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Self-Regulated Learning: Beliefs, Techniques, and Illusions

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Knowing how to manage one's own learning has become increasingly important in recent years, as both the need and the opportunities for individuals to learn on their own outside of formal classroom settings have grown. During that same period, however, research on learning, memory, and metacognitive processes has provided evidence that people often have a faulty mental model of how they learn and remember, making them prone to both misassessing and mismanaging their own learning. After a discussion of what learners need to understand in order to become effective stewards of their own learning, we first review research on what people believe about how they learn and then review research on how people's ongoing assessments of their own learning are influenced by current performance and the subjective sense of fluency. We conclude with a discussion of societal assumptions and attitudes that can be counterproductive in terms of individuals becoming maximally effective learners. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 64 is November 30, 2012. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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... Research into human cognition has provided information on Frontiers in Education 02 frontiersin.org concrete learning strategies that support student learning (e.g., Dunlosky et al., 2013), but has also shown that many learners have flawed mental models of how they learn, making them more likely to mismanage their learning (Bjork et al., 2013). Teachers are in the position to teach students how to optimize their use of study time to promote efficient and effective learning and better retention of knowledge and skills in both generic learning to learn lessons or within their subject-specific classes (Education Council, 2006). ...
... This might be partially explained by two accounts. First, students (and teachers were former students) are susceptible to -often false -metacognitive intuitions or beliefs about learning which influences their knowledge (for an overview of biases and classic beliefs in human learning, see, e.g., Koriat, 1997;Bjork et al., 2013). For instance, monitoring judgments of learning is typically based on cognitive cues that learners consider to be predictive for their future memory performance, that is, they confuse initial performance with learning for long-term maintenance (Soderstrom and Bjork, 2015). ...
... In reality, the manifestations of summarizing as a study strategy are probably more diverse and prone to individual differences than the narrow definition that researchers assign to the concept (Miyatsu et al., 2018). Despite the fact that teachers do prefer summarizing over retrieval practice, this choice is unlikely a symptom of their knowledge of effective studying because learners appear, based on earlier research, not always fully aware of the boundary conditions of certain study strategies (Bjork et al., 2013). A second explanation as to why the novice teachers spontaneously suggest suboptimal strategies can be found in a theory-practice gap. ...
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This survey research, assessed whether novice secondary school teachers knew and understood the effectiveness of empirically-supported learning strategies, namely spaced practice, retrieval practice, interleaved practice, using multimodal representations, elaborative interrogation and worked-out examples. These ‘proven’ strategies can be contrasted with frequently used learning strategies that have been found to be less effective, such as re-reading, taking verbatim notes, highlighting/underlining, summarizing, and cramming. This study broadens previous research on teachers’ knowledge of learning strategies by both refining and extending the methodology used in the scenario studies, and by administering it to a different, previously unexplored population. Novice teachers enrolled in a teacher training program (N = 180) in Flanders, Belgium were presented with a three-part survey, consisting of open-ended questions, learning scenarios and a list of study strategies. The results show that misconceptions about effective study strategies are widespread by novice teachers and suggests that they are unaware of several specific strategies that could benefit student learning and retention. While popular but less effective strategies such as highlighting and summarising were commonly named by them in open-ended questions, this was not the case for proven effective strategies (e.g., studying worked-out examples, interleaving, and using multi-modal representations) which were not or hardly mentioned. We conclude that this study adds to the growing literature that it is not only students, but also novice teachers who make suboptimal metacognitive judgments when it comes to study and learning. Explicit instruction in evidence-informed learning strategies should be stressed and included in both teacher professional development programs and initial teacher training.
... Drawing on nudging theory as a guiding design principle [92], we aimed to contribute by investigating, designing, and evaluating a novel student-centered learning system called Argu-mentFeedback to enable students to self-evaluate their argumentation writing skills independently [6,8,120]. We followed a rigorous theory-motivated design approach, where we systematically searched literature in the field of educational technology and HCI following [18,103] to carefully derive requirements for the design of ArgumentFeedback. ...
... We believe that embedding the concept of nudging for individual writing feedback could help students learn how to argue in a more effective way. We back up our hypothesis on self-regulated learning theory [8]. This theory supports our underlying hypothesis that individual and personal feedback including digital nudging on a student's argumentation motivates or engages the student to improve their skill level. ...
... We investigated the found literature under the criteria of a) the underlying psychological effects (heuristics) of the intended Design Requirement from Literature Exemplary Guiding Literature 1) Provide colored in-text argumentation highlighting to enable students to self-monitor their argumentation structures in their written text. [2,8,16,80,110,120] 2) Provide argumentation theory explanation and an argumentation learning goal (e.g., "write your texts as persuasive as possible") before and during the writing exercise. [6,80,96] 3) Provide summarizing argumentation scores in a learning dashboard with transparent explanations to enable students to receive a general overview of their argumentation skill level. ...
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Recent advantages from computational linguists can be leveraged to nudge students with adaptive self evaluation based on their argumentation skill level. To investigate how individual argumentation self evaluation will help students write more convincing texts, we designed an intelligent argumentation writing support system called ArgumentFeedback based on nudging theory and evaluated it in a series of three qualitative and quaxntitative studies with a total of 83 students. We found that students who received a self-evaluation nudge wrote more convincing texts with a better quality of formal and perceived argumentation compared to the control group. The measured self-efficacy and the technology acceptance provide promising results for embedding adaptive argumentation writing support tools in combination with digital nudging in traditional learning settings to foster self-regulated learning. Our results indicate that the design of nudging-based learning applications for self-regulated learning combined with computational methods for argumentation self-evaluation has a beneficial use to foster better writing skills of students.
... With the fulfillment of one's self-regulation, it is hoped that it will be able to prevent the increase in traffic violations at a young age. Adolescence itself is defined as a period of transitional development between childhood and adulthood which undergoes changes in biological, cognitive, and socio-emotional conditions (Bjork et al., 2013;Blair & Raver, 2015;Daniela, 2015;Ursache et al., 2012). The changes that occur have an impact on adolescent behavior. ...
... So, someone can give value to success above has reached the target. self-regulation process rotating learning, process overview this spin is done by Zimmerman with a three-stage management model (Bjork et al., 2013;Blair & Raver, 2015;Zimmerman, 2013b). First, the forethought phase, namely the actual performance that precedes and relates to the rare gathering process for an action. ...
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Traffic accidents are the leading cause of death among young people aged 15–29. This study aims to reveal the efficiency of group setting modeling techniques to improve self-regulation in preventing traffic violations in adolescents. There are two groups of students in SMK 1 Padang City. The group consists of 25 students. This type of experimental research with Quasy-Experiment design. The research sample is Vocational High School (SMK) students. Sampling using random cluster sampling. The instrument used is a self-regulation questionnaire in traffic. Then analyzed using the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two Independent sample with the help of the Statistical Product and Service Solution (SPSS) version 22 program.This study found that adolescent self-regulation in traffic increased after being given counseling services using group setting modeling techniques. This research can be used to reduce the level of traffic violations on the highway, especially among teenagers, especially in the city of Padang. The average score of group members in the pretest was 73.8 while the posttest was 91.72, meaning that there was an increase in the score of 13.00. The provision of group setting modeling techniques can significantly improve adolescent self-regulation against traffic violations. This research can be an alternative in the world of education to prevent traffic violations, especially in adolescents.
... Effortful retrieval (as might be seen with longer periods between retrieval attempts) is more beneficial than is less effortful retrieval (such as when there is a relatively short period between retrieval attempts). In this regard, longer spacing gaps can be more beneficial because they result in desirable difficulties (Bjork et al., 2013); that is, they result in effortful cognitive processing, which facilitates learning. Because short spacing might result in relatively small degrees of retrieval difficulty, it is not optimal for retention. ...
... According to theoretical models of spacing, such as study-phase retrieval and the desirable difficulty framework, expanding spacing conditions should result in superior learning outcomes, although conclusive evidence is currently lacking (Latimier et al., 2021). The initial short ISIs that are characteristic of expanding schedules (e.g., 1-3-5 instead of 3-3-3 or 5-3-1) might aid successful retrieval on the second presentation of an item and strengthen retrieval in subsequent presentations after longer ISIs, which pose greater retrieval difficulties (Bjork et al., 2013). By contrast, the longer initial ISIs in contracting or equal spacing schedules (such as 5-3-1 or 3-3-3 opposed to 1-3-5) decrease the odds of successful retrieval during the second presentation. ...
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This article provides a conceptual review of the principles of input spacing as they might relate specifically to oral task repetition research and presents some of the common methodological considerations from the broader input spacing literature. The specific considerations discussed include the interaction between intersession intervals and retention intervals, the manipulation of posttests as a between‐participants variable, the number of task repetitions, absolute versus relative spacing, the criterion of learning, task type versus exact task repetition, and blocked versus interleaved practice. Each of these considerations is discussed with links, as appropriate, to the relevant empirical input spacing and task repetition literature. The purpose of this review is to highlight how, in many cases, these methodological considerations have been overlooked by task repetition researchers, including in studies where input spacing has and has not been a direct focus, and to suggest ways of addressing these methodological shortcomings in future research. A one‐page Accessible Summary of this article in non‐technical language is freely available in the Supporting Information online and at https://oasis‐database.org
... In self-regulated learning, students engage in a cycle of setting specific goals, considering and personalizing their learning strategies, and finally reflecting on and adapting behaviors to optimize educational achievement [9,10]. The application of self-regulated learning strategies among medical students may be associated with academic achievement in the preclinical setting [11]. ...
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Abstract Background Students with developed self-regulated learning (SRL) skills demonstrate an ability to set individualized educational goals, select optimal learning strategies for reaching these goals, and reflect on overall progress. The primary aims of this study were to investigate first-year medical students’ perceived utility of a self-regulated learning-informed intervention and to assess the impact of its implementation on students’ intended use of SRL throughout medical school. Methods A two-part educational intervention focused on SRL skill development was carried out at Harvard Medical School during the start of the 2021 academic year. For the first component of the intervention, 169 first-year medical students engaged in an interactive class session structured around SRL concept videos, a brief lecture, small group discussions and individual reflection. Students completed pre- and post-intervention surveys which inquired about learners’ current and anticipated application of SRL skills. During the second component of the intervention, 15 first-year medical students participated in a set of one-on-one academic SRL coaching sessions. All coaching participants completed follow-up semi-structured interviews. Results A statistically significant increase was observed between students’ use of skills in all domains of self-regulated learning prior to the intervention and their anticipated use of these skills following the intervention. Prior to the intervention, 60.1% (n = 92) of students reported utilizing evidence-based learning strategies, compared to 92.8% (n = 142) of students (p
... Although a large part of memory operates on an unconscious level, there is another part that is conscious, observable, and under human control. Memory control refers to a set of metastrategic regulations during the stages of encoding, maintenance, and retrieval by which learners can manage, for instance, information availability in working memory, inhibit memories, and make decisions about the accessibility of information in the memory system [13,14,56]. It is worth noting that recent studies reveal that subconscious training strategies can also improve memory regulation [57]. ...
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Memory is one of the most vital cognitive functions, affecting almost all aspects of human life. Meta-memory is considered a special part of metacognition that enables humans to acquire mnemonic knowledge and meta-skills to take control of their memory functions. In the digital era, the use of mobile applications to improve memory is constantly gaining ground, while virtual reality is considered a promising technology for memory rehabilitation. The current study aimed to present a metamemory framework based on eight fundamental principles of metacognition. The theoretical model is complemented by a set of meta-mnemonic strategies while emphasizing the role of virtual reality and mobile applications in metamemory skills training. The metamemory strategies framework supported by virtual reality and mobile applications provides a training paradigm for implementation in general, special, and vocational education.
... However, students most often do not spontaneously regulate their learning (Bjork et al., 2013;Flavell et al., 1966;Veenman et al., 2005) and fail to regulate their learning successfully in digital and online learning settings (e.g., Azevedo & Feyzi-Behnagh, 2011). Recently, the need to support SRL in digital learning settings has become particularly urgent due to an abrupt increase in remote learning (i.e., digital and online), mainly as a result of the current pandemic (EDUCAUSE, 2021). ...
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Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) is related to increased learning performance. Scaffolding learners in their SRL activities in a computer-based learning environment can help to improve learning outcomes, because students do not always regulate their learning spontaneously. Based on theoretical assumptions, scaffolds should be continuously adaptive and personalized to students' ongoing learning progress in order to promote SRL. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of analytics-based personalized scaffolds, facilitated by a rule-based artificial intelligence (AI) system, on students' learning process and outcomes by real-time measurement and support of SRL using trace data. Using a pre-post experimental design, students received personalized scaffolds (n = 36), generalized scaffolds (n = 32), or no scaffolds (n = 30) during learning. Findings indicated that personalized scaffolds induced more SRL activities, but no effects were found on learning outcomes. Process models indicated large similarities in the temporal structure of learning activities between groups which may explain why no group differences in learning performance were observed. In conclusion, analytics-based personalized scaffolds informed by students’ real-time SRL measured and supported with AI are a first step towards adaptive SRL supports incorporating artificial intelligence that has to be further developed in future research.
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The machinery of the stock market can be a great source of perplexity for many people. Some people believe investing is a form of gamble; and feel that if you devote, you will more than likely end up losing your money. Other people believe that they should invest for the long run but don‘t know where to begin. Before learning about how the stock market works, they look at invest like some sort of black magic that only a few people identify how to use. Growing a Business with Equity-When learning how to value a company, it helps to understand the nature of a business and the stock market. Almost every large corporation started out as a small, mom-and-pop operation, and through growth, became financial giants. Trust Wall-Mart, Amazon and McDonald's. Wall-Mart was originally a single-store business in Arkansas. Amazon.com began as an online bookseller in a garage. McDonald's was once a small restaurant of which no one outside of San Bernardino, California had ever heard. a company grows, it continues to face the hurdle of raising enough money to fund on�going expansion. Owners generally have two options to overcome this. They can either borrow the money from a bank or venture capitalist or sell part of the business to investors and use the money to fund growth
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Chapter
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