Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates: risk factors and diagnostic and clinical procedure

Klinika Pediatrii i Endokrynologii, Akademia Medyczna, ul. Marszalkowska 24, Warszawa, Poland.
Medycyna wieku rozwojowego 01/2008; 12(1):457-62.
Source: PubMed


Prenatal and neonatal adrenal haemorrhage is being increasingly frequently reported. We present a group of 13 neonates with adrenal haemorrhage, hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology of Warsaw Medical University from 2003 to 2007.
of this study was to analyse: the perinatal history, haemorrhage predisposing factors, its size, localization and progress estimated by ultrasonography, as well as clinical, biochemical and hormonal findings indicating adrenal insufficiency.
the study group comprised 13 neonates hospitalised in the Department of Paediatrics and Endocrinology, Warsaw Medical University, from 2003 to 2007, due to adrenal haemorrhage diagnosed by ultrasonography in the first week of life.
all neonates were born at term, there was a male predominance. Twelve neonates had risk factors such as: birth trauma, intrauterine infection, perinatal asphyxia. No risk factors were found only in 1 neonate. One neonate had bilateral adrenal haemorrhage, others were unilateral - predominantly right-sided. In the study group clinical presentation was asymptomatic in 3 neonates, 1 of the patients had anaemia, 9 persistent jaundice, 2 bluish discoloration of the scrotum. Only one patient with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage showed sings of adrenal insufficiency and supplementation with glyco- and mineralcorticoids was necessary. Complete resolution of adrenal haemorrhage was reported after an average time of 3.5 months of observation.
1. Adrenal haemorrhage in neonates rarely leads to development of adrenal insufficiency. 2. In neonates with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage an extended hormonal diagnosis is required. 3. All patients require a systematic clinical and sonographic follow-up. Unilateral haemorrhage should be differentiated from neuroblastoma. 4. Scrotal haematoma may be a symptom of adrenal haemorrhage.

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    • "Because adrenal bleeding may remain asymptomatic, the real occurrence is probably higher [2]. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is frequently associated with birth trauma, perinatal asphyxia , intrauterine infection, coagulation defects and thromboembolism [1] [3]. Adrenal hemorrhage usually presents with neonatal jaundice, paleness and/or flank mass, discoloration of the scrotum, anemia and adrenal insufficiency [4] [5] [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage is frequently associated with birth trauma, perinatal asphyxia, intrauterine infection, co- agulation defects and thromboembolism. It has varied clinical presentation depending on degree of hemorrhage and amount of adrenal cortex compromised by hemorrhage. The most common clinical presentations are persistent jaundice and flank mass. We report a case of left sided adrenal hemorrhage in a breech delivered male neonate with perinatal asphyxia presented with anemia and fever. On further evaluation, he was also having moderate communicating hydro- cephalus secondary to intraventricular hemorrhage. The adrenal hemorrhage was managed conservatively. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound showed resolving adrenal hemorrhage. Right ventriculoperitoneal shunt was done for hydro- cephalus. Postoperative course was uneventful. The patient is asymptomatic at follow-up. Keywords: Adrenal Hemorrhage; Neonatal Anemia; Hydrocephalus; Intraventricular Hemorrhage
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    ABSTRACT: Sometimes in the course of care in a neonatal intensive care unit, there may be a rush to intervene in cases where limited intervention is actually the correct course. One such example is that of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We present the case of a male term neonate with shock, metabolic acidosis, distended abdomen, and falling hematocrit. His prenatal and delivery histories were uneventful except for a nuchal cord. Apgar scores were 9 and 9. Because of his dramatic presentation, certain members of the medical team suggested immediate surgical intervention. However, a calm and careful evaluation revealed the true diagnosis and course of action. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed a mass between the liver and kidney, but the origin was difficult to identify. A computed tomography scan supported the diagnosis of right adrenal hemorrhage. His serum cortisol level was normal. The patient was managed conservatively and discharged home after a 1-week stay in the hospital. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound showed resolving adrenal hemorrhage with minimal calcification. A review of the pertinent literature is presented. Physicians should remember adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating a newborn infant with shock, acidosis, abdominal distention, and falling hematocrit and that conservative management is usually indicated.
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of calcified lesions in the adrenal gland requires a careful endocrine, microbiological and radiological evaluation combined with detailed clinical history to confirm its non-evolving nature and avoid unnecessary surgery. We report an 18-month-old male child hospitalized with an incidentally discovered calcification in his right adrenal gland. All biochemical data as well as liver, renal and adrenal function tests were normal. Abdominal computed tomography scan showed that the right adrenal gland was completely occupied by a large calcification, which was put in relationship with an undetected adrenal distress during the neonatal period, as macrosomy and clavicle fracture of the newborn could let us suggest. Our report describes the diagnostic approach to disclose the nature of a suprarenal mass, which is particularly problematic when this is found incidentally. In addition, an extensive review of the medical literature dealing with non-traumatic adrenal calcifications and haemorrhages in children has been carried out.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2010 · Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism: JPEM
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