Rapid Eye Movement Sleep in Relation to Overweight in Children and Adolescents

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States
Archives of general psychiatry (Impact Factor: 14.48). 09/2008; 65(8):924-32. DOI: 10.1001/archpsyc.65.8.924
Source: PubMed


Short sleep duration is associated with obesity, but few studies have examined the relationship between obesity and specific physiological stages of sleep.
To examine specific sleep stages, including rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stages 1 through 4 of non-REM sleep, in relation to overweight in children and adolescents.
A total of 335 children and adolescents (55.2% male; aged 7-17 years) underwent 3 consecutive nights of standard polysomnography and weight and height assessments as part of a study on the development of internalizing disorders (depression and anxiety).
Body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) z score and weight status (normal, at risk for overweight, overweight) according to the body mass index percentile for age and sex.
The body mass index z score was significantly related to total sleep time (beta = -0.174), sleep efficiency (beta = -0.027), and REM density (beta = -0.256). Compared with normal-weight children, overweight children slept about 22 minutes less and had lower sleep efficiency, shorter REM sleep, lower REM activity and density, and longer latency to the first REM period. After adjustment for demographics, pubertal status, and psychiatric diagnosis, 1 hour less of total sleep was associated with approximately 2-fold increased odds of overweight (odds ratio = 1.85), 1 hour less of REM sleep was associated with about 3-fold increased odds (odds ratio = 2.91), and REM density and activity below the median increased the odds of overweight by 2-fold (odds ratio = 2.18) and 3-fold (odds ratio = 3.32), respectively.
Our results confirm previous epidemiological observations that short sleep time is associated with overweight in children and adolescents. A core aspect of the association between short sleep duration and overweight may be attributed to reduced REM sleep. Further studies are needed to investigate possible mechanisms underpinning the association between diminished REM sleep and endocrine and metabolic changes that may contribute to obesity.

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    • "et al. 2008). Moreover, reduction of sleep duration by 1 h for long periods doubles the probability of being overweight and, more specifically, reduction of REM sleep or REM density triples this probability (Liu et al. 2008). A longitudinal study reveals that short sleep duration (at least 2 h less per day) in 30-month-old babies predicts the occurrence of obesity at 7 years of age (Reilly, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Sleep curtailment is associated with obesity and metabolic changes in adults and children. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immediate and long-term metabolic alterations produced by sleep restriction in pubertal male rats. Twenty-eight-day old male Wistar rats were distributed in two groups: control (CTL) and sleep restricted (SR), which was accomplished by the single platform technique for 18 h/day for 21 days, These groups were further distributed in four periods of assessment: sleep restriction, 1 month, 2 months and 4 months of recovery. Body weight and food intake were monitored during all experimental periods. At the end of each period, blood was collected for metabolic profiling, and the carcasses were processed for measurement of body composition and energy balance. During the sleep restriction period, SR animals consumed less food in the home-cages. This group also displayed lower body weight, body fat, triglycerides and glucose levels than CTL rats. At the 1(st) month of recovery, despite eating as much as CTL rats, SR animals showed greater energy and body weight gain, increased gross food efficiency and decreased energy expenditure. At the 2(nd) and 4(th) months of recovery, the groups were no longer different, except for energy gain and gross food efficiency, which remained higher in SR animals. In conclusion, sleep restriction affected weight gain of young animals, due to reduction of fat stores. Two months were sufficient to recover this deficit, and to reveal that SR rats tended to save more energy and to store more fat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Experimental physiology
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    • "Although a growing body of evidence supports the association of specific sleep architecture variations and metabolic disturbance, other studies have yielded inconsistent results. For example, studies have shown obesity to be associated with both increases and decreases in SWS and REM density [61]. Similar inconsistencies have been found in studies examining sleep architecture in patients with T2DM [62] [63]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Remarkable proportions of individuals diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) have comorbid metabolic disturbances (i.e., obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension, dyslipidemia), and vice versa. Accumulating evidence suggests that common pathophysiologic pathways such as a chronic, low-grade, proinflammatory state mediate this frequent co-occurrence. However, it remains unclear what traits precede the onset and increase the risk for these pathologic states. The aim of our review was to evaluate the evidentiary base supporting the hypothesis that the increased hazard for metabolic disturbance in MDD subpopulations (and vice versa) is mediated in part by endophenotypic variations in sleep architecture.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2013 · Sleep Medicine
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    • "This indicates that daytime REM sleep might impair energy metabolism. Studies demonstrate an association between elevated body weight and decreased nocturnal total sleep and REM sleep in humans (36). Also it was suggested that endocrine changes like reduced leptin and increased ghrelin were more sensitive to reduced REM sleep during the rest phase (36). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Sleep-restriction in humans increases risk for obesity, but previous rodent studies show weight loss following sleep deprivation, possibly due to stressful-methods used to prevent sleep. Obesity-resistant (OR) rats exhibit consolidated-sleep and resistance to weight-gain. We hypothesized that sleep disruption by a less-stressful method would increase body weight, and examined effect of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on body weight in OR and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Design and Methods OR and SD rats (n=12/group) were implanted with transmitters to record sleep/wake. After baseline recording, six SD and six OR rats underwent 8 h PSD during light-phase for 9 d. Sleep was reduced using recordings of random noise. Sleep/wake states were scored as wakefulness (W), slow-wave-sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement-sleep (REMS). Total number of transitions between stages, SWS-delta-power, food intake and body weight were documented. Results Exposure to noise decreased SWS and REMS time, while increasing W time. Sleep-deprivation increased number of transitions between stages and SWS-delta-power. Further, PSD during the rest phase increased recovery-sleep during active phase. The PSD SD and OR rats had greater food intake and body weight compared to controls Conclusions PSD by less-stressful means increases body weight in rats. Also, PSD during rest phase increases active period sleep.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Obesity
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