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There have been several popular reports of various groups exploiting the deterministic nature of the game of roulette for profit. Moreover, through its history, the inherent determinism in the game of roulette has attracted the attention of many luminaries of chaos theory. In this paper, we provide a short review of that history and then set out to determine to what extent that determinism can really be exploited for profit. To do this, we provide a very simple model for the motion of a roulette wheel and ball and demonstrate that knowledge of initial position, velocity, and acceleration is sufficient to predict the outcome with adequate certainty to achieve a positive expected return. We describe two physically realizable systems to obtain this knowledge both incognito and in situ. The first system relies only on a mechanical count of rotation of the ball and the wheel to measure the relevant parameters. By applying these techniques to a standard casino-grade European roulette wheel, we demonstrate an expected return of at least 18%, well above the -2.7% expected of a random bet. With a more sophisticated, albeit more intrusive, system (mounting a digital camera above the wheel), we demonstrate a range of systematic and statistically significant biases which can be exploited to provide an improved guess of the outcome. Finally, our analysis demonstrates that even a very slight slant in the roulette table leads to a very pronounced bias which could be further exploited to substantially enhance returns.
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Predicting the outcome of roulette
Michael Small and Chi Kong Tse
Citation: Chaos 22, 033150 (2012); doi: 10.1063/1.4753920
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Predicting the outcome of roulette
Michael Small
and Chi Kong Tse
School of Mathematics and Statistics, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia
Department of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
(Received 30 April 2012; accepted 4 September 2012; published online 26 September 2012)
There have been several popular reports of various groups exploiting the deterministic nature of the
game of roulette for profit. Moreover, through its history, the inherent determinism in the game of
roulette has attracted the attention of many luminaries of chaos theory. In this paper, we provide a
short review of that history and then set out to determine to what extent that determinism can really
be exploited for profit. To do this, we provide a very simple model for the motion of a roulette
wheel and ball and demonstrate that knowledge of initial position, velocity, and acceleration is
sufficient to predict the outcome with adequate certainty to achieve a positive expected return. We
describe two physically realizable systems to obtain this knowledge both incognito and in situ. The
first system relies only on a mechanical count of rotation of the ball and the wheel to measure the
relevant parameters. By applying these techniques to a standard casino-grade European roulette
wheel, we demonstrate an expected return of at least 18%, well above the 2.7% expected of a
random bet. With a more sophisticated, albeit more intrusive, system (mounting a digital camera
above the wheel), we demonstrate a range of systematic and statistically significant biases which
can be exploited to provide an improved guess of the outcome. Finally, our analysis demonstrates
that even a very slight slant in the roulette table leads to a very pronounced bias which
could be further exploited to substantially enhance returns. V
C2012 American Institute of Physics.
“No one can possibly win at roulette unless he steals
money from the table when the croupier isn’t
looking” (Attributed to Albert Einstein in Ref. 1)
Among the various gaming systems, both current
and historical, roulette is uniquely deterministic. Rela-
tively simple laws of motion allow one, in principle, to
forecast the path of the ball on the roulette wheel and to
its final destination. Perhaps because of this appealing
deterministic nature, many notable figures from the early
development of chaos theory have leant their hand to
exploiting this determinism and undermining the pre-
sumed randomness of the outcome. In this paper, we aim
only to establish whether the determinism in this system
really can be profitably exploited. We find that this is def-
initely possible and propose several systems which could
be used to gain an edge over the house in a game of rou-
lette. While none of these systems are optimal, they all
demonstrate positive expected return.
The game of roulette has a long, glamorous, inglorious
history, and has been connected with several notable men of
science. The origin of the game has been attributed,
to the mathematician Blaise Pascal.
the roulette wheel becoming a staple of probability theory,
the alleged motivation for Pascal’s interest in the device was
not solely to torment undergraduate students, but rather as
part of a vain search for perpetual motion. Alternative stories
have attributed the origin of the game to the ancient Chinese,
a French monk or an Italian mathematician.
In any case,
the device was introduced to Parisian gamblers in the mid-
eighteenth century to provide a fairer game than those cur-
rently in circulation. By the turn of the century, the game
was popular and wide-spread. Its popularity bolstered by its
apparent randomness and inherent (perceived) honesty.
The game of roulette consists of a heavy wheel,
machined and balanced to have very low friction, and
designed to spin for a relatively long time with a slowly
decaying angular velocity. The wheel is spun in one direc-
tion, while a small ball is spun in the opposite direction on
the rim of a fixed circularly inclined surface surrounding and
abutting the wheel. As the ball loses momentum, it drops to-
ward the wheel and eventually will come to rest in one of 37
numbered pockets arranged around the outer edge of the
spinning wheel. Various wagers can be made on which
pocket, or group of pockets, the ball will eventually fall into.
It is accepted practice that, on a successful wager on a single
pocket, the casino will pay 35 to 1. Thus, the expected return
from a single wager on a fair wheel is ð35 þ1Þ 1
In the long-run, the house will, naturally,
win. In the eighteenth century, the game was fair and con-
sisted of only 36 pockets. Conversely, an American roulette
wheel is even less fair and consists of 38 pockets. We con-
sider the European, 37 pocket, version as this is of more im-
mediate interest to us.
Figure 1illustrates the general
structure, as well as the layout of pockets, on a standard
European roulette wheel.
Despite many proposed “systems,” there are only two
profitable ways to play roulette.
One can either exploit
Electronic mail:
1054-1500/2012/22(3)/033150/9/$30.00 V
C2012 American Institute of Physics22, 033150-1
CHAOS 22, 033150 (2012)
an unbalanced wheel, or one can exploit the inherently
deterministic nature of the spin of both ball and wheel. Casi-
nos will do their utmost to avoid the first type of exploit. The
second exploit is possible because placing wagers on the out-
come is traditionally permitted until some time after the ball
and wheel are in motion. That is, one has an opportunity to
observe the motion of both the ball and the wheel before
placing a wager.
The archetypal tale of the first type of exploit is that of a
man by the name of Jagger (various sources refer to him as
either William Jaggers or Joseph Jagger, or some permuta-
tion of these). Jagger, an English mechanic and amateur
mathematician, observed that slight mechanical imperfection
in a roulette wheel could afford sufficient edge to provide for
profitable play. According to one incarnation of the tale, in
1873, he embarked for the casino of Monte Carlo with six
hired assistants. Once there, he carefully logged the outcome
of each spin of each of six roulette tables over a period of 5
Analysis of the data revealed that for each wheel
there was a unique but systematic bias. Exploiting these
weaknesses, he gambled profitably for a week before the ca-
sino management shuffled the wheels between tables. This
bought his winning streak to a sudden halt. However, he
soon noted various distinguishing features of the individual
wheels and was able to follow them between tables, again
winning consistently. Eventually, the casino resorted to
redistributing the individual partitions between pockets. A
popular account, published in 1925, claims he eventually
came away with winnings of £65 000.
The success of this
endeavor is one possible inspiration for the musical hall song
“The Man Who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo” although
this is strongly disputed.
Similar feats have been repeated elsewhere. The noted
statistician Karl Pearson provided a statistical analysis of
roulette data, and found it to exhibit substantial systematic
bias. However, it appears that his analysis was based on
flawed data from unscrupulous scribes
(apparently he had
hired rather lazy journalists to collect the data).
In 1947, irregularities were found, and exploited, by two
students, Albert Hibbs and Roy Walford, from Chicago
Following this line of attack, Ethier provides
a statistical framework by which one can test for irregular-
ities in the observed outcome of a roulette wheel.
A similar
weakness had also been reported in Time magazine in 1951.
In this case, the report described various syndicates of gam-
blers exploiting determinism in the roulette wheel in the
Argentinean casino Mar del Plata during 1948.
The second type of exploit is more physical (that is,
deterministic) than purely statistical and has consequently
attracted the attention of several mathematicians, physicists
and engineers. One of the first
was Henri Poincar
in his
seminal work Science and Method.
While ruminating on
the nature of chance, and that a small change in initial condi-
tion can lead to a large change in effect, Poincar
e illustrated
his thinking with the example of a roulette wheel (albeit a
slightly different design from the modern version). He
observed that a tiny change in initial velocity would change
the final resting place of the wheel (in his model there was
no ball) such that the wager on an either black or red (as in a
modern wheel, the black and red pockets alternate) would
correspondingly win or lose. He concluded by arguing that
this determinism was not important in the game of roulette
as the variation in initial force was tiny, and for any continu-
ous distribution of initial velocities, the result would be the
same: effectively random, with equal probability. He was not
concerned with the individual pockets, and he further
assumed that the variation in initial velocity required to pre-
dict the outcome would be immeasurable. It is while describ-
ing the game of roulette that Poincar
e introduces the concept
of sensitivity to initial conditions, which is now a corner-
stone of modern chaos theory.
A general procedure for predicting the outcome of a rou-
lette spin, and an assessment of its utility was described by
Edward Thorp in a 1969 publication for the Review of the
International Statistical Institute.
In that paper, Thorp
describes the two basic methods of prediction. He observes
(as others have done later) that by minimizing systematic
bias in the wheel, the casinos achieve a degree of mechanical
perfection that can then be exploited using deterministic pre-
diction schemes—efforts to minimize exploitation of statisti-
cal anomalies makes deterministic modeling methods easier.
Thorp describes two deterministic prediction schemes (or
rather two variants on the same scheme). If the roulette
wheel is not perfectly level (a tilt of 0:2was apparently suf-
ficient—we verified that this is indeed more than sufficient)
then there is effectively a large region of the frame from
FIG. 1. The European roulette wheel. In the
left panel, one can see a portion of the rotat-
ing roulette wheel and surrounding fixed
track. The ball has come to rest in the
(green) 0 pocket. Although the motion of
the wheel and the ball (in the outer track)
are simple and linear, one can see the addi-
tion of several metal deflectors on the stator
(that is, the fixed frame on which the rotat-
ing wheel sits). The sharp frets between
pockets also introduce strong nonlinearity as
the ball slows and bounces between pockets.
The panel on the right depicts the arrange-
ment of the number 0 to 36 and the coloring
red (lighter) and black (darker).
033150-2 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
which the ball will not fall onto the spinning wheel. By
studying Las Vegas wheels, he observes this condition is met
in approximately one third of wheels. He claims that in such
cases it is possible to garner a expected return of þ15%,
which increased to þ44% with the aid of a “pocket-sized”
computer. Some time later, Thorp revealed that his collabo-
rator in this endeavor was Claude Shannon,
the founding
father of information theory.
In his 1967 book,
the mathematician Richard A.
Epstein describes his earlier (undated) experiments with a
private roulette wheel. By measuring the angular velocity of
the ball relative to the wheel, he was able to predict correctly
the half of the wheel into which the ball would fall. Impor-
tantly, he noted that the initial velocity (momentum) of the
ball was not critical. Moreover, the problem is simply one of
predicting when the ball will leave the outer (fixed) rim as
this will always occur at a fixed velocity. However, a lack of
sufficient computational resources meant that his experi-
ments were not done in real time, and certainly not attempted
within a casino.
Subsequent to, and inspired by, the work of Thorp and
Shannon, another widely described attempt to beat the casi-
nos of Las Vegas was made in 1977–1978 by Doyne Farmer,
Norman Packard, and colleagues.
It is supposed that
Thorp’s 1969 paper had let the cat out of the bag regarding
profitable betting on roulette. However, despite the assertions
of Bass,
Thorp’s paper
is not mathematically detailed
(there is in fact no equations given in the description of rou-
lette). Thorp is sufficiently detailed to leave the reader in no
doubt that the scheme could work, but also vague enough so
that one could not replicate his effort without considerable
knowledge and skill. Farmer, Packard, and colleagues imple-
mented the system on a 6502 microprocessor hidden in a
shoe, and proceeded to apply their method to the various
casinos of the Las Vegas Strip. The exploits of this group are
described in detail in Bass.
The same group of physicists
went on to apply their skills to the study of chaotic dynami-
cal systems
and also for profitable trading on the financial
In Farmer and Sidorowich’s landmark paper on
predicting chaotic time series
the authors attribute the in-
spiration for that work to their earlier efforts to beat the
game of roulette.
Less exalted individuals have also been employing sim-
ilar schemes, in some cases fairly recently. In 2004, the
BBC carried the report of three gamblers
arrested by
police after winning £1 300 000 at the Ritz Casino in Lon-
don. The trio had apparently been using a laser scanner and
their mobile phones to predict the likely resting place of the
ball. Happily, for the trio but not the casino, they were
judged to have broken no laws and allowed to keep their
The scheme we describe in Sec. II and imple-
ment in Sec. III is certainly compatible with the equipment
and results reported in this case. In Sec. IV, we conclude
with some remarks concerning the practicality of applying
these methods in a modern casino, and what steps casinos
could take (or perhaps have taken) to circumvent these
exploits. A preliminary version of these results was pre-
sented at a conference in Macau.
An independent and
much more detailed model of dynamics of the roulette
wheel is discussed in Strzalko et al.
Since our preliminary
private communication with several individu-
als indicates that these methods have now progressed to the
point of at least four instances of independent in situ field
We now describe our basic model of the motion of the
roulette wheel and ball. Let ðr;hÞdenote the position of the
ball in polar co-ordinates, and let udenote the angular posi-
tion of the wheel (say, the angular position of the centre of
the green 0 pocket). We will model the ball as a single point
and so let rrim be the farthest radial position of that point
(i.e., the radial position of the centre of the ball when the ball
is spinning with high velocity in the rim of the wheel). Simi-
larly, let rdefl be the radial distance to the location of the
metal deflectors on the stator. For now, we will assume that
dh¼0 (that is, there are deflectors evenly distributed
around the stator at constant radius rdefl <r). The extension
to the more precise case is obvious, but, as we will see, not
necessary. Moreover, it is messy. Finally, we suppose that
the incline of the stator to the horizontal is a constant a. This
situation, together with a balance of forces is depicted in
Figure 2. We will first consider the ideal case of a level table,
and then in section II B show how this condition is in fact
A. Level table
For a given initial motion of ball ðr;h;_
wheel ðu;_
uÞt¼0, our aim is to determine the time tdefl at
which r¼rdefl. After launch, the motion of the ball will pass
through two distinct states which we further divide into four
cases: (i) with sufficient momentum it will remain in the rim,
constrained by the fixed edge of the stator; (ii) at some point
the momentum drops and the ball leaves the rim; (iii) the
ball will gradually loose momentum while travelling on the
stator as _
hdrops, so will r; and (iv) eventually r¼rdefl at
some time tdefl. At time t¼tdefl , we assume that the ball hits
a deflector on the stator and drops onto the (still spinning)
wheel. Of course, the deflectors are discrete and located only
at specific points around the edge of the wheel. While it is
possible, and fairly straightforward to incorporate the exact
position (and more importantly, the orientation) of each de-
flector, we have not done this. Instead, we model the deflec-
tors at a constant radial distance around the entire rim. The
exact position of the wheel when the ball reaches the deflec-
tors will be random but will depend only on uðtdefl Þ—i.e.,
depending on where the actual deflectors are when the ball
first comes within range, the radial distance until the ball
actually deflects will be uniformly distributed on the interval
½0;2p=Ndefl, where Ndefl is the number of deflectors.
1. Ball rotates in the rim
While traveling in the rim ris constant and the ball has
angular velocity _
h. Hence, the radial acceleration of the ball
is ac¼v2
h2, where vis the speed of the ball.
During this period of motion, we suppose that ris constant
033150-3 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
and that hdecays only due to constant rolling friction: hence
r¼0 and
hð0Þ, a constant. This phase of motion will
continue provided the centripetal force of the ball on the rim
exceeds the force of gravity maccos a>mgsin a(mis the
mass of the ball). Hence, at this stage
rtan a:(1)
2. Ball leaves the rim
Gradually the speed on the ball decays until eventually
rtana. Given the initial acceleration
hð0Þ, velocity
hð0Þ, and position hð0Þ, it is trivial to compute the time at
which the ball leaves the rim, trim to be
trim ¼ 1
hð0Þ ffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
rtan a
To do so, we assume that the angular acceleration is constant
and so the angular velocity at any time is given by _
hð0Þtand substitute into Eq. (1). That is, we are
assuming that the force acting on the ball is independent of
velocity—this is a simplifying assumption for the naive
model we describe here, more sophisticated alternatives are
possible, but in all cases this will involve the estimation of
additional parameters. The position at which the ball leaves
the rim is given by
rtan aÞ_
where jj
2pdenotes modulo 2p.
3. Ball rotates freely on the stator
After leaving the rim, the ball will continue (in practice,
for only a short while) to rotate freely on the stator until it
eventually reaches the various deflectors at r¼rdefl . The
angular velocity continues to be governed by
but now that
h2<gtan a
the radial position is going to gradually decrease too. The
difference between the force of gravity mgsinaand the
(lesser) centripetal force mr _
h2cos aprovides inward acceler-
ation of the ball
h2cos agsin a:(3)
Integrating Eq. (3) yields the position of the ball on the
4. Ball reaches the deflectors
Finally, we find the time t¼tdefl for which r(t), computed
as the definite second integral of Eq. (3),isequaltordefl.We
can then compute the instantaneous angular position of the ball
hðtdeflÞ¼hð0Þþ _
hð0Þtdefl þ1
defl and the wheel uðtdeflÞ
¼uð0Þþ _
uð0Þtdefl þ1
defl to give the salient value
c¼jhðtdeflÞuðtdefl Þj2p(4)
denoting the angular location on the wheel directly below
the point at which the ball strikes a deflector. Assuming the
constant distribution of deflectors around the rim, some (still
to be estimated) distribution of resting place of the ball will
depend only on that value c. Note that, although we have
described ðh;_
hÞt¼0and ðu;_
uÞt¼0separately, it is possi-
ble to adopt the rotating frame of reference of the wheel and
treat huas a single variable. The analysis is equivalent,
estimating the required parameters may become simpler.
FIG. 2. The dynamic model of ball and wheel. On the
left, we show a top view of the roulette wheel (shaded
region) and the stator (outer circles). The ball is mov-
ing on the stator with instantaneous position ðr;hÞ
while the wheel is rotating with angular velocity _
(note that the direction of the arrows here are for illus-
tration only, the analysis in the text assume the same
convention, clockwise positive, for both ball and
wheel). The deflectors on the stator are modelled as a
circle, concentric with the wheel, of radius rdefl.On
the right, we show a cross section and examination of
the forces acting on the ball in the incline plane of the
stator. The angle ais the incline of the stator, mis
the mass of the ball, acis the radial acceleration of
the ball, and gis gravity.
033150-4 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
We note that for a level table, each spin of the ball alters
only the time spent in the rim, the ball will leave the rim of
the stator with exactly the same velocity _
heach time. The
descent from this point to the deflectors will therefore be
identical. There will, in fact, be some characteristic duration
which could be easily computed for a given table. Doing this
would circumvent the need to integrate Eq. (3).
B. The crooked table
Suppose, now that the table is not perfectly level. This is
the situation discussed and exploited by Thorp.
loss of generality (it is only an affine change of co-ordinates
for any other orientation) suppose that the table is tilted by
an angle dsuch that the origin u¼0 is the lowest point on
the rim. Just as with the case of a level table, the time which
the ball spends in the rim is variable and the time at which it
leaves the rim depends on a stability criterion similar to
Eq. (1). But now that the table is not level, that equilibrium
h2¼gtanðaþdcos hÞ:(5)
If d¼0 then it is clear that the distribution of angular posi-
tions for which this condition is first met will be uniform.
Suppose instead that d>0, then there is now a range of criti-
cal angular velocities _
Once _
rtanðaþdÞ, the position at which the ball leaves
the rim will be dictated by the point of intersection in ðh;_
space of
rtanðaþdcos hÞ
and the ball trajectory as a function of t(modulo 2p)
If the angular velocity of the ball is large enough, then the
ball will leave the rim at some point on the half circle prior
to the low point (u¼0). Moreover, suppose that in one rev-
olution (i.e., hðt1Þþ2p¼hðt2Þ), the velocity changes by
hðt2Þ. Furthermore, suppose that this is the first
revolution during which _
rtanðaþdÞ(that is, _
rtanðaþdÞbut _
rtanðaþdÞ). Then, the point
at which the ball will leave the rim will (in ðh;_
be the intersection of Eq. (6) and
hðt1Þ 1
The situation is depicted in Figure 3. One can expect for a
tilted roulette wheel, the ball will systematically favor leav-
ing the rim on one half of the wheel. Moreover, to a good
approximation, the point at which the ball will leave the rim
follows a uniform distribution over significantly less than
half the wheel circumference. In this situation, the problem
of predicting the final resting place is significantly simplified
to the problem of predicting the position of the wheel at the
time the ball leaves the rim.
We will pursue this particular case no further here. The
situation (5) may be considered as a generalisation of the
ideal d¼0 case. This generalisation makes the task of pre-
diction significantly easier, but we will continue to work
under the assumption that the casino will be doing its utmost
to avoid the problems of an improperly levelled wheel.
Moreover, this generalisation is messy, but otherwise unin-
teresting. In Sec. III, we consider the problem of implement-
ing a prediction scheme for a perfectly level wheel.
In Sec. II, we introduced the basic mathematical model
which we utilize for the prediction of the trajectory of the
ball within the roulette wheel. We ignore (or rather treat as
essentially stochastic) the trajectory of the ball after hitting
the deflectors—charting the distribution of final outcome
from deflector to individual pocket in the roulette wheel is a
tractable probabilistic problem, and one for which we will
sketch a solution later. However, the details are perhaps only
of interest to the professional gambler and not to most physi-
cists. Hence, we are reduced to predicting the location of the
wheel and the ball when the ball first reaches one of the
deflectors. The model described in Sec. II is sufficient to
achieve this—provided one has adequate measurements of
the physical dimensions of the wheel and all initial positions,
FIG. 3. The case of the crooked table. The blue curve denotes the stability
criterion (6), while the red solid line is the (approximate) trajectory of the ball
with hðt1Þþ2p¼hðt2Þindicating two successive times of complete revolu-
tions. The point at which the ball leaves the rim will therefore be the first
intersection of this stability criterion and the trajectory. This will necessarily
be in the region to the left of the point at which the ball’s trajectory is tangent
to Eq. (6), and this is highlighted in the figure as a green solid. Typically a
crooked table will only be slightly crooked and hence this region will be close
to h¼0 but biased toward the approaching ball. The width of that region
depends on _
hðt2Þ, which in turn can be determined from Eq. (6).
033150-5 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
velocities, and accelerations (as a further approximation we
assume deceleration of both the ball and wheel to be constant
over the interval which we predict).
Hence, the problem of prediction is essentially two-
fold. First, the various velocities must be estimated accu-
rately. Given these estimates, it is a trivial problem to then
determine the point at which the ball will intersect with one
of the deflectors on the stator. Second, one must then have
an estimate of the scatter imposed on the ball by both the
deflectors and possible collision with the individual frets. To
apply this method in situ, one has the further complication
of estimating the parameters r,rdefl;rrim;a, and possibly d
without attracting undue attention. We will ignore this addi-
tional complication as it is essentially a problem of data col-
lection and statistical estimation. Rather, we will assume
that these quantities can be reliably estimated and restrict
our attention to the problem of prediction of the motion.
To estimate the relevant positions, velocities, and accelera-
tions ðh;_
uÞt¼0(or perhaps just ðhu;_
uÞt¼0), we employ two distinct techniques.
In Secs. III AIII C, we describe these methods. In
Sec. III A, we introduce a manual measurement scheme, and
in Sec. III B, we describe our implementation of a more so-
phisticated digital system. The purpose of Sec. III A is to
demonstrate that a rather simple “clicker” type of device—
along the lines of that utilized by the Doyne Farmer, Norman
Packard, and collaborators
—can be employed to make suf-
ficiently accurate measurements. Nonetheless, this system is
far from optimal: we conduct only limited experiments with
this apparatus: sufficient to demonstrate that, in principle,
the method could work. In Sec. III B, we describe a more so-
phisticated system. This system relies on a digital camera
mounted directly above a roulette wheel and is therefore
unlikely to be employed in practice (although alternative,
more subtle, devices could be imagined). Nonetheless, our
aim here is to demonstrate how well this system could work
in an optimal environment.
Of course, the degree to which the model in Sec. II is
able to provide a useful prediction will depend critically on
how well the parameters are estimated. Sensitivity analysis
shows that the predicted outcome (Eq. (4)) depends only lin-
early or quadratically (in the case of physical parameters of
the wheel) on our initial estimates. More important however,
and more difficult to estimate, is to what extent each of these
parameters can be reliably estimated. For this reason, we first
take a strictly experimental approach and show that even
with the various imperfections inherent in experimental mea-
surement, and in our model, sufficiently accurate predictions
are realizable. Later, in Sec. III C, we provide a brief compu-
tational analysis of how model prediction will be affected by
uncertainty in each of the parameters.
A. A manual implementation
Our first approach is to simply record the time at which
ball and wheel pass a fixed point. This is a simple approach
(probably that used in the early attempts to beat the wheels of
Las Vegas) and is trivial to implement on a laptop computer,
personal digital assistant, embedded system, or even a mobile
Our results, depicted in Fig. 4illustrate that the
measurements, although noisy, are feasible. The noise intro-
duced in this measurement is probably largely due to the lack
of physical hand-eye co-ordination of the first author. Figure
4serves only to demonstrate that, from measurements of suc-
cessive revolutions T(i) and T(iþ1) the relationship between
T(i) and T(iþ1) can be predicted with a fairly high degree of
certainty (over several trials and with several different initial
conditions). As expected, the dependence of T(iþ1) on T(i)
is sub-linear. Hence, derivation of velocity and acceleration
from these measurements should be relatively straightfor-
ward. Simple experiments with this configuration indicate
that it is possible to accurately predict the correct half of the
wheel in which the ball will come to rest.
Using these (admittedly noisy) measurements, we were
able to successfully predict the half of the wheel in which the
ball would stop in 13 of 22 trials (random with p<0:15),
yielding an expected return of 36=18 13=22 1¼þ18%.
This trial run included predicting the precise location in
which the ball landed on three occasions (random with
p<0:02). Quoted p-values are computed against the null hy-
pothesis of a binomial distribution of ntrials with probability
of success determined by the fraction of the total circumfer-
ence corresponding to the target range—i.e., the probability p
of landing by chance in one of the target pockets
p¼number of target pockets
37 :
FIG. 4. Hand-measurement of ball and wheel velocity for prediction. From
two spins of the wheel, and 20 successive spins of the ball we logged the
time (in seconds) T(i) for successive passes past a given point (T(i) against
T(iþ1)). The measurements T(i) and T(iþ1) are the timings of successive
revolutions—direct measurements of the angular velocity observed over one
complete rotation. To provide the simplest and most direct indication that
handheld measurements of this quantity are accurate, we indicate in this fig-
ure a deterministic relationship between these quantities. From this relation-
ship, one can determine the angular deceleration. The red (slightly higher)
points depict these times for the wheel, the blue (lower) points are for the
ball. A single trial of both ball and wheel is randomly highlighted with
crosses (superimposed). The inset is an enlargement of the detail in the lower
left corner. Both the noise and the determinism of this method are evident.
In particular, the wheel velocity is relatively easy to calculate and decays
slowly, in contrast the ball decays faster and is more difficult to measure.
033150-6 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
B. Automated digital image capture
Alternatively, we employ a digital camera mounted
directly above the wheel to accurately and instantaneously
measure the various physical parameters. This second
approach is obviously a little more difficult to implement in-
cognito. Here, we are more interested in determining how
much of an edge can be achieved under ideal conditions,
rather than the various implementation issues associated
with realizing this scheme for personal gain. In all our trials,
we use a regulation casino-grade roulette wheel (a 32”
“President Revolution” roulette wheel manufactured by Mat-
sui Gaming Machine Co. Ltd., Tokyo). The wheel has 37
numbered slots (1 to 36 and 0) in the configuration shown in
Figure 1and has a radius of 820 mm (spindle to rim). For the
purposes of data collection, we employ a Prosilica EC650C
IEEE-1394 digital camera (1/3” CCD, 659 493 pixels at
90 frames per second). Data collection software was written
and coded in Cþþ using the OpenCV library.
The camera provides approximately (slightly less due to
issues with data transfer) 90 images per second of the posi-
tion of the roulette wheel and the ball. Artifacts in the image
due to lighting had to be managed and filtered. From the re-
sultant image, the position of the wheel was easily deter-
mined by locating the only green pocket (“0”) in the wheel,
and the position of the ball was located by differencing suc-
cessive frames (searching for the ball shape or color was not
sufficient due to the reflective surface of the wheel and ambi-
ent lighting conditions).
From these time series of Cartesian coordinates for the
position of both the wheel (green “0” pocket) and ball, we
computed the centre of rotation and hence derived angular
position time series. Polynomial fits to these angular position
data (modulo 2p) provided estimates of angular velocity and
acceleration (deceleration). From this data, we found that,
for out apparatus, the acceleration terms where very close to
being constant over the observation time period—and hence
modeling the forces acting on the ball as constant provided a
reasonable approximation. With these parameters, we
directly applied the model of Sec. II to predict the point at
which the ball came into contact with the deflectors.
Figure 5illustrates the results from 700 trials of the pre-
diction algorithm on independent rolls of a fair and level rou-
lette wheel. The scatter plot of Fig. 5provides only a crude
estimation of variance over the entire region of the wheel for
a given prediction. A determined gambler could certainly
extend this analysis with a more substantial data set relating
to her particular wheel of interest. We only aim to show that
certain non-random characteristics in the distribution of rest-
ing place will emerge and that these can then be used to fur-
ther refine prediction.
Nonetheless, several things are clear from Fig. 5. First,
for most of the wheel, the probability of the ball landing in a
particular pocket—relative to the predicted destination—
does not differ significantly from chance: observed popula-
tions in 30 of 37 pockets is within the 90% confidence inter-
val for a random process. Two particular pockets—the target
pocket itself and a pocket approximately one-quarter of the
wheel prior to the target pocket—occur with frequencies
higher than and less than (respectively) that expected by
chance: outside the 99% confidence interval. Hence, the pre-
dicted target pocket is a good indicator of eventual outcome
and those pockets immediate prior to the target pocket
(which the ball would need to bounce backwards to reach)
are less likely. Finally, and rather speculatively, there is a
relatively higher chance (although marginally significant) of
the ball landing in one of the subsequent pockets—hence,
suggesting that the best strategy may be to bet on the section
of the wheel following the actual predicted destination.
C. Parameter uncertainity and measurement noise
The performance of the model described above will
depend on the accuracy of estimates of each of the model pa-
rameters: a(the inclination of the wheel rim), rrim (the radius
of the wheel rim), and rdefl (the location of the deflectors).
Using the data collected in Sec. III B, we systematically vary
each of the parameters by a factor ð0:9<<1:1Þso that,
for example, we estimate the ball position with an inclination
of a. Figure 6(a) depicts the results, and, as expected, de-
pendence on each of these parameters is linear (and negative
in the case of rrim). Moreover, the location of the deflectors
rdefl is not critical, whereas the correct estimation of the other
two parameters is. Nonetheless, this would not pose a
FIG. 5. Predicting roulette. The plot depicts the results of 700 trials of our
automated image recognition software used to predict the outcome of inde-
pendent spins of a roulette wheel. What we plot here is a histogram in polar
coordinates of the difference between the predicted and the actual outcome
(the “Target” location, at the 12 o’clock position in this diagram, indicating
that the prediction was correct). The length of each of the 37 black bars
denote the frequency with which predicted and actual outcome differed by
exactly the corresponding angle. Dotted, dotted-dashed, and solid (red) lines
depict the corresponding 99.9%, 99%, and 90% confidence intervals using
the corresponding two-tailed binomial distribution. Motion forward (i.e.,
ball continues to move in the same direction) is clockwise, motion back-
wards is anti-clockwise. From the 37 possible results, there are 2 instances
outside the 99% confidence interval. There are 7 instances outside the 90%
confidence interval.
033150-7 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
significant problem for prediction as in all case the variation
in these parameters introduces a systematic bias which could
easily be corrected for, or even used to estimate the true
What is more striking is the effect of measurement noise
depicted in Fig. 6(b). We add Gaussian noise to each timing
measurement (each frame, recording at 90 frames per sec-
ond) over the duration of the observation period (25 frames)
used to estimate initial velocity and deceleration of the ball
and velocity of the wheel. The added noise has an effect of
increasing the variation in the predicted resting place of the
ball (since the noise is unbiased) and the strength of this
effect is linear with the level of noise. As independent noise
realizations are added to 50 measurements (25 each for the
ball and wheel), this is a substantial amount of error—even
at a fairly low amplitude. Nonetheless, the final results are
still within 2–3 pockets of the original prediction for noise of
up to 2% on every scalar observation.
The essence of the method presented here is to predict
the location of the ball and wheel at the point when the ball
will first come into contact with the deflectors. Hence, we
only require knowledge of initial conditions of each aspect
of the system (or more concisely, their relative positions,
velocities and accelerations). In addition to this, certain pa-
rameters derived from the physical dimensions of the wheel
are required—these could either be estimated directly, or
inferred from observational trajectory data. Finally, we note
that while anecdotal evidence suggests that (the height of
the) frets plays an important role in the final resting place of
the ball, this does not enter into our model of the more deter-
ministic phase of the system dynamics. It will affect the dis-
tribution of final resting places—and hence this is going to
depend rather sensitively on a particular wheel.
We would like to draw two simple conclusions from this
work. First, deterministic predictions of the outcome of a
game of roulette can be made, and can probably be done
in situ. Hence, the tales of various exploits in this arena are
likely to be based on fact. Second, the margin for profit is
quite slim. Minor manipulation with the frictional resistance
or level of the wheel and/or the manner in which the croupier
actually plays the ball (the force with which the ball is rolled
and the effect, for example, of axial spin of the ball) have
not been explored here and would likely affect the results
significantly. Hence, for the casino the news is mostly
good—minor adjustments will ameliorate the advantage of
the physicist-gambler. For the gambler, one can rest assured
that the game is on some level predictable and therefore
inherently honest.
Of course, the model we have used here is extremely
simple. In Strzalko et al.,
much more sophisticated model-
ing methodologies have been independently developed and
presented. Certainly, since the entire system is a physical dy-
namical system, computational modeling of the entire system
may provide an even greater advantage.
Nonetheless, the
methods presented in this paper would certainly be within
the capabilities of a 1970s “shoe-computer.”
The first author would like to thank Marius Gerber for
introducing him to the dynamical systems aspects of the
game of roulette. Funding for this project, including the rou-
lette wheel, was provided by the Hong Kong Polytechnic
University. The labors of final year project students, Yung
Chun Ting and Chung Kin Shing, in performing many of the
mechanical simulations describe herein are gratefully
acknowledged. M.S. is supported by an Australian Research
Council Future Fellowship (FT110100896).
FIG. 6. Parameter uncertainty. We explore the
effect of error in the model parameters on the out-
come by varying the three physical parameters of
the wheel (a) and introducing uncertainty in the
measurement of timing events used to obtain
estimates of velocity and deceleration (b). In (a), we
depict the effect of perturbing the estimated
values of a(green—affine, increasing steeply) rrim
(red—affine, decreasing) and rdefl (blue—affine and
increasing slowly) from 90% to 110% of the true
value. In (b), we add Gaussian noise of magnitude
between 0.5% and 10% the variance of the true
measurements to initial estimates of all positions
and velocities. Horizontal dotted lines in both plots
depict error corresponding to one whole pocket in
the wheel. The vertical axis is in radians and covers
2—half the wheel. In the upper panel, least varia-
tion in outcome is observed with errors in estima-
tion of rdefl.
033150-8 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
T. A. Bass, The Newtonian Casino (Penguin, London, 1990).
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, a sur-
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Implementation on a “shoe-computer” should be relatively straightforward
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033150-9 M. Small and C. K. Tse Chaos 22, 033150 (2012)
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The Gaming Clubs (Banker's Games) Regulations, 1970, which implemented that part of the Gaming Act, 1968, concerned with bankers' games came into effect on July 1st, 1970. These regulations allowed four games--roulette, dice, baccarat and blackjack--to be played in licensed clubs and laid down the rules of play. This paper examines the properties of these four permitted games. Roulette and dice, being games of pure chance, are relatively simple to analyse, but have been considered in some detail to illustrate our approach. Work on baccarat, particularly chemin-de-fer, has been reviewed, and the optimum strategies for the banker and for the opposing player have been given for this game. It is shown that, provided the banker uses his optimum strategy, the choice of strategy by the opposing player makes no difference to the banker's expected gain. In these circumstances chemin-de-fer is, in effect, a game of pure chance unless sophisticated card-counting techniques are used. Baccarat banque and blackjack may therefore be regarded as the only bankers' games permitted under the regulations which involve skill. Some results for these two games are presented, including a near-optimum basic strategy for the player in the permitted version of blackjack.
We are forced to accept as [an] alternative that the random spinning of a roulette manufactured and daily readjusted with extraordinary care is not obedient to the laws of chance, but is chaotic in its manifestations!(Karl Pearson 1894)Given integers k ≥ k0 ≥ 2, a test of fixed sample size and a sequential test are constructed for the purpose of testing the null hypothesis that max1≤i≤kpi ≤ 1/k0, against the alternative that max1≤i≤kpi > 1/k0, where p1, …, pk are the parameters of a multinomial distribution with k cells. Results are applied to the problem of testing for favorable numbers on a roulette wheel, in which case k = 38 and k0 = 36, thereby providing a partial solution to a problem posed by Wilson (1965).
Man invented a concept that has since been variously viewed as a vice, a crime, a business, a pleasure, a type of magic, a disease, a folly, a weakness, a form of sexual substitution, an expression of the human instinct. He invented gambling. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in the statistical and mathematical theory behind gambling. Columbia pictures released a new movie 21 in July 2008 staring Jim Sturgess, Kevin Spacey, Kate Bosworth, Laurence Fishburne, Aaron Yoo, and Liza Lapira. Inspired by the true story of MIT students who mastered the art of card counting and took Vegas casinos for millions in winnings. Richard Epstein's classic book on gambling and its mathematical analysis covers the full range of games from penny matching, to blackjack and other casino games, to the stock market (including Black-Scholes analysis). He even considers what light statistical inference can shed on the study of paranormal phenomena. Epstein is witty and insightful, a pleasure to dip into and read and rewarding to study. The book is written at a fairly sophisticated mathematical level, this is not- Gambling for Dummies- or 'how to beat the odds' book, and a background in upper level undergraduate mathematics is essential to reading and understanding this book. o Comprehensive and exciting analysis of all major casino games and variants o Covers a wide range of interesting topics not covered in other books on the subject o Depth and breadth of its material is unique compared to other books of this nature.
Advances made in understanding terrestrial dynamics through the use of VLBI are reviewed. The way in which radio signals emitted by distant quasars are used in this application of VLBI is described. Progress achieved in understanding the mechanism sustaining the polar motion, measuring fluctuations in the earth's rotation, analyzing the effects of the atmosphere on the rotation, and studying the structure of the earth's interior are addressed.
The extent to which physical systems are predictable is considered with emphasis on techniques for predicting the chaotic behavior of systems with random components. Analytical techniques for describing dynamical systems are reviewed, noting the necessity of finding closed-form solutions to follow the evolution of simple systems over time. Attention is given to attractors and repeated returns to attractors after cycles through a sequence of states, e.g., a pendulum. Chaotic attractors feature small random elements that diverge rapidly, but whose motions stretch and fold to remain finite, thereby generating fractals. The state of the chaotic system is a small region of state space that can be determined to an accuracy allowed by instrumental noise. Experimentation w hich has supported the concept of chaotic systems is described.
It is shown how the existence of low-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems describing turbulent fluid flow might be determined experimentally. Techniques are outlined for reconstructing phase-space pictures from the observation of a single coordinate of any dissipative dynamical system, and for determining the dimensionality of the system's attractor. These techniques are applied to a well-known simple three-dimensional chaotic dynamical system.