Article

AMEE Guide no 30: Faculty development: yesterday, today and tomorrow

University of the United Arab Emirates, United Arab Emirates.
Medical Teacher (Impact Factor: 1.68). 02/2008; 30(6):555-84. DOI: 10.1080/01421590802109834
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Medical education has evolved to become a discipline in its own right. With demands on medical faculties to be socially responsible and accountable, there is now increasing pressure for the professionalisation of teaching practice. Developing a cadre of professional and competent teachers, educators, researchers and leaders for their new roles and responsibilities in medical education requires faculty development. Faculty development is, however, not an easy task. It requires supportive institutional leadership, appropriate resource allocation and recognition for teaching excellence. This guide is designed to assist those charged with preparing faculty for their many new roles in teaching and education in both medical and allied health science education. It provides a historical perspective of faculty development and draws on the medical, health science and higher education literature to provide a number of frameworks that may be useful for designing tailored faculty development programmes. These frameworks can be used by faculty developers to systematically plan, implement and evaluate their staff development programmes. This guide concludes with some of the major trends and driving forces in medical education that we believe will shape future faculty development.

    • "It is widely recognized that effective clinicians are not automatically effective teachers and that faculty development is necessary to train teaching competencies [1] [2] [3]. Most universities have implemented faculty development programs following the recommended guidelines for training effective teachers [4] [5] [6] [7] [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a descriptive tool for peer review of clinical teaching skills. Two analogies framed our research: (1) between the patient-centered and the learner-centered approach; (2) between the structures of clinical encounters (Calgary-Cambridge communication model) and teaching sessions. Method: During the course of one year, each step of the action research was carried out in collaboration with twelve clinical teachers from an outpatient general internal medicine clinic and with three experts in medical education. The content validation consisted of a literature review, expert opinion and the participatory research process. Interrater reliability was evaluated by three clinical teachers coding thirty audiotaped standardized learner-teacher interactions. Results: This tool contains sixteen items covering the process and content of clinical supervisions. Descriptors define the expected teaching behaviors for three levels of competence. Interrater reliability was significant for eleven items (Kendall's coefficient p<0.05). Conclusion: This peer assessment tool has high reliability and can be used to facilitate the acquisition of teaching skills.
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    • "Excellence in clinical teaching requires knowledge and skill beyond that of one's clinical specialty. Faculty members must be prepared for their teaching role and faculty development programs play a vital part in improving faculty teaching effectiveness (Steinert et al. 2006; McLean et al. 2008; Ramani & Leinster 2008; Srinivasan et al. 2011). The majority of faculty development offerings are designed to improve teaching skills. "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose: One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. Methods: We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. Results: We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Conclusions: Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Medical Teacher
    • "Medical professionals are expected to teach, yet many of them receive little or no formal educational training. Notably, there is an increasing political, public and scientific demand for proof of professionalism in higher education, aiming at quality assurance (QA) and development in medical education – in Germany as well as in other parts of the world (Ministerium fuer Wissenschaft, Forschung und Kunst Baden-Wuerttemberg 2001; Kultusministerkonferenz (KMK) 2005; McLean et al. 2008; Steinert 2012; Ross et al. 2014). A wide and heterogeneous range of qualifications are in fact available to medical teaching staff in Germany (Lammerding-Koeppel et al. 2006a; Nikendei et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: An increasing demand for proof of professionalism in higher education strives for quality assurance (QA) and improvement in medical education. A wide range of teacher trainings is available to medical staff in Germany. Cross-institutional approval of individual certificates is usually a difficult and time consuming task for institutions. In case of non-acceptance it may hinder medical teachers in their professional mobility. The faculties of medicine aimed to develop a comprehensive national framework, to promote standards for formal faculty development programmes across institutions and to foster professionalization of medical teaching. Addressing the above challenges in a joint approach, the faculties set up the national MedicalTeacherNetwork (MDN). Great importance is attributed to work out nationally concerted standards for faculty development and an agreed-upon quality control process across Germany. Medical teachers benefit from these advantages due to portability of faculty development credentials from one faculty of medicine to another within the MDN system. The report outlines the process of setting up the MDN and the national faculty development programme in Germany. Success factors, strengths and limitations are discussed from an institutional, individual and general perspective. Faculties engaged in similar developments might be encouraged to transfer the MDN concept to their countries.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Medical Teacher
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