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Effect of alternate nostril breathing exercise on cardiorespiratory functions

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Pranayama (breathing exercise), one of the yogic techniques can produce different physiological responses in healthy individuals. The responses of Alternate Nostril Breathing (ANB) the Nadisudhi Pranayama on some cardio-respiratory functions were investigated in healthy young adults. The subjects performed ANB exercise (15 minutes everyday in the morning) for four weeks. Cardio-respiratory parameters were recorded before and after 4-weeks training period. A significant increment in Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR L/min) and Pulse pressure (PP) was noted. Although Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was decreased insignificantly, the decrease in pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (RR), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significant. Results indicate that regular practice of ANB (Nadisudhi) increases parasympathetic activity.
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... Furthermore, higher ventilatory stress has been shown to negatively impact RE and training status in both male and female athletes (24). YA coupled with YP has been related to improvements in respiratory musculature (10), however, the impact of routine Pranayama practice alone on RE is not well-understood. This study investigated 3 weeks Pranayama practice on RE, related physiological variables and perceptual responses in habitual runners having no prior experience with any form of yoga. ...
... Many studies attribute improved RF to increased strength and endurance of respiratory muscles. Positive results have been shown in acute studies (same day) as well as studies examining 6-12 weeks Pranayama practice, though the amount of time spent in YP practice across studies differs widely (10,13,24,37,41). Increased PEFR has been specifically associated with incorporation of small airway openings in the lungs (not commonly utilized with shallow breathing) as well as engagement of total lung spaces as the chest inflates and deflates more fully during Pranayama (13,33,36). ...
... Because shallow breathing performed during running alone does not solicit enough training to improve respiratory strength (10), it is plausible that individuals could enhance their aerobic capacity and exercise ventilation by adding routine Pranayama to their normal running program given a Pranayama training period of longer than 3 weeks. Suggesting, Pranayama has the potential to improve respiratory function as seen in respiratory training with endurance trained individuals (7). ...
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Yogic breathing techniques (Pranayama) positively impact respiratory function (RF) in non-endurance trained individuals. The purpose of this study investigated effects of routine Pranayama practice on RF, running economy (RE) and perceptual responses. A between subject's case-control study design was incorporated. Eleven runners practiced three styles of Pranayama (30 min/day 6 days/week) for 3 consecutive weeks (YG) and completed a VO2 max tests on a treadmill (trial 1), basic RF tests, and constant workload RE trials at 60, 70, and 80% VO2 max (trial 2 and 3). A control group (n = 10) (CT) completed the same pre - post testing without intervention. Pre vs. post values for resting forced vital capacity (FVC), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and forced expiratory flow volume in one second (FEV1). Yoga improved FVC and FEV1, but did not significantly impact RE However, RPE-L for HIGH had an interaction (p < 0.05) showing a decrease for YG and an increase for CT. The current study suggests 3 weeks of yogic Pranayama fails to significantly impact RE, however some evidence indicates YG may positively alter perceptual responses at individually prescribed workloads. More work is needed to definitively establish benefits of YG for runners.
... Previous investigators also reported similar findings. 2,4,8,[29][30][31][39][40][41][42][43] The results of this study were identical with the conclusions from Biswas et al. 2 Pal et al. 4 and other investigators. They supposed that breathing exercises might increase parasympathetic activity and decrease sympathetic activity. ...
... 2,44 During breathing exercise, attention on the act of breathing removes focus from worldly worries and de-stresses a person. 38,41,45 This may decrease the release of adrenaline and reduce BP, which was explained by Gupta et al. 45 and Dhungel et al. 39 Breathing exercise alters the hypothalamic discharge, leading to a decrease in sympathetic tone and peripheral resistance. Hence, the DBP was decreased. ...
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Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is one of the best and easiest breathing exercises. ANB exercise has beneficial effects on cardiac function in healthy and diseased people. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of ANB exercise on cardiac physiology among healthy medical students. This was a prospective interventional study that was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College (CMC), Chattogram, Bangladesh, from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 research participants (RPs) aged 18-20 years, Year-I medical students of CMC, were selected. A simple random sampling method was adopted. The selection was done after the inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. The age and body mass index (BMI) of the RPs were analogous in both the control and experimental groups. Cardiac parameters, like pulse and blood pressure (BP), were measured. The initial baseline data were recorded for both groups and after 4 weeks. The research respondents of the experimental group performed ANB exercise for 4 weeks. The mean value pulse and BP were significantly (p < 0.001) changed after breathing exercise, compared to the values before the breathing exercise. The results of this study suggest that cardiac function significantly improves after the breathing exercise. Therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing cardiac efficiency.
... These findings are similar to those from some previous studies conducted by Biswas,2 Yadav and Das, 7 Bal, 9 and some other researchers. 11,13,[33][34][35][36]39,[40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53] They supposed that FVC might be increased due to the strengthening of respiratory muscles by regular practicing of breathing exercises. 2 the removal of secretions from the bronchial tree, which made room in alveoli for more air after the breathing exercise. ...
... This modulates the caliber of the airways and reduces airway resistance which were the causal factors for increased PEFR in their study. According to Karmur et al., 11 Dhungel et al., 43 and Shrivastava et al., 56 increment in thoracopulmonary compliance and bronchodilatation by breathing exercise might be responsible for increased PEFR in their studies. 57 In this study, improved respiratory functions after following the exercise for 1 month might be due to the above-mentioned causes. ...
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Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) is one of the best and easiest breathing exercises (pranayama) of yoga that are good for health and physical fitness. ANB exercise has beneficial and therapeutic effects on respiratory function in both normal as well as diseased humans. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the physiological effects of short-term ANB exercise on respiratory function in healthy adult individuals leading a stressful life. This prospective interventional study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, Chittagong Medical College (CMC), Chattogram, Bangladesh from July 2017 to June 2018. A total of 100 participants aged 18–20 years, studying in the first year in CMC, were included by using a simple random sampling method. Among them, 50 participants were enrolled in the experimental group. Age- and BMI-matched 50 participants constituted the control group. Height, weight were measured, and BMI was calculated. The participants of the experimental group performed ANB exercise over 4 weeks for 10 min/day. The control participants were neither trained nor allowed to practice nostril breathing during the whole study period. Respiratory parameters like forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st second (FEV1 ), and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured by using a digital spirometer (Chest graph HI-101, Japan). Readings were taken in a healthy upright sitting posture in the control and experimental group initially and after 4 weeks. Student’s t-test was conducted by using SPSS for windows version-23. The mean value of FVC, FEV1 , PEFR were significantly (P < 0.001) changed after the ANB exercise when compared to the values before breathing exercise. The results of this study suggest that respiratory function is significantly improved after the ANB exercise. Therefore, ANB can be recommended for increasing respiratory efficiency
... Some studies have investigated the effects of mindful breathing in school settings (Table 1 gives an overview; for a more extensive review, see Zenner, Herrnleben-Kurz, & Walach, 2014), although they used various mindfulness methods-not only breath focus (Dhungel, Malhotra, Sarkar, & Prajapati, 2008;Idler, 2015;Pramanik, Pudasaini, & Prajapati, 2010), but also yoga (Butzer et al., 2014;Hagins, Haden, & Daly, 2013;Mendelson et al., 2010), body scan (Napoli et al., 2005;Van de Weijer-Bergsma et al., 2014), or a mixture of different mindfulness techniques. Results show that mindfulness reduces rumination and emotional arousal due to stressors (Mendelson et al., 2010), children are less anxious before tests and have an increased ability to pay attention (Beauchemin, Hutchins, & Patterson, 2008;Napoli et al., 2005), and mindfulness interventions can reduce stress and improve well-being (Bazzano, Anderson, Hylton, & Gustat, 2018;Van de Weijer-Bergsma et al., 2014). ...
... After five minutes of pranayama, systolic and diastolic blood pressure decrease with a slight fall in heart rate, indicating a parasympathetic dominance (Pramanik et al., 2010). Performing breathing exercises 15 minutes a day for four weeks increased the parasympathetic activity, thus suggesting long-term influence: pulse rate, respiratory rate, and diastolic blood pressure decreased (Dhungel et al., 2008). A meta-analysis confirms pranayama's beneficial effects on stress level (Nivethitha, Mooventhan, & Manjunath, 2016). ...
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This research investigates whether a short mindfulness exercise can reduce children’s psychophysiological stress reactions in the face of a performance task. To answer the question, a randomized controlled trial with 106 elementary school children, aged between 5 and 11 years, was conducted. An intervention group completed a two-minute breathing exercise, whilst a comparison group watched a short video, before both groups performed a stress-evoking Stroop test. The stress levels of both groups were measured via galvanic skin response and compared. It was hypothesized that the comparison group would show a higher stress reaction during the stress-evoking task than the intervention group. Contrary to the hypothesis, results show that the intervention group had a higher psychophysiological stress reaction during the task than the comparison group. However, the stress reaction to the announced difficulty of the task was smaller in the mindfulness group than in the comparison group. Results are discussed based on different theoretical mechanisms of mindfulness. Directions for future research include the use of different techniques and durations of mindfulness interventions, different control group activities and stress-test operationalizations, as well as the distinction between age groups.
... 8,9,11 ANBE is significant in reducing blood pressure, pulse, breathing, pain, anxiety, improving sleep quality, increasing comfort and increasing oxygen saturation in patients with heart failure. 12 Alternative breathing nostril encourages deep relaxation because it is believed that this breathing can balance the left and right sides of the brain while calming the nervous system. It considered to reduce heart rate, reduce stress and anxiety, and improve respiration and circulation. ...
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Background: Changes in vital signs such as tachycardia, dyspnea, tachipnea, decreased oxygenation, caused by the inability of the heart to pump enough blood to meet the needs of oxygen and nutrients needed by the tissue, so that alternative therapies are needed: alternate nostril breathing exercise (ANBE) as a companion to pharmacological therapy for congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of ANBE on the vital sign of CHF patients.Methods: This Quasy experimental study was used one group pretest and Posttes design, conducted at one of the Padang City Hospitals from March to August 2019. Study population includes CHF sufferers, with a sample of 16 people, using accidental sampling technique. Univariate data analysis to get the mean of vital sign and bivariate measurements using parametric test i.e. Paired t-test to see the effect of this therapy.Results: Mean vital signs pretest and posttest was given in a row The observations are: respiratory rate (RR): 5.4978; 4.6078, pulse: 10.1804; 8,7770, systolic blood pressure (SBP): 12,5963; 11,1481, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP): 10,3009; 8.8606. Paired t-test obtained p-value of RR, pulse, SBP and DBP: 0.000, and existing t count> from t table (t count> 2.13145), so that there is an effect of ANBE on vital signs.Conclusions: ANBE affects the vital sign of CHF patients and can be continued as an intervention that can be carried out independently by CHF sufferers.
... The following reasons may be possible for the significant decrease in heart rate and blood pressure; Blood pressure and pulse rate are controlled by autonomic nervous system. Pranayama increases cardiac output, decreases hepato-renal blood flow and increases peripheral blood vessels blood flow .Nadi- 13 suddhi brings a balance in autonomic nervous system .Yoga practitioner not only tries to breathe, but also tries to keep his attention on act of breathing leading to concentration. This diverts his attention from wordly worries and destresses him. ...
Article
Introduction: Breathing is the most important function in the body but it is the most neglected one. Learning to control the breath allows to control body function. "Pranayama" the breathing practice consisting of conscious inhalation, retention and exhalation is often practiced in conjunction with "Dhyana"(Meditation), and "Asanas"(physical posture). Material and Methods: Present study was a cross sectional study. Fifty (50) normal subject of either sex were selected for the study. They were divided equally in two groups, yoga group A (case) and not practicing yoga group B (control), each comprising of 25 subjects. The blood pressure of the subjects were examined to see the effect of forced nostril breathing on blood pressure by using mercury sphygmomanometer. Statistical Analysis: Collected data was compared and analyzed by student paired 't' test. Results: There was significant decrease in systolic blood pressure in yoga group A (case). There was no significant decrease of diastolic blood pressure in yoga group A (Case). Conclusion: The present study suggest that regular practice of yoga improves cardio-respiratory functions as shown by decrease in SBP and DBP. The Present study revealed that Yoga reduced the sympathetic activity and increased the parasympathetic activity, leading to improvement in vagal tone as shown by decrease in heart rate.
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Sport and exercise science like most areas of life have been affected greatly by technological advancements. It is difficult to imagine modern sports and various sub-disciplines of exercise science without technologies. The use of technologies is, without exception, tainted with frustration and ambivalence. Paradoxically, it is the omnipresence of technology that has contributed most to people’s inability to fully grasp the scope and depth of its influence and also uncertainty as to what role various technological advancements play in sports. Indeed, the influx of sport technologies has profoundly changed the landscape of sport and exercise science. Importantly, technology has in many ways changed what we think of as the athletic body. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of technology on sport performance, considering the theories of technology and quest for improved performance, types of sport technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of sport technologies in modern day sports. It is recommended that those managing, handling and using sport must be equipped to make wise choices on the type and use of sport technologies that would assist in the right performance
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Мета: провести огляд наукової літератури, присвяченої впливу йоги на організм людини як у стані здоров’я, так і у пацієнтів з хронічними хворобами. Матеріали і методи. Проведено огляд літератури з обраної теми в наукометричних базах даних Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar. Результати. Серцево-судинні захворювання є основною причиною захворюваності та смертності в країнах, що розвиваються. Фізичні вправи та йога сприяють зменшенню рівня серцево-судинних захворювань і можливих ускладнень, що виникають через них. Доведено, що йога сприяє фізичному і психічному здоров’ю шляхом виконання пози («асан»), регульованого дихання («пранаяма») і медитації («дх’яна»). Численні дослідження показали, що йога має швидкий регулюючий вплив на нервову систему та стрес. Також доведено, що коротка релаксаційна підготовка на основі йоги нормалізує функцію автономної нервової системи шляхом нормалізації як симпатичних, так і парасимпатичних впливів до більш фізіологічного середнього діапазону контрольних значень. Відповідно до літературних даних, під впливом курсів йоги відбувалась нормалізація або зниження артеріального тиску, рівня глюкози в крові, зникала тривожність, покращувався психоемоційний стан онкохворих та вагітних, оптимізувались показники роботи шлунково-кишкового тракту та опорно-рухової системи. Висновки. Згідно з проведеним оглядом літератури, йога має значний позитивний вплив на різні системи органів людини та може використовуватись як допоміжна ланка лікування більшості основних захворювань, зокрема артеріальної гіпертензії. У зв’язку з позитивним впливом йоги на психоемоційний стан людини, її можна рекомендувати з метою профілактики виникнення хронічних стресзалежних станів, починаючи з дитячого віку.
Thirty three normal male and forty two normal female subjects, of average age of 18.5 years, underwent six weeks course in 'Pranayam' and their ventilatory lung functions were studied before and after this practice. They had improved ventilatory functions in the form of lowered respiratory rate (RR), and increases in the forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume at the end of 1st second (FEV1%), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR-lit/sec), and prolongation of breath holding time.
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The modern living lifestyle is known to produce various physical and psychological stresses and subject the individual to produce oxidative stresses as well. The aim of this study has been to assess the effect of yogic breathing exercises (pranayama) on the oxidatives stress. The study group consisted of 30 young male volunteers, trained for the purpose of this study and an equal number of controls were used. The free radicals and Super oxide dismutase levels were measured before the study and at the end of the study. The free radicals were decreased significantly in the study group but the SOD was increased insignificantly as compared to the control group. Yogic breathing exercises not only help in relieving the stresses of life but also improve the antioxidant status of the individual. An improvement in the antioxidant status is helpful in preventing many pathological processes that are known with impaired antioxidant system of body.
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We planned to undertake a comparative study of the effect of short term (three weeks) training in savitri (slow breathing) and bhastrika (fast breathing) pranayams on respiratory pressures and endurance, reaction time, blood pressure, heart rate, rate-pressure product and double product. Thirty student volunteers were divided into two groups of fifteen each. Group I was given training in savitri pranayam that involves slow, rhythmic, and deep breathing. Group II was given training in bhastrika pranayam, which is bellows-type rapid and deep breathing. Parameters were measured before and after three week training period. Savitri pranayam produced a significant increase in respiratory pressures and respiratory endurance. In both the groups, there was an appreciable but statistically insignificant shortening of reaction time. Heart rate, rate-pressure product and double product decreased in savitri pranayam group but increased significantly in bhastrika group. It is concluded that different types of pranayams produce different physiological responses in normal young volunteers.
Alternate nostril breathing (ANB) may modulate cardio-respiratory and autonomic functions. However, the studies are scarce and results highly conflicting. The present study was conducted in healthy young volunteers comprising of males (n=20) and females (n=20) in range of 17-22 years. In both groups respiratory rate (RR/min), heart rate (HR/ min), systolic blood pressure (SBP; mm Hg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; mm Hg), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR; L/min) and galvanic skin resistance (GSR; microV) were recorded thrice; once as control and then after 15 min (acute exposure) and following 8 wks of training in ANB (15 min daily). In males the control RR was 16.60 +/- 2.01, HR 75.75 +/- 11.07, SBP-115.9 +/- 7.33, DBP 70.4 +/- 6.28 and PEFR 550.00 +/- 51.50. After 15 min of ANB-RR (14.75 +/- 1.41, P<0.001), HR (68.45 +/- 12.41, P<0.01) and SBP (113.6 +/- 6.04, P<0.05) fell significantly. After 8 wks of ANB training RR (12.35 +/- 1.35, P<0.0001), HR (63.20 +/- 11.11, P<0.001), SBP (109.5 +/- 5.61, P<0.001), declined to much greater extent and PEFR (571.50 +/- 46.26, P<0.01) rose significantly. In females the control RR was 17.25 +/- 1.89, HR-74.90 +/- 12.85, SBP-106.70 +/- 6.91, DBP-68.70 +/- 5.52 and PEFR-394.50 +/- 44.89. After 15 min of ANB RR (15.05 +/- 1.54, P<0.001) and HR (64.75 +/- 9.80, P<0.001) showed significant decline with concomitant rise in PEFR (407.00 +/- 2.31, P<0.05). Following 8 wks training the decrement in RR (12.60 +/-1.50, P<0.0001) and HR (63.30 +/- 8.65, P<0.001) was maintained. SBP (103.10 +/- 4.92, P<0.001) and DBP (65.8 +/- 5.54, P<0.001) decreased further and PEFR (421.00 +/- 38.51 P<0.001) rose, GSR was unaffected by ANB in both males and females. These results suggest that in general there is a tilt towards parasympathetic dominance by alternate nostril breathing. This breathing may be a useful adjuvant to medical therapy of hypertension and COPD.