Virgin Coconut Oil Supplementation Prevents Bone Loss in Osteoporosis Rat Model

Article (PDF Available)inEvidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012(3):237236 · September 2012with 631 Reads 
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DOI: 10.1155/2012/237236 · Source: PubMed
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Abstract
Oxidative stress and free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Therefore, antioxidant compounds have the potential to be used in the prevention and treatment of the disease. In this study, we investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) on bone microarchitecture in a postmenopausal osteoporosis rat model. VCO is a different form of coconut oil as it is rich with antioxidants. Three-month-old female rats were randomly grouped into baseline, sham-operated, ovariectomized control (Ovx), and ovariectomized rats fed with 8% VCO in their diet for six weeks (Ovx+VCO). Bone histomorphometry of the right femora was carried out at the end of the study. Rats supplemented with VCO had a significantly greater bone volume and trabecular number while trabecular separation was lower than the Ovx group. In conclusion, VCO was effective in maintaining bone structure and preventing bone loss in estrogen-deficient rat model.
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  • ... It is also known that 60% of Coconut Oil MCFAs are present in the human breast milk and majority of them in both the natural liquids are classified as saturated fatty acids. 6,32 ...
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    Coconut oil as health oil was recognized in Ayurvedic medicine almost 4000 years ago. The same health effects were also attributed to the mother's milk in ancient literature. Modern research has now found a common link between these two natural health products - their lipid content. The medium chain fatty acids and monoglycerides found primarily in coconut oil have miraculous healing power which act as natural antibiotic and also help modulate immunity. The information discussed in this review explains that coconut oil, either topically applied or ingested, gets broken down to release Lauric Acid and Monolaurin - known anti-microbial agents. The studies reported in literature are discussed to evaluate the antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal benefits of coconut oil. Not only does coconut oil metabolites have antimicrobial activity but also these remarkable derivatives have been shown not to cause resistance organisms to appear. The anti-microbial mechanistic action also helps activate the antiinflammatory nature of the immune response in human body. In vitro, animal, and human studies support the potential of coconut oil as effective and safe immune-nutritive active. New and exciting health and industrial uses of coconut oil and its derivative are possible. Never before in recent times has the recognition of the positive health effects of coconut oil been stronger. And never before in the history of man is it so important to emphasize both need and efficacy of natural products known for their safety proposition. Immunity has been a buzzword in the current scenario and the demand for modulating immunity with natural means has been so unprecedented and so ubiquitous. Coconut oil and its value added forms can contribute to a more vigorous and healthy future.
  • ... VCO is useful against microbes, bacteria and viruses [10], and is useful for helping one lose weight in terms of metabolism. VCO contains medium chain triglycerides [11,12], which is initially digested or processed in the body from carbohydrates that can cut back hunger [13]. Thus, it causes people to consume less carbohydrates, which eventually reduces body weight [14,15]. ...
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    This research aims to study the unique factors of virgin coconut oil (VCO) compared with coconut oil (i.e., coconut oil processed through heating the coconut milk and palm oil sold on the market). Its novelty is that it (VCO) contains lactic acid bacteria and bacteriocin. Lauric acid content was analyzed by the Chromatographic Gas method. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was conducted by the dilution method using MRSA + 0.5% CaCO3 media. Iodium number, peroxide, and %FFA were analyzed using a general method, and isolation bacteriocin by the deposition method using ammonium sulfate. In addition, macromolecular identification was conducted by 16S rRNA. VCO was distinguished by a higher content of lauric acid (C12:0) 41%–54.5% as compared with 0% coconut and 0, 1% palm oil, respectively. The VCO also contains LAB, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus paracasei, and can inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Proteus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhosa and bacteriocin. Comparison with VCO is based on having a high content of lauric acid, 54%, and LAB content. The difference between VCO and coconut oil and palm oil is fatty acids. In VCO there are lauric acid and stearic acid, namely lauric acid VCO (A) 54.06%, VCO (B) 53.9% and VCO (C) 53.7%. The content of stearic acid VCO (A) is 12.03%, VCO (B) 12.01% and VCO (C) 11.9%. Coconut oil contains a little lauric acid, which is 2.81%, stearic acid 2.65% and palmitic acid 2.31%. Palm oil can be said to have very little lauric acid, namely in palm oil 1, 0.45%, and even in palm oil 2, 0%; in turn, palmitic acid palm oil 1 has 2.88% and palm oil 2 palmitic acid has 24.42%.
  • ... Also, the antioxidant polyphenol fraction of VCNO reduces the oxidative stress in chronic diseases [38,39]. Researchers have confirmed the role of VCNO in reducing bone loss and osteoporosis progression in rats, but its efficacy in human bone health still needs to be tested [40,41]. VCNO, being rich in polyphenols and medium-chain fatty acids, acted as an anti-stress functional oil at the dose of 10 ml/kg-body-weight in mice, reducing immobility time, restoring oxidative stress post force-swim test, raising brain antioxidant levels, decreasing brain 5hydroxytryptamine levels, decreasing the weight of the adrenal glands, and lowering serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and corticosterone levels [42]. ...
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    Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a chronic, degenerative knee joint disorder associated with inflammation, pain, stiffness, and reduced functional abilities, thereby impacting the patient’s quality of life. The prevalence of KOA is growing rapidly in India and around the globe, even in younger populations. Vitamin D plays a crucial role in musculoskeletal health and deficiency of this vitamin is highly prevalent across the age groups impacted by KOA. Consumption of vitamin D rich foods along with functional foods possessing antioxidant and analgesic properties needs to be explored as a potentially novel, low cost dietary strategy for the prevention and management of chronic musculoskeletal disorders such as KOA. Objective: To assess the effect of vitamin D3 and Virgin Coconut Oil (VCNO) supplementation on vitamin D3 status, cartilage degeneration, inflammatory status, and functional abilities in early KOA. Methods: One hundred vitamin D deficient, age and gender-matched adults afflicted by early KOA (30-65yrs) were selected purposively from K. J. Somaiya Hospital and Research Centre, Mumbai, India after obtaining ethical clearance from the institute. Informed consent was obtained from the participants. They were then counselled on making required dietary modifications, with due emphasis on vitamin D3 rich foods, and were given an at-home KOA exercise program. The participants were divided equally into two experimental groups: E1 (n=50) and E2 (n=50), with equal number of males and females in each group. The groups were either supplemented with Vitamin D3 alone (group E1) or Vitamin D3 + VCNO (group E2). All the participants were assessed for vitamin D status (serum 25 (OH) D levels (CLIA), Vitamin D3 intake (3-day diet recall and FFQ), pain (VAS), stiffness, functional abilities (WOMAC and 6 MWT), and inflammation (ESR and serum CRP). The cartilage marker (s-COMP (ELISA)) was assessed only in a subset of participants (n =40) from each group, both pre and post intervention. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Results: A significant rise in Vitamin D3 intake and serum vitamin D3 levels (p<.001) was observed post-supplementation in both groups. sCOMP (<.001), ESR, and serum CRP (<.001) were significantly reduced in both the groups, indicating a decline in cartilage degeneration and inflammatory status. VAS score (<.001) was significantly reduced in both groups, indicating reduced pain intensity. Total WOMAC score (p<.001) was significantly reduced, with a highly significant improvement in the distance covered during the 6 MWT (<.001), indicating improved functional abilities. The mean difference of effect in all the above parameters was higher in the vitamin D3 and VCNO supplementation group (E2) than the group which received vitamin D3 alone (E1). Conclusion: Supplementation of vitamin D3 along with VCNO could be an effective strategy for delaying the progression of KOA by reducing cartilage degeneration, inflammation and pain, as well as improving functional abilities. Thus, simultaneous improvement of vitamin D3 status and oxidative stress should be considered in early KOA management. Non-conventional antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functional foods such as VCNO could be further explored. Key words: Knee osteoarthritis, vitamin D, virgin coconut oil, anti-inflammatory, functional food, functional abilities, cartilage degeneration, inflammation, WOMAC, sCOMP.
  • ... Dietary supplementations of VCO had increased the antioxidant properties in rats [14]. VCO supplementation provided protection against bone loss in osteoporosis [15]. VCO has also been accounted to have anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties [16][17][18]. ...
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    Background and Aim: Both virgin coconut oil (VCO) and tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) are rich in antioxidants and may protect the bone against bone loss induced by ovariectomy and high-fat diet. The study aimed to determine the protective effects of combined therapy of VCO and TRF on osteoporosis in ovariectomized (OVX) rat fed with high-fat diet. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: Sham-operated (SHAM), OVX control, OVX and given Premarin at 64.5 μg/kg (OVX+E2), OVX and given VCO at 4.29 ml/kg (OVX+V), OVX and given TRF at 30 mg/kg (OVX+T), and OVX and given a combination of VCO at 4.29 ml/kg and TRF at 30 mg/kg (OVX+VT). Following 24 weeks of treatments, blood and femora samples were taken for analyses. Results: There were no significant differences in serum osteocalcin levels between the groups (p>0.05), while serum C-terminal telopeptide of Type I collagen levels of the OVX+VT group were significantly lower than the other groups (p
  • ... One of the natural sources that contain antioxidants is virgin coconut oil (VCO), oil that comes from fresh old coconut (Cocos nucifera), which is processed at low temperatures [15]. Scientifically, VCO has been reported to exert various pharmacological activities such as antiarthritis and antioxidant [16], anti-thrombogenicity [17], antihyperlipidemia [18], cardioprotective [19], antimicrobial [20][21][22], antiosteoporosis [23], hepatoprotective [24], and antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory [25]. Interestingly, recent clinical studies demonstrated that VCO possesses at least the antihypercholesterolemic [26] and anti-Alzheimer [27]. ...
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    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) treatment on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses after maximum physical activity. Methods: This study used 24 healthy male rats. The rats were divided into four groups randomly consisted of six rats in each group. The control group (P0) was given 2 mL water, the treatment groups (VCO-1, VCO-2, and VCO-4) were given VCO 1 ml/200 g BW, 2 ml/200 g BW, and 4 ml/200 g BW, respectively, per day using gavage spuit. The rats were trained to swim for a month, 30 min/day in the 1st week, 35 min/day in the 2nd week, 40 min/ day in the 3rd week, and 45 min/day in the 4th week. After 28 days, the rats were forced to perform the maximal activity by putting the rats in water with no exit. Blood samples were collected immediately after the maximum physical activity, and then, all rats were killed and liver tissues were collected. The malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase and serum glutamic-pyruvate transaminase level were then measured. Results: VCO increased swimming time to exhaustion, levels of GPx in the liver, which were accompanied by corresponding decreases in the MDA, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase content. Conclusion: The results from this study indicate that VCO is effective in the prevention of oxidative stress following maximum physical activity.
  • ... Gel emulsions are also easily rubbed on the skin or mucous membranes due to their excellent ability to penetrate the skin [16][17][18]. VCO was selected as the oil base in this formulation because it has natural beneficial effects on health [19]. VCO is also characteristically smooth due to its fatty acid component, which serves as a penetration enhancer. ...
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    Objective: This study aimed to analyze the physical stability and drug content of zoledronate (ZOL) gel emulsion in virgin coconut oil (VCO) as a new pharmaceutical product at 25°C as room temperature and 40°C as an accelerated temperature for a stability physics test. Methods: The ZOL gel emulsion comprises the following ingredients: 0.16% ZOL powder, 2% carboxymethyl cellulose, 5% VCO, 0.44% sodium benzoate, and 0.009% antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene, and distilled water. Samples of this gel emulsion were stored for 1 month at 25°C and 40°C, and the parameters used for stability tests were pH, viscosity, spreadability, and adhesive strength. The drug content was also evaluated with a spectrophotometer. The ZOL gel emulsion was evaluated against these metrics on days 1, 7, 14, and 28. Results: The results showed that ZOL pH, viscosity, spreadability, adhesive strength, and drug content gel emulsion were clinically stable over 28 days of storage at 25°C, whereas it was not stable when stored at 40°C for the same duration. pH value of ZOL gel emulsion significantly decreased at 28 days (p<0.05). Also for viscosity, adhesive strength, and drug content of ZOL gel emulsion showed statistically significant (p<0.05), except for spreadability value (p>0.05). The spreadability value between ZOL gel emulsion that stored at 25°C and at 40°C showed no significant result at 7 and 14 days (p>0.05). Conclusion: ZOL gel emulsion was stable at 25°C when stored for 28 days, suggesting that this is a suitable storage temperature at which its physical stability and drug content can be maintained.
  • ... This study used rats as experimental animals. Rats have been widely accepted as animal models for studying bone diseases such as the process of remodeling and bone resorption because the responses of bone toward mechanical stress, hormones, and drugs are similar in rat and human [16]. Therefore, the ovariectomized rat is a useful model for postmenopausal osteoporosis [17]. ...
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    Aim: This study aimed to determine the potential of honey as anti-osteoporosis by evaluating its effectiveness in increasing bone impact strength and cortical thickness, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Materials and Methods: Forty-five female rats at 3 months of age, weighing 150-200 g were used in the study. They were placed in individual cages and adapted to food and environment for 10 days. On the 11th day, after the animals were adapted for 10 days, the animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups (n=9): Sham operation group (SH); ovariohysterectomized (OVX) group with no treatment; OVX with treatment Apis dorsata 1 g/kg BW (AD-1); OVX with treatment A. dorsata 2 g/kg BW (AD-2); and OVX with treatment A. dorsata 4 g/kg BW (AD-3). Furthermore, those nine rats in each treatment group were divided into three groups. Three of them were observed at months 1st, 2nd, and 3rd so that in each observation taken three rats in each treatment group. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and necropsy for taking their second femoral bone, i.e. dexter region for examining their bone impact strength, while the sinister region was used for measure the cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis and examining their bone microarchitecture using SEM analysis. Results: Based on results of the ANOVA test, the cortical thickness measurements of femoral diaphyseal can be seen that from month 1 to month 3 the lowest result was found in the group of rats that were OVX-I. Meanwhile, the highest result was found in the group of rats that were not OVX (SH-III). It was significantly different from the other treatment groups (p0.05) from that in the group of rats was not OVX in month 1 (SH-I). The results of the bone impact strength measurement from month 1 to month 3 indicated that the groups of rats were OVX without the administration of honey supplements had the lowest value. The highest bone impact strength was found in the group of rats that was not OVX, but not significantly different (p>0.05) with the groups of rats that were OVX administered honey supplement with a dose of 2 g/kg BW (AD-2) and 4 g/kg BW (AD-3). Conclusion: The supplement of honey A. dorsata at doses of 2 g/kg BW in the group of rats was that OVX can inhibit the decreasing of the cortical bone thickness and repair damage in microarchitecture to generate bone impact strength. As a result, bones are not easily broken.
  • ... Beberapa kajian terdahulu menunjukkan keajaiban minyak ini dalam menghalang pembentukan sel kanser (Manisha & Shyamapada 2011) di samping sifat antiviral (Arora et al. 2011), antibakteria (Oyi et al. 2010), antikaries (Taheri et al. 2010), antiplak (Barnabe et al. 2004) dan antiprotozoa (Sosknowska & Balslev, 2009). Kajian kami sebelum ini turut membuktikan kesan positif minyak kelapa dara terhadap metabolisme tulang kerana ia mencegah kehilangan jisim tulang serta meningkatkan aras antioksidan endogenous dalam tulang tikus model osteoporosis (Abujazia et al. 2012;Zil Hayatullina et al. 2012). Kandungan antioksidan jenis polifenol yang tinggi dalam minyak kelapa dara ini didapati bertanggungjawab dalam menghasilkan kesan farmakologinya (Nevin & Rajamohan 2005). ...
  • ... Coconut oil-in-water emulsion (COWE) was obtained by decantation of coconut milk as described by Hayatullina et al. (2012), with adaptations. First, the grazed coconut kernel (solid endosperm) was mixed with coconut water in a blender (Problend 4, Walita). ...
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    Candida kefyr has been considered both a food-spoiling agent and a type of yeast with fermentation properties. In this study, the authors have evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a coconut oil-in-water emulsion associated to the presence of C. kefyr. Fresh coconut kernels were used to obtain the coconut oil-in-water emulsion, the sterile coconut oil-in-water emulsion by decantation, and the coconut oil by means of a heating process. Commercial virgin coconut oil was also used. Agar diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) techniques were employed to evaluate antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. epidermidis. The C. kefyr isolate was identified and confirmed. Coconut milk-derived fatty acids were characterized by acid index and thin layer chromatography. Scanning electronic microscopy was performed to evaluate the morphology of the microorganisms. Lipase activity of C. kefyr isolate was also detected. Coconut oil-in-water emulsion associated to C. kefyr was active against both bacteria. Thin layer chromatography confirmed the presence of triglycerides and free fatty acids. The acid index showed higher acidity potential for the coconut oil-in-water emulsion. The microscopic images showed antibacterial action through the formation of membrane holes' and demonstrated yeast shape. All the above show new potentials for C. kefyr and coconut oil-in-water emulsion in food technology.