Vitamin D Deficiency in Children and Its Management: Review of Current Knowledge and Recommendations

Pediatric Endocrine and Neuroendocrine Units, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.47). 09/2008; 122(2):398-417. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-1894
Source: PubMed


Given the recent spate of reports of vitamin D deficiency, there is a need to reexamine our understanding of natural and other sources of vitamin D, as well as mechanisms whereby vitamin D synthesis and intake can be optimized. This state-of-the-art report from the Drug and Therapeutics Committee of the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society was aimed to perform this task and also reviews recommendations for sun exposure and vitamin D intake and possible caveats associated with these recommendations.

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    • "Two independent pathways lead to vitamin D synthesis: the photochemical action of solar ultraviolet B (UVB) light in the skin and specific dietary sources. Vitamin D from supplements can be ingested as vitamin D2 from plant sources or vitamin D3 from animal sources [8]. Vitamin D3 is transported to the liver and is converted to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD.
    Full-text · Article · May 2015 · Journal of Immunology Research
    • "We could not determine the exact role of vitamin D because the sample size of subjects who had serum 25OHD measurements precluded us from any meaningful analysis. Nonetheless, using the pediatric definitions for vitamin D sufficiency [30], children taking SSRIs had normal mean 25OHD concentrations at 28.7 ng/mL, with the lowest reported value at 13 ng/mL. In contrast, many subjects who were not receiving SSRIs had severe vitamin D deficiency and the mean serum 25OHD level among SSRI non-users was lower at 19.6 ng/mL. "
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    ABSTRACT: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are commonly prescribed medications to treat depression and anxiety. SSRIs exert their effects by inhibiting the serotonin transporter and modulating extracellular serotonin levels, a neurotransmitter that has been shown to affect bone metabolism in animals. Studies in adults suggest a negative association between SSRI use and bone mineral density (BMD), greater rates of bone loss with SSRI use and increased risk of fractures. However, the results on bone mass have been inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a dearth of studies examining an association between SSRI use and bone mass in the pediatric and adolescent age group.
    No preview · Article · May 2015 · Bone
    • "The cases with low serum 25(OH)D levels were given replacement treatment. A correction protocol which was based on scientific literature and thought to be most appropriate for the socioeconomic and geographic conditions of region was used in the study (Bikle, 2010; Greenbaum, 2011; Misra et al., 2008). For replacement treatment, the patients with serum 25(OH) D levels ,15 ng ml 21 (Vitamin D deficiency) were administered 5000 IU/day vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol ), and patients with serum 25(OH)D levels of 15– 20 ng ml 21 (Vitamin D insufficiency) were given 400 IU/day vitamin D 3 (cholecalciferol). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the effects of Vitamin D on cognitive development and autism. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between autism, cognitive developmental delay and behavioral problems. We also aimed to examine the possible mechanisms of interaction between nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels. Methods: Sixty-four toddlers with developmental delay participated in the study. In the initial assessment, the cases were subjected to a psychiatric examination and developmental tests. Vitamin D, GDNF, and NGF levels were observed. Patients who had low vitamin D levels received replacement treatment. Six months later, the same measures were repeated. Results: Significant progress in autistic symptoms and development scores were determined for the group receiving vitamin D replacement. A negative correlation was found between vitamin D levels and NGF levels. Development scores and GDNF levels were found to be positively correlated in patients who were diagnosed with only cognitive development delay. Conclusions: Measuring vitamin D levels and replacing them if they are low may be beneficial in children with developmental delay, particularly those who also have autistic spectrum disorders. NGF may be more related to autism spectrum disorders, while GDNF seems to be more related with global developmental delay.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2014 · International Journal of Developmental Disabilities
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