The Viscosity of Liquids. II: The Viscosity-Composition Curve for Ideal Liquid Mixtures

Journal of the American Chemical Society (Impact Factor: 12.11). 05/2002; 39(9). DOI: 10.1021/ja02254a001
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    • "The viscosity of a multi-component system can be assumed to follow linear (simple), reciprocal or logarithmic (Arrhenius) mixing rules, respectively, as follows [Kendall and Monroe (1917)]: "
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    ABSTRACT: Binary mixtures of highly concentrated emulsions (HCE) with three droplet size ratios and different compositions were prepared. It was found that by the proper selection of droplet size ratio and composition of binary mixtures, the shear modulus, viscosity, yield stress, and yield strain can be dropped lower than mixing rules and even primary HCE. This effect is similar to what is known for dispersions with volume fraction less than 0.7 but has not been described for HCE. For such formulations, the caged mechanism of droplets dynamics is not dominant due to the provided free volume that can be occupied by smaller droplets during flow. This is originated from the increase in maximum closest packing and thus more efficient spatial packing. By studying the scaling behavior of shear modulus and yield stress, the significance of interdroplet interaction was distinguished.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Journal of Rheology
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    • "Bingham [12] proposed a new model to calculate the viscosity of mixed liquids, which was also based on ideal solution. A few years later, Kendall and Monroe [13] proposed a model for estimating the viscosity of hydrocarbon mixtures. Walther [14] derived a mixing rule using the form of double logarithmic. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is necessary to reduce the viscosity of heavy crude oil in many cases such as transportation and production of crude oil. One of the methods to reduce the viscosity is the addition of lighter oils. There have been many models to calculate the viscosity of the mixed oil. Unfortunately, there is no universal model for the computation. In this paper, five frequently-used models were chosen and evaluated. Totally 20 mixed oil samples were prepared with different ratios of light to crude oil from different oil wells but the same oil field. The viscosities of the mixtures under the same shear rates of 10 s−1 were measured using a rotation viscometer at the temperatures ranging from 30 °C to 120 °C. After comparing all of the experimental data with the corresponding model values, the best one of the five models for this oil field was determined. Using the experimental data, one model with a better accuracy than the existing models was developed to calculate the viscosity of mixed oils. Another model was derived to predict the viscosity of mixed oils at different temperatures and different values of mixing ratio of light to heavy oil.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Fuel
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigates flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of mixtures of R-134a and an ester based lubricant. Nominal oil concentrations of 1 %, 3%, and 5% are tested. Experimental heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops are collected over a wide range of flow conditions. The two-phase flow regime is observed visually. The oil has a significant impact on both heat transfer and pressure drop. Small concentrations of oil enhance the heat transfer coefficient. The enhancement is observed for all oil concentrations tested; however, the enhancement is decreasing at an oil concentration of 5%. The enhancement is attributed to several factors including the promotion of an annular-type flow pattern at low to moderate flow rates, the degradation of the nucleate boiling contribution at the same flow rates, and foaming at higher flow rates. The presence of small amounts of oil also increases the pressure drop. This increase is seen at all oil concentrations tested. The magnitude of the increase continues to rise with oil concentration. Factors influencing the pressure drop are the increase in the mixture viscosity, the promotion of an annular-type flow pattern, and foaming. Mixture properties are used in both a heat transfer correlation and a pressure drop correlation to determine the effects of the thermophysical property changes of the mixture. The results indicate that in order to accurately predict refrigerant-oil data, effects other than just property variations must be taken into account. General correlations must properly account for the flow regime effects and foaming. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center Project 37
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