Perceived Norms and Mental Help Seeking Among African American College Students
In general, African Americans do not seek mental health treatment from formal sources at the same rates as Caucasians. The present study examined whether culturally relevant factors (i.e., perceived negative peer and family norms about help seeking) influence help-seeking intentions in a late adolescent African-American sample (n = 219) and whether there is a gender difference in the predictive strength between peer and family norms. Participants were primarily female (n = 144). Multiple regressions were implemented to explore the relationship between perceived norms and help-seeking intentions. Analyses revealed that males had higher perceived peer norms, and family norms were a stronger predictor of intentions than peer norms for females. Individually, peer norms and family norms were related to help-seeking intentions. When perceived norms were analyzed together, only negative family norms were related to intentions. Findings suggest that incorporating family norms is critical when developing interventions to increase formal service utilization among African Americans.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined changes in treatment engagement of 437 youths and their caregivers receiving mental health services in the United States. The youth sample had an average age of 12.03 years (SD = 2.98). Nearly two-thirds (64.1%) of the youth sample was male and approximately the same proportion was Caucasian. Youths were diagnosed primarily with externalizing (50.1%) and internalizing (46.0%) disorders. Most youths (86%) received services from intensive settings (i.e., behavioral health rehabilitation, treatment foster care, family-based services) that provide care beyond the scope of services provided to youths receiving services in traditional outpatient settings. Using KIDnet, an electronic outcomes management system, youths and their caregivers reported on three domains of treatment engagement: therapeutic alliance, satisfaction with services, and treatment participation at each 90-day reporting cycle until treatment termination. Youths and caregivers receiving services from high intensity treatment settings reported significantly lower initial engagement compared to youths and caregivers receiving less intensive outpatient services. Regardless of setting, treatment engagement reported by youths and caregivers increased over time. These promising findings suggest that families receiving intensive treatment develop connections to service providers and hold positive perceptions of services over time. These results provide the foundation for future research to examine the practices that are associated with changes in treatment engagement over time.0Comments 1Citation
- "themes into therapy, considering the effect of stigma, and understanding how values emphasized in mental health services may conflict with cultural values and practices, may be important when working with clients who are racial and ethnic minorities (Asnaani & Hofmann, 2012; Barksdale & Molock, 2009; Liddle, Jackson-Gilfort, & Marvel, 2006; McCabe, Yeh, Lau, & Argote, 2012). For caregivers, only youth's diagnosis was found to influence initial levels of caregiver-reported engagement. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated the relationship between religiosity and conduct problems in a racially diverse sample of high school aged adolescents (ages 13–19) who attended public schools in a large metropolitan area. The results of the study found racial and gender differences in religiosity: African American adolescents were more likely to attend church, describe themselves as very religious and use Collaborative and Deferring religious coping styles; they were less likely to use Self-Directing religious coping styles when compared to Caucasian adolescents. Females were more likely to be involved in church activities, use a Collaborative religious coping style and tended to be less likely to use a Self-Directing religious coping style when compared to males. The results of multiple regression analyses, after controlling for race, gender, and self-reported religiousness found that Self-Directing and Deferring religious coping styles were risk factors for conduct problems; there was no relationship between Collaborative religious coping and conduct problems. The findings from the study provide additional support for the importance of considering religiosity, race and gender when examining mental health outcomes in adolescents and have implications for the development of mental health interventions for adolescents.4Comments 1Citation
- "were used to assess public religious participation for this study. This measure has been used in studies with both African American adolescents (Molock et al. 1994) and young adult samples (Barksdale and Molock 2009) and has been found to be highly correlated with other measures of religiosity (e.g., religious coping; self-reported level of religiousness). The Cronbach's alpha was calculated to evaluate the internal reliability the entire scale, yielding an estimate of .86. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A comparison of institutional enrollment data and counseling center service utilization data at 66 universities showed that neither ethnic minority students nor European American students under- or overutilized counseling services (Study 1). Data from Study 2 examining students in the general campus bodies at 45 institutions indicated that utilization of counseling center services for students of various ethnicities was predicted by the ethnic composition of the counseling center staff. Among students of color, utilization of campus counseling services was predicted by greater psychological distress, less family support, and a history of previous psychological problems.0Comments 10Citations
- "First, contrary to popular perception and previous research (Davidson et al., 2004), utilization of campus counseling services for African American, Asian American, European American, Latino(a)/Hispanic, and American Indian students was consistent with overall enrollments across 66 colleges. Despite sound theoretical reasons that students of color might hesitate to seek university counseling services (Barksdale & Molock, 2009; Braithwaite et al., 2009; Whaley, 2001), data from the present study indicated that counseling services were not significantly underutilized by racial/ethnic minority students. One reason for the discrepancy between findings from the present study and previous research is that this study was comprehensive, gathering data from more than five dozen institutions rather than relying on data from a single counseling center. "