Exposure to hexachlorobenzene during pregnancy increases the risk of overweight in children aged 6 years

Article (PDF Available)inActa Paediatrica 97(10):1465-9 · November 2008with55 Reads
DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00937.x · Source: PubMed
Abstract
To determine whether prenatal exposure to hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has potential adverse effects on child's weight and body mass index (BMI) in a general population with no local pollution sources. Starting from mid 1997, all mothers presenting for antenatal exposure in Menorca were recruited. Subsequently, 482 children were enrolled. HCB was measured in cord blood. Weight and height were measured at birth and at age 6.5 years. Children with HCB levels higher than 1.03 ng/mL in cord blood were 1.14 kg (0.38) heavier and had a higher BMI (beta= 0.80 (0.34)) than children with HCB levels lower than 0.46 ng/mL. No statistically significant associations were found in height. Children in the higher exposure group of HCB had an increased risk of 2.5 and 3.0 of being overweight and obese. Children from normal weight mothers also presented an increased risk of having higher BMI with increasing concentrations of HCB in cord serum. Prenatal exposure to HCB is associated with an increase in BMI and weight at age 6.5 years. Further studies with larger samples and longer follow-up are needed to confirm these results.
    • "Karmaus et al. [54] observed an increase in BMI of 1.65 kg/m 2 in offspring of mothers having maternal serum levels of DDE of 1.5 – 2.9 μg/L compared to offspring of mothers having levels of < 1.5 μg/L DDE. Smink et al. [36] measured the HCB in cord blood and related this to BMI at the age of 6 years. Children with levels higher than 1.03 ng/mL HCB had a BMI which was 0.95 kg/m 2 higher than that of children with levels lower than 0.46 ng/mL HCB. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The presence of chemicals in the environment is ubiquitous. Human biomonitoring studies have shown that various chemicals can be detected in the majority of the population, including pregnant women. These compounds may pass the placenta, and reach the fetus. This early life exposure in particular may be detrimental as some chemicals may disrupt the endocrine system, which is involved in various processes during development. The LINC study is a prospective birth cohort designed to study associations between early life environmental exposures and child health, including growth and neurodevelopment. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of this cohort. Methods and design: Recruitment for this cohort has started in 2011 in three Dutch areas and is still ongoing. To date over 300 mother-child pairs have been included. Women are preferably included during the first trimester of pregnancy. Major congenital anomalies and twin births are reasons for exclusion. To assess exposure to environmental chemicals, cord blood, placenta, meconium and vernix are collected. Parents collect urine of the child shortly after birth and breast milk in the second month of life. Exposure to a broad range of environmental chemicals are determined in cord plasma and breast milk. Furthermore various hormones, including leptin and cortisone, are determined in cord plasma, and in heel prick blood spots (thyroxine). Data on anthropometry of the child is collected through midwives and youth health care centres on various time points until the child is 18 months of age. Furthermore cognitive development is monitored by means of the van Wiechen scheme, and information on behavioral development is collected by means of the infant behavior questionnaire and the child behavior checklist. When the child is 12 months of age, a house visit is scheduled to assess various housing characteristics, as well as hand-to-mouth behavior of the child. At this visit exposure of the child to flame retardants (with endocrine disrupting properties) in house dust is determined by means of body wipes. They are furthermore also measured in a saliva sample of the child. Next to these measurements, women receive questionnaires each trimester regarding amongst others lifestyle of the parents, general health of the parents and the child, and mental state of the mother. Discussion: This study was approved by the medical ethics committee of the VU University Medical Centre. Consent for the infant is given by the mother, who is specifically required to give consent for both herself as well as her child. Results will be published regardless of the findings of this study, and will be widely disseminated among related medical stakeholders (e.g. midwives and pediatricians), policy makers, and the general public.
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    • "Numerous studies have shown that prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldi chloroethylene (DDE), a DDT metabolite, is associated with rapid weight gain in children (Iszatt et al. 2015; Valvi et al. 2014) and that higher levels of DDE in the blood of pregnant mothers is associated with obesity in the adult offspring (Karmaus et al. 2009). Similar associations have been seen with other pollutants such as hexachloro benzene (HCB) (Smink et al. 2008; Valvi et al. 2014), as well as mixtures of organochlorines (Agay-Shay et al. 2015 ). The findings from these studies support the hypothesis that the obesogenic effects noted in experimental animals are also relevant for humans. "
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    Full-text · Article · May 2016
    • "evidence is scarce and is mainly focused on adult populations (de Cock and van de Bor, 2014). Epidemiological studies on early-life chemical exposures that may be obesogenic have mainly focused on the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) (Cupul-Uicab et al., 2010 Delvaux et al., 2014; Garced et al., 2012; Mendez et al., 2011; Smink et al., 2008; Tang-Peronard et al., 2014; Vafeiadi et al., 2015; Valvi et al., 2014 Valvi et al., , 2012 Verhulst et al., 2009; Warner et al., 2013 Warner et al., , 2014 ) and only few have examined other non-persistent ubiquitous chemicals, such as phthalates (Kim and Park, 2014) and bisphenol A (BPA) (Liu and Peterson, 2015; Tang-Peronard et al., 2011). BPA is a high-production non-persistent chemical used extensively worldwide to produce polycarbonate plastics and resins which are found in many consumer products, including toys, polycarbonate water bottles and food storage containers, epoxylined food cans, dental sealants, water supply pipes, medical tubing , cigarette filters, and thermal receipts (Braun et al., 2011; Ehrlich et al., 2014; Vandenberg et al., 2007 ). "
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