Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women

Slone Epidemiology Center, BostonUniversity, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Archives of internal medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 08/2008; 168(14):1487-92. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.168.14.1487
Source: PubMed


Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an increasingly serious health problem among African American women. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks was associated with an increased risk of diabetes in 2 studies but not in a third; however, to our knowledge, no data are available on African Americans regarding this issue. Our objective was to examine the association between consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, weight gain, and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women.
A prospective follow-up study of 59,000 African American women has been in progress since 1995. Participants reported on food and beverage consumption in 1995 and 2001. Biennial follow-up questionnaires ascertained new diagnoses of type 2 diabetes. The present analyses included 43,960 women who gave complete dietary and weight information and were free from diabetes at baseline. We identified 2713 incident cases of type 2 diabetes mellitus during 338,884 person-years of follow-up. The main outcome measure was the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus was higher with higher intake of both sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks. After adjustment for confounding variables including other dietary factors, the incidence rate ratio for 2 or more soft drinks per day was 1.24 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.45). For fruit drinks, the comparable incidence rate ratio was 1.31 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.52). The association of diabetes with soft drink consumption was almost entirely mediated by body mass index, whereas the association with fruit drink consumption was independent of body mass index.
Regular consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fruit drinks is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. While there has been increasing public awareness of the adverse health effects of soft drinks, little attention has been given to fruit drinks, which are often marketed as a healthier alternative to soft drinks.

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    • "The available systematic review evidence is conflicting and presents with several methodological issues, making firm conclusions difficult [26]. The definition of what constitutes an SSB, for example, may vary and may not be explicitly described [13,17,18,27,28]. Reviews may not have accounted for all variables that can confound associations between SSB consumption and health outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundCardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes are examples of chronic diseases that impose significant morbidity and mortality in the general population worldwide. Most chronic diseases are associated with underlying preventable risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, high blood glucose or glucose intolerance, high lipid levels, physical inactivity, excessive sedentary behaviours, and overweight/obesity. The occurrence of intermediate outcomes during childhood increases the risk of disease in adulthood. Sugar-sweetened beverages are known to be significant sources of additional caloric intake, and given recent attention to their contribution in the development of chronic diseases, a systematic review is warranted. We will assess whether the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages in children is associated with adverse health outcomes and what the potential moderating factors are.Methods/DesignOf interest are studies addressing sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, taking a broad perspective. Both direct consumption studies as well as those evaluating interventions that influence consumption (e.g. school policy, educational) will be relevant. Non-specific or multi-faceted behavioural, educational, or policy interventions may also be included subject to the level of evidence that exists for the other interventions/exposures. Comparisons of interest and endpoints of interest are pre-specified. We will include randomized controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, interrupted time series studies, controlled before-after studies, prospective and retrospective comparative cohort studies, case–control studies, and nested case–control designs. The MEDLINE®, Embase, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL, ERIC, and PsycINFO® databases and grey literature sources will be searched. The processes for selecting studies, abstracting data, and resolving conflicts are described. We will assess risk of bias using design-specific tools. To determine sets of confounding variables that should be adjusted for, we have developed causal directed acyclic graphs and will use those to inform our risk of bias assessments. Meta-analysis will be conducted where appropriate; parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity and effect modifiers are pre-specified. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used to determine the quality of evidence for outcomes.Systematic review registrationPROSPERO CRD42014009641.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Systematic Reviews
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    • "Excluded were publications whose focus was not dietary sugar intake and T2D and those that were case–control, cross-sectional and ecologic studies (N = 56). Full-text review of the 90 publications identified 22 primary research publications of the relationship between dietary sugar intake and T2D [28-49] and one meta-analysis with previously unpublished data [50]. A bibliography search of systematic reviews and meta-analyses did not identify any more potentially eligible titles [50-52]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Assessment of design heterogeneity conducted prior to meta-analysis is infrequently reported; it is often presented post hoc to explain statistical heterogeneity. However, design heterogeneity determines the mix of included studies and how they are analyzed in a meta-analysis, which in turn can importantly influence the results. The goal of this work is to introduce ways to improve the assessment and reporting of design heterogeneity prior to statistical summarization of epidemiologic studies. Methods In this paper, we use an assessment of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as an example to show how a technique called ‘evidence mapping’ can be used to organize studies and evaluate design heterogeneity prior to meta-analysis.. Employing a systematic and reproducible approach, we evaluated the following elements across 11 selected cohort studies: variation in definitions of SSB, T2D, and co-variables, design features and population characteristics associated with specific definitions of SSB, and diversity in modeling strategies. Results Evidence mapping strategies effectively organized complex data and clearly depicted design heterogeneity. For example, across 11 studies of SSB and T2D, 7 measured diet only once (with 7 to 16 years of disease follow-up), 5 included primarily low SSB consumers, and 3 defined the study variable (SSB) as consumption of either sugar or artificially-sweetened beverages. This exercise also identified diversity in analysis strategies, such as adjustment for 11 to 17 co-variables and a large degree of fluctuation in SSB-T2D risk estimates depending on variables selected for multivariable models (2 to 95% change in the risk estimate from the age-adjusted model). Conclusions Meta-analysis seeks to understand heterogeneity in addition to computing a summary risk estimate. This strategy effectively documents design heterogeneity, thus improving the practice of meta-analysis by aiding in: 1) protocol and analysis planning, 2) transparent reporting of differences in study designs, and 3) interpretation of pooled estimates. We recommend expanding the practice of meta-analysis reporting to include a table that summarizes design heterogeneity. This would provide readers with more evidence to interpret the summary risk estimates.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Systematic Reviews
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    • "In 2004, Bray et al. (2004) published a study linking the consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages to obesity. Since that publication, other epidemiologic studies have shown that chronic consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages are associated with greater rates of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (Bray et al. 2004; Bremer et al. 2010; Fung et al. 2009; Montonen et al. 2007; Palmer et al. 2008; Schulze et al. 2004; Yoshida et al. 2007). Experimental studies have compared the metabolic health effects of different sugar-sweetened beverages O including pure glucose, pure fructose , HFCS, and sucrose O at various doses of sugar intake and consumed for various lengths of time (1 day to 10 weeks) (Aeberli et al. 2011, 2013; Cox et al. 2011, 2012; Le et al. 2006; Stanhope et al. 2008, 2009, 2011a, 2011b; Swarbrick et al. 2008; Teff et al. 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)-sweetened beverages are associated with an increased risk of chronic disease, but it is not clear whether obese (Ob) individuals are more susceptible to the detrimental effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to examine the endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming HFCS-sweetened beverages, and whether weight classification (normal weight (NW) vs. Ob) influences these effects. Ten NW and 10 Ob men and women who habitually consumed ≤355 mL per day of sugar-sweetened beverages were included in this study. Initially, the participants underwent a 4-h mixed-meal test after a 12-h overnight fast to assess insulin sensitivity, pancreatic and gut endocrine responses, insulin secretion and clearance, and glucose, triacylglycerol, and cholesterol responses. Next, the participants consumed their normal diet ad libitum, with 1065 mL per day (117 g·day(-1)) of HFCS-sweetened beverages added for 2 weeks. After the intervention, the participants repeated the mixed-meal test. HFCS-sweetened beverages did not significantly alter body weight, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion or clearance, or endocrine, glucose, lipid, or cholesterol responses in either NW or Ob individuals. Regardless of previous diet, Ob individuals, compared with NW individuals, had ∼28% lower physical activity levels, 6%-9% lower insulin sensitivity, 12%-16% lower fasting high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, 84%-144% greater postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, and 46%-79% greater postprandial insulin concentrations. Greater insulin responses were associated with reduced insulin clearance, and there were no differences in insulin secretion. These findings suggest that weight classification does not influence the short-term endocrine and metabolic effects of HFCS-sweetened beverages.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Applied Physiology Nutrition and Metabolism
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