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Effect of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions

Authors:
  • Think Tank Foundation, Nepal
  • eInfochips

Abstract

Pranayama (breathing exercise), one of the yogic techniques can produce different physiological responses in healthy individuals. The responses of Alternate Nostril Breathing (ANB) the Nadisudhi Pranayama on some cardio-respiratory functions were investigated in healthy young adults. The subjects performed ANB exercise (15 minutes everyday in the morning) for four weeks. Cardio-respiratory parameters were recorded before and after 4-weeks training period. A significant increment in Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR L/min) and Pulse pressure (PP) was noted. Although Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was decreased insignificantly, the decrease in pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significant. Results indicate that regular practice of ANB (Nadisudhi) increases parasympathetic activity.
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... Ajīṇāmṛita-mańjarī: 34 In Āyurveda, indigestion is considerd as the main reason behind various disorders. This book contains appropriate solutions for treating indigestion. ...
... Many of the studies clearly showed the positive impact of yoga in improving the pulmonary function. 32,33,34,35,36 Several studies reported the improvement in vital capacity and PEFR (Peak Expiratory Flow Rate) with yoga training. 35,37,38 Of the several exercise regimens, yoga is found to be superior and effective. ...
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... Breath-regulation exercise (Pranayama), an integral part of yoga, is a gradual unforced cessation of breathing that uses voluntary regulation of breathing to make respiration rhythmic and calm our mind [33,34]. Among different types of pranayama, alternate nostril breathing involves voluntary regulation of breathing with attention and concentration where one nostril predominates the other and follows the definite cycle [34]. The right nostril dominance corresponds to activation of the sympathetic system, and left nostril dominance corresponds to the parasympathetic system leading to a proper balance of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems [35]. ...
... A prospective cohort study involving thirty-three subjects (30% with and 70% without established coronary artery disease) who were provided yoga and meditation course of 90 minutes 3 times weekly for 6 weeks showed significant drop in blood pressure, heart rate, and BMI [49]. In another study in which thirty-six healthy nonsmokers volunteers in Nepal were subjected to a survey were asked to perform alternate nostril breathing (Nadisuddhi pranayama) in sessions for four weeks, which suggested fall in pulse rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and rise in pulse pressure and peak expiratory flow rate [34]. The potential mechanism may be that the yogic breath, through activation of stretch receptors in lungs during high tidal volume inhalation as in Hering Bruer reflex, increases the frequency and duration of inhibitory neural impulses, which bring about the withdrawal of sympathetic tone in the skeletal muscle blood vessels, leading to widespread vasodilatation, thus causing a decrease in peripheral resistance and thus decreasing the BP [50]. ...
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... A decrease in RR and an increase in VC and PEFR were consistent with other studies [15,21,22]. During yoga training or any breathing exercise, the lungs inflate and deflate due to regular inhalation and exhalation for an extended period, which causes strengthening and increased endurance of the respiratory muscles [15,21,22]. ...
... A decrease in RR and an increase in VC and PEFR were consistent with other studies [15,21,22]. During yoga training or any breathing exercise, the lungs inflate and deflate due to regular inhalation and exhalation for an extended period, which causes strengthening and increased endurance of the respiratory muscles [15,21,22]. ...
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About the Book: This book compiled with quality research papers of the Two Day International E-Conference on “Trends Issues and Development of Physical Education and Sports” under the theme of “All round development of human personality” jointly organised by Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Fit India Campaign Committee and Fit India Club, Manipur University, Canchipur in collaboration with National Association of Physical Education and Sports Science (NAPESS). This book has been undertaken by the organisers to share the knowledge of the professionals through their research papers and to exchange their experience and research finding area in the field of physical educational and sports science. This is the book of the reviews on the concrete solutions to the permanent problems in the physical education and sports science. It is a humble energy to bind the drowning talents of physical education and sports. We express our gratitude, to those humble physical education teachers, research scholars, students, sports lovers, coaches, and sports administrators, who made this chance. Editor Dr. L.Santosh Singh
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The modern living lifestyle is known to produce various physical and psychological stresses and subject the individual to produce oxidative stresses as well. The aim of this study has been to assess the effect of yogic breathing exercises (pranayama) on the oxidatives stress. The study group consisted of 30 young male volunteers, trained for the purpose of this study and an equal number of controls were used. The free radicals and Super oxide dismutase levels were measured before the study and at the end of the study. The free radicals were decreased significantly in the study group but the SOD was increased insignificantly as compared to the control group. Yogic breathing exercises not only help in relieving the stresses of life but also improve the antioxidant status of the individual. An improvement in the antioxidant status is helpful in preventing many pathological processes that are known with impaired antioxidant system of body.
Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) may modulate cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions. However, the studies are scarce and results highly conflicting. The present study was conducted in healthy young volunteers comprising of males (n=20) and females (n=20) in range of 17-22 years. In both groups respiratory rate (RR/min), heart rate (HR/ min), systolic blood pressure (SBP; mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mm Hg), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR; L/min) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR; microV) were recorded thrice; once as control and then after 15 min (acute exposure) and following 8 wks of training in ANB (15 min daily). In males the control RR was 16.60 +/- 2.01, HR 75.75 +/- 11.07, SBP-115.9 +/- 7.33, DBP 70.4 +/- 6.28 and PEFR 550.00 +/- 51.50. After 15 min of ANB-RR (14.75 +/- 1.41, P<0.001), HR (68.45 +/- 12.41, P<0.01) and SBP (113.6 +/- 6.04, P<0.05) fell significantly. After 8 wks of ANB training RR (12.35 +/- 1.35, P<0.0001), HR (63.20 +/- 11.11, P<0.001), SBP (109.5 +/- 5.61, P<0.001), declined to much greater extent and PEFR (571.50 +/- 46.26, P<0.01) rose significantly. In females the control RR was 17.25 +/- 1.89, HR-74.90 +/- 12.85, SBP-106.70 +/- 6.91, DBP-68.70 +/- 5.52 and PEFR-394.50 +/- 44.89. After 15 min of ANB RR (15.05 +/- 1.54, P<0.001) and HR (64.75 +/- 9.80, P<0.001) showed significant decline with concomitant rise in PEFR (407.00 +/- 2.31, P<0.05). Following 8 wks training the decrement in RR (12.60 +/-1.50, P<0.0001) and HR (63.30 +/- 8.65, P<0.001) was maintained. SBP (103.10 +/- 4.92, P<0.001) and DBP (65.8 +/- 5.54, P<0.001) decreased further and PEFR (421.00 +/- 38.51 P<0.001) rose, GSR was unaffected by ANB in both males and females. These results suggest that in general there is a tilt towards parasympathetic dominance by alternate nostril breathing. This breathing may be a useful adjuvant to medical therapy of hypertension and COPD.