Diagnosis of sarcoidosis

Department of Pneumology/Allergy, Ruhrlandklinik, Medical Faculty, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
Current opinion in pulmonary medicine (Impact Factor: 2.76). 10/2008; 14(5):455-61. DOI: 10.1097/MCP.0b013e3283056a61
Source: PubMed


To describe the recent advances in the diagnostic procedures for sarcoidosis and explore future directions.
Novel imaging techniques have been explored in sarcoidosis, such as positron emission tomography using L-[3-F]-alpha-methyltyrosine, which is more specific for malignancy than F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. The combined modality of L-[3-F]-alpha-methyltyrosine-positron emission tomography with fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography could successfully discriminate sarcoidosis from malignancy. The finding of delayed enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging could identify cardiac involvement of sarcoidosis with higher sensitivity than echocardiography, thallium scintigraphy, and gallium scintigraphy. Endobronchial ultrasonograpy-guided transbronchial needle aspiration is a safe and useful tool for diagnosing sarcoidosis with a diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 85-93, 78-89, and 92-96%, respectively. Developments in genetics have demonstrated that 99% of the human leukocyte antigen DRB1*0301/DQB1*0201-positive patients with Löfgren's syndrome show a spontaneous remission, in contrast to only 55% of the human leukocyte antigen DRB1*0301/DQB1*0201-negative patients. These alleles could be novel promising factors for discriminating a prognosis in Löfgren's syndrome.
Recent development including novel imaging techniques, novel biopsy procedures, and genetic analyses could be of value for the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

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    • "Patients with sarcoidosis, all non-smokers, were encompassed as a comparison group. The BALf examination is decisive in smoking-related interstitial lung diseases [8] and in sarcoidosis [9]; in other lung diseases is regarded as a supplementary method. The usefulness of BALf examination as low invasive and well standardized technique in the diagnosis of diffuse lung diseases was widely documented [10-13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Exposure to inhaled endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) of Gram-negative bacteria commonly found in indoor environments and assessed in secondary tobacco smoke, has been associated with airway inflammation and asthma exacerbation. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALf) from patients with interstitial lung diseases (sarcoidosis, lung fibrosis, smoking-related ILD, eosinophilic disorders) was analyzed for the markers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin). Methods BALf was obtained from patients with diffuse lung diseases: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (n = 42), sarcoidosis (n = 22), smoking-related-ILD (n = 11) and eosinophilic disorders (n = 8). Total cell count and differential cell count were performed. In addition, samples were analyzed for 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFAs) of 10–18 carbon chain lengths, as markers of LPS, by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Results The highest LPS concentration was found in patients with eosinophilic disorders and the lowest in patients with sarcoidosis (p< 0.05) followed by the lung fibrosis and the sr-ILD patients. The difference between LPS in BALf with extremely high eosinophil proportion (> 25%) and those with lower proportion was also significant (p = 0.014). A significant correlation was found between LPS and eosinophils, but not between LPS and lymphocytes, neutrophils, or macrophages count. Conclusions A positive relationship of LPS and eosinophilic pulmonary disorders may be linked to a persistent eosinophil activation mediated by Th2 pathway: chronic endotoxin exposure would intensify Th2 pathway resulting in fibrosis and, at the same time, eosinophil stimulation, and hence in eosinophilic pulmonary disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2012 · Multidisciplinary respiratory medicine
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    • "of progression to a chronic and potentially fibrotic form is still unclear and up to 30% of patients have chronic course of the lung disease, resulting in progressive loss of lung function [6] [7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have previously shown a different local and systemic angiogenic profile of CXC chemokines in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) patients compared to sarcoidosis. In particular, sarcoidosis showed an angiostatic microenvironment, as compared with the angiogenic cytokine milieu seen in IPF. Purpose of the Study. Our aim was to further investigate the aforementioned finding by measuring the expression of different chemokines in granulomatous and fibrotic diseases. We estimated the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its high-affinity receptor, Flt-1 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with IPF and pulmonary sarcoidosis. We have also investigated the mRNA expression of angiogenetic chemokines' receptors such as CXCR2 and CXCR3 and the biological axis of stromal derived factor-1 alpha (SDF-1 alpha or CXCL12 alpha/CXCL12 beta) and receptor, CXCR4. We studied prospectively three groups of patients: (i) one group of 18 patients with IPF, (ii) one group of 16 patients with sarcoidosis, and (iii) 10 normal subjects. A statistically significant increase has been detected in VEGF mRNA expression in IPF in comparison with pulmonary sarcoidosis (P = .03). In addition, a significant increase has been measured in CXCL12 alpha in sarcoidosis in comparison to IPF (P = .02). Moreover, a statistically significant decrease has been found in Flt-1 protein levels in pulmonary sarcoidosis in comparison with IPF (P = .03). A significant increase in VEGF (P = .03) and CXCR4 (P = .03) mRNA levels has been also detected in sarcoidosis' patients when compared with healthy controls. Our data suggest that increased expression of Flt-1 and downregulation of CXCL12 alpha in IPF may further support the hypothesis of a different angiogenetic profile between fibrotic and granulomatous diseases. However, further studies are needed in order to better investigate these enigmatic diseases.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2009 · Clinical and Developmental Immunology
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    • "Immune suppression is seem to be the main factor in these cases. HD and sarcoidosis have several similarities such as cutaneous anergy, peripheral lymphopenia and prominent infiltration of helper T cells in diseased tissue [19] [20]. "

    Full-text · Article · Nov 2002 · Leukemia Research
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