rise near project deadlines, and moderate levels of task conflict at the midpoint of group interaction. The members of teams with this ideal conflict profile had similar pre-established value systems, high levels of trust and respect, and open discussion norms around conflict during the middle stages of their interaction.
Article
Full-text available
Intragroup conflict research has shown that task conflict can improve group outcomes, but it has not addressed how groups ensure that the positive aspects of task conflict are realized. This study examines the influence of group conflict management on group effectiveness, as well as the moderating role of group conflict management on task conflict—group outcome relationships. Results of a field survey of 96 business school project groups indicated that the use of agreeable conflict management in response to task conflict was associated with greater group satisfaction. Results examining group conflict management as a moderator showed that the relationship between task conflict and group performance was positive when conflict was actively managed and negative when it was passively managed. Similarly, task conflict improved group satisfaction when managed with agreeable behavior, and harmed satisfaction when neutral or disagreeable behaviors were used. Results from this work provide an important first look at how group conflict management behaviors directly impact group outcomes and affect task conflict—group outcome relationships.
Article
Full-text available
Notes that the roots of the multilevel perspective are spread across different disciplines and literatures, obscured by the barriers of jargon, and confused by competing theoretical frameworks and analytic systems. This chapter helps resolve this confusion by synthesizing and extending prior work on the development of multilevel theory and research for organizations. The chapter is divided up into 3 sections. In the 1st section, theoretical roots of the multilevel perspective as it relates to theory building and research in organizations is reviewed. In the 2nd section, basic principles to guide multilevel theory development and to facilitate empirical research is clarified and synthesized. In the 3rd section, multilevel organizational theory is extended by drawing particular attention to relatively neglected bottom-up processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Presents methods for assessing agreement among the judgments made by a single group of judges on a single variable in regard to a single target. For example, the group of judges could be editorial consultants, members of an assessment center, or members of a team. The single target could be a manuscript, a lower level manager, or a team. The variable on which the target is judged could be overall publishability in the case of the manuscript, managerial potential for the lower level manager, or a team cooperativeness for the team. The methods presented are based on new procedures for estimating interrater reliability. For such situations, these procedures furnish more accurate and interpretable estimates of agreement than estimates provided by procedures commonly used to estimate agreement, consistency, or interrater reliability. The proposed methods include processes for controlling for the spurious influences of response biases (e.g., positive leniency and social desirability) on estimates of interrater reliability. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The constructs of horizontal (H) and vertical (V) individualism (I) and collectivism (C) were theoretically defined and empirically supported. Study 1 confirmed, via factor analysis, that the 4 constructs, HI, V1, HC, and VC, which were previously found in the United States, which has an individualist culture, also were found in Korea which has a collectivist culture. Study 2 investigated multimethod-multitrait matrices measuring the constructs and generally supported their convergent and divergent validity. Study 3 showed how these 4 constructs relate to previously identified components by H. C. Triandis and colleagues. Study 4 showed the relationships of the measurement of the 4 constructs to some of the measures used by other researchers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Organizational climate research: Achievements and the road ahead The purpose of this chapter is to provide an introduction to the topic of organizational climate, setting the stage for more specific discussions of climate and culture in the remainder of the Handbook . This introduction covers two general topics: (1) major achievements in research on organizational climate, and (2) remaining work yet to be done in climate theory and research. Throughout, applications of the climate construct to the world of practice are indicated and the paper concludes on that note. The chapter summarizes and extends previous work by Benjamin Schneider, Mark G. Ehrhart, and William H. Macey (2011) in which they provide a narrative review of the history of organizational climate and organizational culture theory and research (for additional reviews see Kuenzi & Schminke, 2009; Ostroff, Kinicki, & Tamkins, 2003). Research on organizational climate began in earnest in the late 1960s, ...
Article
Interest in the problem of method biases has a long history in the behavioral sciences. Despite this, a comprehensive summary of the potential sources of method biases and how to control for them does not exist. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which method biases influence behavioral research results, identify potential sources of method biases, discuss the cognitive processes through which method biases influence responses to measures, evaluate the many different procedural and statistical techniques that can be used to control method biases, and provide recommendations for how to select appropriate procedural and statistical remedies for different types of research settings.
Article
A theoretical framework is outlined in which the key construct is the need for(nonspecific) cognitive closure. The need for closure is a desire for definite knowledge on some issue. It represents a dimension of stable individual differences as well as a situationally evocable state. The need for closure has widely ramifying consequences for social-cognitive phenomena at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and group levels of analysis. Those consequences derive from 2 general tendencies, those of urgency and permanence. The urgency tendency represents an individual's inclination to attain closure as soon as possible, and the permanence tendency represents an individual's inclination to maintain it for as long as possible. Empirical evidence for present theory attests to diverse need for closure effects on fundamental social psychological phenomena, including impression formation, stereotyping, attribution, persuasion, group decision making, and language use in intergroup contexts.
Article
We propose a model of justice in teams that articulates the social influence processes through which shared perceptions of justice emerge and that explores the subsequent effects on team effectiveness outcomes. We also consider barriers to the emergence of shared team justice and introduce configural forms of justice that may result. Theoretical and practical contributions of the model for understanding the meaning and operation of justice at the team level of analysis are discussed.
Article
The theory of the managerial grid, a model of interrelation s among styles of management, was used as the criterion for validating the two best-known self-report measures of conflict management styles. We reanalyzed six studies that used those measures and found thai both appeared to be moderately valid. However, the measures failed to reflect the underlying tbeory in a few respects, which suggested specific areas for improving tbem.
Article
The subjects of the study were over 300 managers with interdepartmental liaison responsibilities drawn from five departments of the same firm. The study attempts to explain variances in the interdepartmental conflict across individuals and across departments. General support is found for many previously formulated hypotheses about the effects of contextual factors on interdepartmental conflict. However, a series of analyses, each partitioning the sample into different but patently important groupings, indicates that there are wide differences in the pervasiveness of the effects of several major determinants of conflict, such as: (1) ambiguity in departmental jurisdictions, (2) physical obstacles and other related barriers to interdepartmental communication, and (3) inequities in work load and rewards. The systematic differences in the contextual characteristics of the five departments studied were measured and presented by methods that could permit comparisons of interdepartmental relations across as well as within organizations and across studies.
Article
Increasing competition resulting from the global and technological nature of markets has heightened the need for businesses to rely on cross-functional new product teams to produce innovations in a timely manner; yet functionally diverse teams' inevitable disagreements often appear to prevent this. In a study of 43 such teams, we found that the effect of task disagreement on team outcomes depended on how free members felt to express task-related doubts and how collaboratively or contentiously these doubts were expressed. Implications for managing the journey from disagreement to agreement in cross-functional new product teams are discussed.
Article
Past work leaves open whether conflict helps or hinders team innovation. Reconciling this inconsistency, Study 1 showed that work teams were more innovative when the level of task conflict was moderate instead of low or high. Study 2 showed that this curvilinear effect exists for task conflict, but not for relationship conflict, and that the effects of task conflict are mediated by collaborative problem solving. Study 2 also showed that although moderate levels of task conflict may promote team innovation, it simultaneously reduces short-term goal attainment in teams. Implications for conflict (management) theory and work on innovation are discussed.
Article
Conflict has long been conceived as a fundamental part of all organizational systems. Yet the literature on conflict is largely divorced from its organizational roots and instead focuses on general processes of conflict management at the individual and small group levels of analysis. To re-establish the organizational basis of conflict, we develop a macro-theory of conflict cultures, or shared norms that specify how conflict should be managed in organizational settings. We propose a typology of conflict cultures that draws upon two dimensions – active versus passive conflict management norms and agreeable versus disagreeable conflict management norms – and discuss the etiology of four distinct conflict cultures: dominating conflict cultures (active and disagreeable), collaborative conflict cultures (active and agreeable), avoidant conflict cultures (passive and agreeable), and passive–aggressive conflict cultures (passive and disagreeable). We discuss top-down processes (e.g., leadership, organizational structure and rewards, industry, community, and societal factors) and bottom-up processes (e.g., personality, demographics, values and social networks) through which these conflict cultures develop. We explore both positive and negative organizational outcomes associated with each conflict culture, as well as moderators of proposed effects. We conclude with theoretical, practical, and empirical implications of a conflict culture perspective.
Article
The present study examined the effects of group cohesiveness and leader behavior on subordinate satisfaction in a military organiza tion. A total of 203 cadets completed measures of group cohesiveness, leader initiating structure, leader consideration, and several satisfac tion scales. Analyses indicated that (1) subordinates were more satisfied with leaders who exhibited high levels of initiating struc ture and consideration; (2) subordinates in high-cohesiveness groups were more satisfied than subordinates in low-cohesiveness groups; and (3) leader initiating structure and consideration were more positively related to subordinate satisfaction in high-cohesiveness groups than in low-cohesiveness groups. The results demonstrate the necessity of including group process variables in leadership theory and research. Implications of the findings forgroup effectiveness are also discussed.
Article
A set of foundation issues that support employee work and service quality is conceptualized as a necessary but not sufficient cause of a climate for service, which in turn is proposed to be reflected in customer experiences. Climate for service rests on the foundation issues, but in addition it requires policies and practices that focus attention directly on service quality. Data were collected at multiple points in time from employees and customers of 134 branches of a bank and analyzed via structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the model in which the foundation issues yielded a climate for service, and climate for service in turn led to customer perceptions of service quality, fit the data well. However, subsequent cross-lagged analyses revealed the presence of a reciprocal effect for climate and customer perceptions. Implications of these results for theory and research are offered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A hidden issue is whether the more de-escalatory behavior of cooperatively-motivated compared to competitively-motivated conflict parties is the result of less concern for one's own goals, more concern for the other's goals, or both. A scenario study and a simulation experiment among undergraduate students confirmed the hypothesis that the difference in other-concern is the critical explanator. The stronger other-concern of cooperatively-motivated compared to competitively motivated parties fostered more accommodating, more problem solving, more compromising, and less forcing, resulting in more de-escalation or less escalation.
Article
It has become widely accepted that correlations between variables measured with the same method, usually self-report surveys, are inflated due to the action of common method variance (CMV), despite a number of sources that suggest the problem is overstated. The author argues that the popular position suggesting CMV automatically affects variables measured with the same method is a distortion and oversimplification of the true state of affairs, reaching the status of urban legend. Empirical evidence is discussed casting doubt that the method itself produces systematic variance in observations that inflates correlations to any significant degree. It is suggested that the term common method variance be abandoned in favor of a focus on measurement bias that is the product of the interplay of constructs and methods by which they are assessed. A complex approach to dealing with potential biases involves their identification and control to rule them out as explanations for observed relationships using a variety of design strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved). I talk about how I came to write this paper here: https://managementink.wordpress.com/2011/04/05/truth-or-urban-legend/
Article
Methods variance and its effects are at the center of a debate in organizational science. Most of the debate, however is focused an the prevalence of common methods variance and ignores common methods bias, or the divergence between observed and true relationships among constructs. This article assesses the level of common methods bias in all multitrait-multimethod correlation matrices published over a 12–year period in a set of 6 social science journals using a combination of structural equation modeling and meta-analysis. The results indicate that only 46% of the variation in measures is attributable to the constructs, that 32% of the observed variation in measures is attributable to common methods variance, and that common methods variance results in a 26% bias in the observed relationships among constructs. This level of bias is cause for concern but does not invalidate many research findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Purpose – To develop a perspective on strategy that builds off of case histories of failure to provide insights on what works and doesn't work in corporate strategies. Design/methodology/approach – Several original case studies are presented, along with a series of analytical points that are suggested from these studies. The case studies are based on both primary (interviews) and secondary data. The paper used these case studies to make several basic points about corporate strategy. Findings – The critical findings relate to how executives misread the competitive landscape, fall into the trap of believing in their own strategy in the absence of confirming evidence, and sometimes engage in desperate decisions to try to remedy fundamental problems that cannot be so easily resolved. Research limitations/implications – The data in the paper are all based on subjective assessments of the competitive and business arenas firm were engaged in, and hence may subject to a variety of biases. Practical implications – The paper focuses on how individual executives can use the analysis presented to prevent and/or avoid the same pitfalls companies often succumb to. Originality/value – The data, approach, and analysis are all original to this paper. It presents a counterweight to the dominant approach in research on strategy that focused solely on best practice by providing examples of how failure can be used as a learning device in organizations. The paper should be of value to practicing executives, as well as researchers interested in corporate mistakes and failures.
Article
The performance of 94 groups on 13 different open-ended tasks was studied. At the individual-team-member level, domain knowledge and performance-relevant behavioral measures of the three components of Amabile's (1983, 1996) theory of individual creativity related in predicted ways to individual differences. Support was found for new "cross-level" processes, labeled "team creativity-relevant processes." At the group level, these processes moderated the relationship between aggregated individual creativity and group creativity.
Article
We investigated the relationship between team empowerment and virtual team performance and the moderating role of the extent of face-to-face interaction using 35 sales and service virtual teams in a high-technology organization. Team empowerment was positively related to two independent assessments of virtual team performance - process improvement and customer satisfaction. Further, the number of face-to-face meetings moderated the relationship between team empowerment and process improvement: team empowerment was a stronger predictor for teams that met face-to-face less, rather than more, frequently.
Article
Markov chain analysis provides a way to investigate how the communication processes in dyadic negotiations are affected by features of the negotiating context and how, in turn, differences in communication processes among dyads affect the quality of the final settlement. In Markov models, the communication process is represented as a sequence of transitions between states, which describes how tactics are used and how they are reciprocated during the course of a negotiation. This article provides an introduction to Markov chain analysis and shows, using simulated data, how Markov chain models may be analyzed using widely-available loglinear modeling software. Model selection, assessment of the order of a chain, analysis of residuals, and sample size are discussed.
Article
"In this article an attempt has been made to sketch out a theory of cooperation and competition and apply this theory to the functioning of small groups… , (i) social situations of cooperation and competition were defined; (ii) some of the logical implications inherent in the definitions were pointed to; (iii) with the introduction of psychological assumptions, some of the definitions of the two objective social situations were then drawn; (iv) the psychological implications, with the aid of additional psychological assumptions, were then applied to various aspects of small-group functionings to develop a series of hypotheses about the relative effects of co-operation and competition upon group processes; and (v) finally the concept of group was defined and linked with the concept of cooperation, thus making all of the preceding theoretical development with respect to cooperation relevant to group concepts." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Based on results from previous experiments using the Prisoner's Dilemma game, it is inferred that cooperators will believe others are heterogeneous as to their cooperativeness vs. competitiveness, whereas competitors will believe other persons are uniformly competitive. Evidence relating to authoritarianism, and from a variety of experimental situations is found to confirm this inference. Low authoritarians tend to behave like cooperators in experimental game situations and to have beliefs about other persons similar to the cooperators' beliefs, whereas high authoritarians exhibit behavior and beliefs consistent with those of competitors. Results illustrate what may be a common phenomenon in personality and social psychology, that a personality predisposition acts through its influence upon the person's social behavior to determine the information he gains from his social environment and, thereby, the beliefs he comes to hold about his world. This analysis provides an explanation in terms of social interaction processes for a "projection" phenomenon previously explained almost exclusively in terms of psychodynamic processes. (43 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)