Fever in HIV-infected patients: less frequent but still complex
Fever was a common symptom in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in the early phases of the epidemic. Fever of Unknown Origin (FUO) was frequent in HIV-patients and conditions causing FUO were often opportunistic conditions. The HIV-epidemic continues to expand, but access to effective antiretroviral therapy is also expanding, resulting in a growing number of HIV-infected patients less likely to be severely immunocompromised and less likely to present opportunistic conditions. Yet part of newly diagnosed patients continue to present with advanced HIV-infection and are still at high risk of opportunistic conditions. This epidemiological evolution strongly influences the spectrum of conditions causing fever and FUO in HIV-patients. While some patients with HIV-associated fever and FUO may still be suffering from opportunistic conditions classically associated with HIV-related FUO, many others will have causes of fever that are similar to the non-HIV-infected population or to classical FUO. Strategies for diagnosis and treatment of fever and its causes in HIV-infected patients need to take into account this evolution.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The intersection and syndemic interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics have global prevalence with devastating morbidity and massive mortality. Using FDG-PET imaging it was shown that in HIV-infected individuals, involvement of the head and neck precedes that of the chest and of the abdomen. The sequence of lymph node involvement observed suggests the existence of a diffusible activation mediator that may be targeted via therapeutic intervention strategies. Furthermore, the degree of FDG uptake proved directly related to viral load and inversely related to CD4 cell count. Available data in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining cancers further suggest that FDG-PET/CT imaging may be useful for prognostication of cervical cancer and for identifying appropriate sites for biopsy, staging, and monitoring lymphoproliferative activity owing to HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma and multicentric Castleman disease. Inversely, in HIV-associated lymphoma, FDG uptake in HIV-involved lymphoid tissue was shown to reduce the specificity of FDG-PET imaging findings, the effect of which in clinical practice warrants further investigation. In the latter setting, knowledge of viremia appears to be essential for FDG-PET image interpretation. Early HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, formerly known as AIDS dementia complex, proved to be characterized by striatal hypermetabolism and progressive HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder or AIDS dementia complex by a decrease in subcortical and cortical metabolism. In lipodystrophic HIV-infected individuals, lipodystrophy proved associated with increased glucose uptake by adipose tissue, likely resulting from the metabolic stress of adipose tissue in response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Furthermore, ongoing chronic low-grade infection in arteries of HIV-infected individuals could be depicted by FDG-PET/CT imaging. And there is promising data that FDG-PET/CT in HIV may serve as a new marker for the evaluation of thymic function in HIV-infected patients. In the setting of TB, FDG-PET has proven unable to differentiate malignancy from TB in patients presenting with solitary pulmonary nodules, including those suffering from HIV, and thus cannot be used as a tool to reduce futile biopsy or thoracotomy in these patients. In patients presenting with extrapulmonary TB, FDG-PET imaging was found to be significantly more efficient when compared with CT for the identification of more sites of involvement. Thus supporting that FDG-PET/CT can demonstrate lesion extent, serve as guide for biopsy with aspiration for culture, assist surgery planning and contribute to follow-up. Limited available data suggest that quantitative FDG-PET findings may allow for prediction or rapid assessment, at 4 months following treatment instigation, of response to antituberculostatics in TB-infected HIV patients. These results and more recent findings suggest a role for FDG-PET/CT imaging in the evaluation of therapeutic response in TB patients.0Comments 22Citations
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) is a leading cause of death. It attacks the immune system, thereby rendering the infected host susceptible to many HIV-associated infections, malignancies and neurocognitive disorders. The altered immune system affects the way the human host responds to disease, resulting in atypical presentation of these disorders. This presents a diagnostic challenge and the clinician must use all diagnostic avenues available to diagnose and manage these conditions. The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has markedly reduced the mortality associated with HIV infection but has also brought in its wake problems associated with adverse effects or drug interaction and may even modulate some of the HIV-associated disorders to the detriment of the infected human host. Nuclear medicine techniques allow non-invasive visualisation of tissues in the body. By using this principle, pathophysiology in the body can be targeted and the treatment of diseases can be monitored. Being a functional imaging modality, it is able to detect diseases at the molecular level, and thus it has increased our understanding of the immunological changes in the infected host at different stages of the HIV infection. It also detects pathological changes much earlier than conventional imaging based on anatomical changes. This is important in the immunocompromised host as in some of the associated disorders a delay in diagnosis may have dire consequences. Nuclear medicine has played a huge role in the management of many HIV-associated disorders in the past and continues to help in the diagnosis, prognosis, staging, monitoring and assessing the response to treatment of many HIV-associated disorders. As our understanding of the molecular basis of disease increases nuclear medicine is poised to play an even greater role. In this review we highlight the functional basis of the clinicopathological correlation of HIV from a metabolic view and discuss how the use of nuclear medicine techniques, with particular emphasis of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose, may have impact in the setting of HIV. We also provide an overview of the role of nuclear medicine techniques in the management of HIV-associated disorders.0Comments 0Citations