Novel mutation in PAX3 gene in Waardenburg syndrome accompanied by unilateral macular degeneration

1Department of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka University School of Medicine, Fukuoka, Japan.
Eye (London, England) (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2008; 23(7):1619-21. DOI: 10.1038/eye.2008.256
Source: PubMed


Eye is the official journal of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists. It aims to provide the practising ophthalmologist with information on the latest clinical and laboratory-based research.

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Available from: Kenshi Hayashi, Mar 12, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: The transcription regulatory protein PAX3 binds to cognate DNA sequences through two DNA-binding domains, a paired domain and a homeodomain, and has important functions during neurogenesis and myogenesis. In humans, mutations in the PAX3 gene cause Waardenburg syndrome, whereas a chromosomal translocation that generates a PAX3-FOXO1 fusion gene is associated with the development of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. We have determined the crystal structure of the human PAX3 homeodomain in complex with a palindromic DNA containing two inverted TAATC sequences at 1.95 A resolution. Two homeodomains bind to DNA as a symmetric dimer, inducing a 3 degrees bend in the DNA helix. The N-terminal arm of the homeodomain inserts into the minor groove and makes direct and water-mediated interactions with bases and the sugar-phosphate backbone. The recognition helix fits directly into the major groove, and an elaborate network of structurally conserved water molecules mediates the majority of protein-DNA interactions. The structure elucidates the role of serine 50 in selection of the CG sequence immediately 3' of the TAAT motif by PAX class homeodomains and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms by which certain Waardenburg syndrome-associated missense mutations could destabilize the fold of the PAX3 homeodomain whereas others could affect its interaction with DNA.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2009 · Biochemistry
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    ABSTRACT: Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is characterized by the association of pigmentation abnormalities, including depigmented patches of the skin and hair, vivid blue eyes or heterochromia irides, and sensorineural hearing loss. However, other features such as dystopia canthorum, musculoskeletal abnormalities of the limbs, Hirschsprung disease, or neurological defects are found in subsets of patients and used for the clinical classification of WS. Six genes are involved in this syndrome: PAX3 (encoding the paired box 3 transcription factor), MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor), EDN3 (endothelin 3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), SOX10 (encoding the Sry bOX10 transcription factor), and SNAI2 (snail homolog 2), with different frequencies. In this review we provide an update on all WS genes and set up mutation databases, summarize molecular and functional data available for each of them, and discuss the applications in diagnostics and genetic counseling. Hum Mutat 31, 1–16, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Preview · Article · Apr 2010 · Human Mutation
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    ABSTRACT: Waardenburg syndrome (WS) type I is a non-progressive auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair, and skin, along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi). Affected individuals may have higher risk of: neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, limb abnormalities, and Hirschsprung disease. The diagnosis is clinical and should be considered if the individual has two major or one major plus two minor criteria. PAX3 is the only known gene associated to the syndrome. Nevertheless, its use is mostly for genetic counseling. Regarding different diagnosis, we may list: other causes of non-progressive auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss, other types of Waardenburg syndrome, piebaldism, albinism, vitiligo and Teitz syndrome. This paper presents a case of an eleven year old boy with deafness and ophthalmologic alterations, based on his files and exams. It reinforced the importance of the ophthalmologist contributing for the diagnosis of this rare systemic disease, as it includes some ophthalmologic alterations. We remind that the early diagnosis allows adequate stimulation for the hearing loss, as well as preventive measures in case of pregnant women affected by genetic counseling.
    Preview · Article · Jun 2011 · Arquivos brasileiros de oftalmologia
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