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Investigation of Sway Back Posture Prevalence and Alignment of Spine and Lower Limb Joints in this Deformity.

Authors:
  • (SBMU) Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences

Abstract

Objective: Sway Back posture is one of the most common postural deformity.This study aimed to define Sway back posture prevalence and quantitatively meassure of the joints alignment in it. Materials & Methods: In this cross sectional descriptive study The posture of 51 female students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences at an average of 22.05±2.44 years was evaluated. First, subjects completed a general characteristics questionnaire. Scond, the amount of their pelvic sway was measured by a grid paper and plumb line. When the plumb line passed the more than 3cm posterior to mid point of ASIS (Anterior Superior Iliac Spine) - PSIS (Posterior Superior Jliac Spine) axis, the subjects were categorized in Sway back posture. Then with goniometer alignment of hip, knee and ankle joints were measured. Also, the pelvic inclination and kyphosis and lordosis angles were measured with a Pelvic Inclinometer and Flexicurve Ruler, respectively. Results: The mean value of lordosis in Sway back posture group was greater than normal group (p = 0.004). Though the amount of kyphosis and anterior tilt were greater in Sway back posture than normal group, but did not show any significant difference between them (P>0.05). In Sway back posture group, the hip and knee joints tend to flexion. The ankle showed dorsiflexion which had a significant corelation with the pelvic sway. The prevalence of this deformity was 39.2% and was more common than other spinal deformities in young female subjects. Conclusion: This study indicated that the prevalence of the Sway back posture in the population of our study is high (39.21%). Also, indicated that the lordose increased and the pelvic displaced to anterior without noticeable changing in alignment of the thorasic region, joint of lower extremity and pelvic inclination.
kôoû ø×Pî yíBoû kôï OBGvPBó 5831 yíBoû ìvévê 52
Gpouþ yýõÑ Kõu`pkcab yawS ô OÓýýpAR AüXBk ylû ko
ôÂÏýQ GhzùBÿ ìhPéØ uPõó ÖÛpAR, èãò ô ì×B¾ê Aðl
OdPBðþ ko Aüò AgPçë| Kõu`p
*èýç| uýípÕ1, ìùñBqgýpgõAû2, kÞPp ìýñõ géhBèþ qAôüú3
13
1– ÞBoyñBx Aoyl ÖýrüõOpAKþ
2– ÞBoyñBx ÖýrüõOpAKþ
3– kÞPpAÿ ÖýrüõOpAKþ, ÎÃõ øýEQ
Îéíþ kAðzãBû Îéõï Kryßþ yùýl
GùzPþ
OBoüi ko üBÖQ ìÛBèú: 61/01/48
OBoüi Knüp} ìÛBèú: 02/3/58
*|@kox ðõüvñlû ìvEõë:
OùpAó, Kê uýl gñlAó, j uùpôokÿ
yíBèþ, Þõ^ú yùýl ìùBWp, Kçá 51 ,
Þl KvPþ85551, ìpÞr ìÇBèÏBR oyl ô
uçìQ Þõká.
Oé×ò: 20701588
moc.oohay@lhgromis :liam-E *
^ßýlû
ølÙ: Kõu`p kcab yawS )B.S( üßþ Aq yBüÏPpüò AðõAÑ AgPç|ë Kõu`p ìÏpÖþ
ylû AuQ, AìB ko ìõok OÓýýp oAuPBÿ ì×B¾ê, AÆç|ÎBR ìdlôk ô ìPñBÚÃþ ôWõk
kAok. GñBGpAüò ølÙ Aq Aüò ìÇBèÏú, Gpouþ yýõÑ AgPç|ë Kõu`pB.S ko qðBó WõAó ô
ìÇBèÏú Þíªþ oAuPBÿ ì×B¾ê ko Aüò Kõu`p ìþ|GByl.
} Gpouþ: Aüò ìÇBèÏú Gú oô} Oõ¾ý×þ ìÛÇÏþ Gpoôÿ 15 ð×p Aq kgPpAó kAðzXõ Gýò
uñýò 43-91 uBë Þú GB AðPhBJ O¿BkÖþ uBk û Aq Gýò kgPpAó kAðzãBû Îéõï Kryßþ yùýl
GùzPþ AðPhBJ ylû Gõkðl AðXBï yl. Gú øíýò ìñËõo, GB AuP×Bkû Aq ¾×dú yÇpðXþ ô
AìPlAk yBÚõèþ, ìýrAó ðõuBó (WBGXBüþ gÇþ) èãò AðlAqû|âýpÿ yl ô Kõu`p AÖpAkÿ Þú gÈ
yBÚõèþ GB ÖB¾éú Gý{ Aq mc3 Aq géØ ðÛÇú ìýBðþ ìdõo ôAuÈ gBo gB¾pûAÿ gé×þ ÖõÚBðþ
)SISP( ô gBo gB¾pûAÿ ÚlAìþ ÖõÚBðþ )SISA( ÎHõo ìþ|Þpk GÏñõAó Kõu`p B.S yñBuBüþ yl.
uLw ìÛlAo yýI èãò Gú Þíà yýI uñY èãñþ ô qAôüú ÞBü×õq ô èõokôq OõuÈ gÈ Þ{
ÚBGêAðÏÇBÙ ô oAuPBÿ ì×B¾ê ìa, qAðõ ô øýM Gú ôuýéú âõðýBìPp AðlAqû|âýpÿ yl.
üBÖPú|øB: ìýBðãýò èõokôq AÖpAk ko Kõu`p B.S Gý{ Aq AÖpAk ðpìBë Gõk (400/0 = P) ô ìýrAó ÞBü×õq ô
OýéQ ÚlAìþ|èãò ko AÖpAk Aüò âpôû âp^ú Gý{ Aq AÖpAk âpôû ðpìBë Gõk ôèþ Aq ðËp @ìBoÿ O×BôR
ìÏñþ|kAoÿ ðlAyQ (50/0|> P). øí`ñýò ì×B¾ê oAó ô qAðõ ko Kõu`p B.S Gú uíQ Öéßvýõó
uõÝKýlA Þpkû Gõk ô ìa KB kôouþ Öéßvýõó ðzBó ìþ|kAk Þú ìÛlAo kôouþÖéßvýõó GB ìýrAó ðõuBó
èãò AoOHBÉ ìÏñþ|kAo ìvPÛýî kAyQ. yýõÑ Aüò Gl yßéþ ko AÖpAk ìõok ìÇBèÏú 2/93% ô Gý{ Aq
AgPçæR küãp uPõó ÖÛpAR Gõk.
ðPýXú|âýpÿ: ìzBølAR Aüò OdÛýÜ ðzBó kAk Þú B.S yBüÏPpüò kÖõoìýPþ uPõó ÖÛpAR ko qðBó
Aó WBìÏú ìBuQ. øí`ñýò ðzBó kAk Þú GB ôk AÖrAü{ èõokôq, AìPlAk ì×B¾ê AðlAï OdPBðþ,
ðBcýú OõoAuýà ô yýI (OýéQ) èãò ðvHPB« ÆHýÏþ GBÚþ ìþ|ìBðl.
Þéýl ôAsû|øB: u`p / kcab yawS / ÞBü×õq / èõokôq / yýI èãò / AìPlAk ì×B¾ê
kôoû ø×Pî yíBoû kôï OBGvPBó 5831 yíBoû ìvévê 52
ìÛlìú
u`p ìÏpÙ OpOýI ÚpAoâýpÿ ÚvíPùBÿ ìhPéØ Gló ko AoOHBÉ GB
øílüãp ô ðýr ìÏpÙ ^ãõðãþ ôÂÏýQ Gló ðvHQ Gú uÇe AOßB
AuQ(2 , 1). Gpgþ AgPç|æ|R ko oAuPBÿ Kõu`p ìþ|OõAðl ìõWI
OÓýýpAOþ ko oAuPBÿ üà ÚvíQ Gló ðvHQ Gú ÚvíQ küãp üB GBÎU
OÓýýpAOþ ko oAuPBÿ ìpÞr SÛê Gló ðvHQ Gú uÇe AOßB yõk Þú Gú ðõGú
k, cpÞBR æ|qï GpAÿ c×Ì Kõu`p ìñBuI ô OσBkë oA ìdlôk
ìþ|Þñl(2) ô GBÎU OÓýýp ko ðdõû OõqüÐ ôqó Gp uBgPBoøBÿ Gýõèõsüà
øí`õó ì×B¾ê ô GBÖPùBÿ AÆpAÙ @ðùB ylû ô OÓýýpAOþ ko Aüò uBgPBoøB
AüXBk ìþ|Þñl(3). Aüò ÖzBo ÒýpÆHýÏþ ìþ|OõAðl Gp oôÿ AðdñBøBÿ
uPõó ÖÛpAR ASp GãnAok ô GBÎU Ozlül @ðùB yõk(1) ô ko ðPýXú GBÖPùBÿ
ÆHýÏþ k^Bo @uýI ylû(4) ô ìþ|OõAðl ìñzBC kokøBÿ οHþ–
ÎÃç|ðþ– AußéPþ Gú g¿õÁ ko ðBcýú Þíp âpkk(5 , 3).
üßþ Aq yBüÏPpüò AgPç|æ|R ôÂÏýPþ, Kõu`p kcab yawS )B.S(
AuQ(6)
Þú Gú ôütû ko GÏÃþ âpôøùBÿ ôoqyþ(8 , 7 , 3) yýõÑ GBæ|üþ kAok ô
AcPíBë Gpôq kok oA ko Aüò AÖpAk AÖrAü{ ìþ|køl. Aq ÆpÖþ, ðõÑ AgPç|ë
u`p GB GÏÃþ AgPç|æ|R ÎÃç|ðþ– AußéPþ ko AoOHBÉ AuQ(9).
ÆHÜ AÆç|ÎBR ìõk, ko Kõu`p B.S èãò Gú uíQ Wéõ ðõuBó
ìþ|Þñl ô ÞBü×õq ðBcýú KzPþ GÇõo WHpAðþ AÖrAü{ ìþ|üBGl(21-01, 6),
AìB ko ìõok ôÂÏýQ èãò ô AðdñBÿ ðBcýú Þípÿ ô qôAüBÿ ì×B¾ê AðlAï
OdPBðþ ko ¾×dú uBsüPBë AÊùBoAR Âl ô ðÛýÄ ÖBczþ ôWõk
kAok(61-01, 1) Þú OXvî O¿õüpÿ oôyò Aq Aüò Kõu`p oA ìzßê
ìþ|uBqk. GB OõWú Gú Aüò Þú koìBðùBÿ Þéýñýßþ GpAÿ A¾ç|f Kõu`p ô
ÞBø{ Þípkok Gp KBüú AÆç|ÎBR GýõìßBðýßþ ¾õoR ìþ|âýpk ô ðËp Gú
Aüñßú AÆç|ÎBR OEõoüßþ ìõk GB AGùBï ìõAWú AuQ ô øýa ÞBo OXpGþ
ô @qìBüzãBøþ kÚýÛþ ko ìõok ìÛlAo ô WùQ AðdpAÙ Aq oAuPBÿ ÆHýÏþ
G¿õoR Þíªþ ¾õoR ðãpÖPú AuQ; k o Aüò ìÇBèÏú Gp @ó ylüî OB yýõÑ
Aüò AgPç|ë Kõu`p oA ko WBìÏú ìõok ìÇBèÏú gõk GpoÞpkû, AìPlAk
ì×B¾ê AðlAï OdPBðþ, qAôüú yýI èãò ô ìÛlAo AðdñBøBÿ ðBcýú Þípÿ ô
KzPþ oA GÇõo Þíªþ ìzhÀ ô GB Kõu`p ðpìBë ìÛBüvú Þñýî. Ký{ ÖpÅ
ìõk ko AðXBï Aüò OdÛýÜ (ìõAÖÜ GB ðËp AÞTp ìõöè×Bó), WBGXBüþ
gÇþ (ðõuBó) èãò Gú uíQ Wéõ ko Kõu`p B.Sk Þú ìB @ó oA
ìzh¿ú A¾éþ GpAÿ yñBuBüþ Aüò AgPç|ë Kõu`p ko ðËp âpÖPýî.
ko ðùBüQ ko OdÛýÜ cBÂp uÏþ Þpküî GB AoADú AÆç|ÎBR Þíªþ ô
OXpGþ, kül oôyñþ Aq OÓýýp WùQ ô ìÛlAo AðdpAÙ Aq oAuPBÿ ÆHýÏþ
ko Aüò AgPç|ë Kõu`p cB¾ê Þñýî ô âBï Aôèýú oA GpAÿ ìÇBèÏBR Oßíýéþ
ô kÚýÛPp ko @üñlû GpkAoüî.
oô} Gpouþ
Aüò Ktôø{ Gú oô} Oõ¾ý×þ ìÛÇÏþ AðXBï âpÖQ ô WBìÏú ìõok Ktôø{
kgPpAó kAðzãBû Îéõï Kryßþ yùýl GùzPþ Gõkðl. Glüò ìñËõo 15 ð×p
Aq kAðzXõüBó kgPp kAðzãBû Îéõï Kryßþ yùýl GùzƒPþ GB kAìñƒú uñƒþ
43-91 uƒBë (ìýBðãýò ô AðdpAÙ ìÏýBo 44/2 50/22) Gú ¾õoR
O¿BkÖþ ìõok Gpouþ ÚpAo âpÖPñl. AÖpAkÿ Þú uBGÛú GýíBoüùBÿ οHþ–
ÎÃç|ðþ– AußéPþ, WpAcþ uPõó ÖÛpAR, OpôìB üB kÖõoìýPýùBÿ yñBgPúylû
|AðlAï
OdPBðþ kAyPñl ko OdÛýÜ ypÞQ kAkû ðzlðl. øí`ñýò AÖpAküßú
Gú øñãBï OdÛýÜ kAoAÿ Þípkok Gõkðl Aq OdÛýÜ cnÙ ylðl
^õó
AcPíBë ìþ|oÖQ Þú Aüò kok oôÿ ðõÑ Kõu`p @ðùB ASp ânAyPú GByl.
GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ ìÛlAo ðõuBó èãò ô OzhýÀ ðõÑ Kõu`p Aq üà
¾×dú yÇpðXþ (07 ×002 uBðPþ|ìPp) ô üà yBÚõë ô Gú ìñËõo
Wéõâýpÿ Aq ðõuBðBR ÚlAìþ– gé×þ Öpk ko cýò AðlAqû|âýpüùB Aq üà
KBüú ðãùlAoðlû1 AuP×Bkû yl. GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ èõokôq Þípÿ ô ÞBü×õq
KzPþ Aq gÈ Þ{ ÚBGê AðÏÇBÙ sAKñþ (1×06 uBðPþ|ìPp) (72-71) ô GpAÿ
AðlAqû|âýpÿ ìÛlAo yýI èãò Aq OýéQ ìPp üB yýI uñY èãñþ
2
(82) AuP×Bkû yl.
AüBÿ ì×B¾ê oAó, qAðõ ô ìa KB GB âõðýBìPp uBgQ Þéýñýà AoOõKlÿ
Öñþ @oAï AðlAqû|âýpÿ yl Þú OßpAo Knüpÿ @ó k o OdÛýÜ cBÂp Gpouþ yl
ô ÂpüI øíHvPãþ ssalcartnI @ó GpAÿ ì×B¾ê oAó, qAðõ ô ìa Gú OpOýI
98/0, 18/0 ô 9/0 GluQ @ìl Þú ðzBðú OßpAoKnüpÿ GBæ|ÿ @ó ìþ|GByl.
GpAÿ ðãùlAoÿ kÚýÜ qìBó GpAÿ ouýló AÖpAk ìõok ìÇBèÏú Gú Kõu`p
oüéßw gõk Aq üà ÞpðõìPp AuP×Bk û yl.
AGPlA Kw Aq ìzhÀ yló Öpk ìõok ìÇBèÏú ô âpÖPò oÂBüQ ðBìú Aq
ôÿ, GpAÿ âpk@ôoÿ AÆç|ÎBR æ|qï, KpuzñBìú Aÿ cBôÿ ìzh¿BR
Îíõìþ|OõuÈ ôÿ Kp ìþ|yl. uLw Kõy{ ìñBuHþ oA Þú GpAÿ uùõèQ
ko AðlAqû|âýpüùB ÖpAøî ylû Gõk Gú Oò ìþ|Þpk Æõoÿ Þú OíBï uPõó ÖÛpAR
Aq âpkó OB GBæ|ÿ ðBcýú upüñþ ô OíBï èñlìBoÞùBÿ ìõok ðËp ko øýM,
qAðõ ô ìa ko ìÏpÅ kül GByl. uLw OíBï ðzBðú|øBÿ AuPhõAðþ æ|qï ko
AðlAqû|âýpÿ ìBðñl ì׿ê ÞBèßBðEõÞõGõDýl(92) Þú gÈ yBÚõèþ k ouQ Aq
ôuÈ @ó ÎHõo ìþ|Þpk, OpôÞBðPp Groå Öíõo, AKþ Þñlüê gBoWþ Öíõo ô
5/1 uBðPýíPp KBüýò ìBèEõë gBoWþ GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ qôAüBÿ ì×B¾ê
AðlAï OdPBðþ(03), qôADl gBoÿ 7C (13), 21 T ô 2S (43-23) ô 1L
GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ ÞBü×õq ô èõokôq, gBo gB¾pû ÚlAìþ– ÖõÚBðþ
(SISA)3 ô gBo gB¾pû gé×þ–ÖõÚBðþ (SISP)4 GpAÿ Aðl Aqû|âýpÿ OýéQ
èãò GB Gp^vI kAüpû|Aÿ Úpìr oðä Gú ÚÇp mc 1 Îç|ìQ qkû yl.
1- Stabilizer
2- Pelvic Inclinometer
3- Anterior Superior Iliac Spine
4- Posterior Superior Iliac Spine
23
Gpouþ yýõÑ Kõu`pkcab yawS ô OÓýýpAR AüXBk ylû ko ...
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kôoû ø×Pî yíBoû kôï OBGvPBó 5831 yíBoû ìvévê 52
33
|èýç| uýípÕ ô øíßBo
GpAÿ OÏýýò ðõÑ Kõu`p, Öpk Gú cBèQ ðýípj ìBGýò ¾×dú yÇpðXþ1 ô
AìPlAk yBÚõèþ Gú âõðú|Aÿ ìþ|AüvPBk Þú yBÚõë Aq ì׿ê ÞBèßBðEõÞõGõDýl
ôÿ ÎHõo ðíBül (11, 3). ¾×dú yÇpðXþ Gp oôÿ küõAo ð¿I ô gÈ
yBÚõèþ GB ÖB¾éú 54 uBðPýíPpÿ Aq @ó Aq uÛØ @ôühPú ylû Gõk. WBüãBû
KBÿ Öpk Aq ¾×dú yÇpðXþ ô yBÚõë GÇõo ìvBôÿ ô Aq øp üà mc51
ÖB¾éú kAyQ. uLw Gú Öpk â×Pú ìþ|yl Þú ko cBèQ ÞBìç|« ÆHýÏþ ô
oAcQ GBüvPl ô ko cBèPýßú kuPùBü{ ko ÞñBo Gló AuQ ô KBøB GB tuo eoT
ÆHýÏþ, mc51 Aq øî GBq ðãùlAyPú ylû|Aðl Gú uíQ Wéõ ðãBû Þñl ô
ôqð{ oA GÇõo ìvBôÿ oôÿ kô KBü{ GýñlAqk. GpAÿ ouýló Gú Kõu`p
ÎBkOþ ô øíýzãþ Öpk 3 kÚýÛú qìBó AcPvBJ yl Þú Aüò qìBó GpAÿ
gvPãþ ô ouýló Gú Kõu`p B.S Þú üà Kõu`p oøB ylû ko GpAGp WBmGú
AuQ ô ko @ó ÎÃç|R GpAÿ ðãùlAyPò oAuPBÿ ÆHýÏþ Gló ôAok Îíê
ðíþ|yõk(21) æ|qï Gõk. uLw ÞBü×õq ô èõokôq, qôAüBÿ ì×B¾ê oAó, qAðõ
ô ìa AðlAqû âpÖPú ìþ|yl. GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ ÞBü×õq, gÈ Þ{ ÚBGê
AðÏÇBÙ oôÿ uPõó ÖÛpAR Aq 7C OB 21T ÚpAo kAkû yl ô uÏþ yl ÞBìç|«
yßê uPõó ÖÛpAR KzPþ oA Ghõk Gãýpk uLw Aq oôÿ uPõó ÖÛpAR
GpkAyPú ô Æpf @ó oôÿ ÞBÒn ouî yl ô GB AuP×Bkû Aq oô} ÞBJ2 qAôüú
KzPþ ìdBuHú âpkül. GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ èõokôq Þípÿ ðýr gÈ Þ{ ÚBGê
AðÏÇBÙ oôÿ uPõó ÖÛpAR Aq 1L OB 2S ÚpAo âpÖQ ô Æpf @ó oôÿ ÞBÒn
ouî âpkül. GpAÿ ìdBuHú ìÛl Ao èõokôq ðÛBÉ 1L ô 2 S GB üà gÈ ìvPÛýî
Gú üßlüãp ô¾ê ô Aq ôuÈ @ó gÈ, gÈ Îíõkÿ Gú AðdñB ouî yl. Aüò
kô gÈ Gú OpOýI L ô H ðBìýlû yl ô qAôüú èõokôq ìÇBGÜ Öpìõë qüp
ìdBuHú âpkül.
ô GB OõWú Gú ìÇBèÏBR ÚHéþ (63, 53) èõokôq AÖpAk k o Aüò OdÛýÜ k o
âpôû ÆHÛú Gñlÿ yl:
1- kcab talF: qüp 52 koWú. 2— ÆHýÏþ: 54—52 koWú. 3—
øBüLpèõokôq: GBæ|ÿ 54 koWú.
GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ OýéQ èãò, GBqôøBÿ OýéQ ìPp oôÿ èñlìBoÞùBÿ
AuPhõAðþ SISP ô AðPùBÿ SISA ÚpAo âpÖQ ô ìÛlAo qAôüú yýI èãñþ
ìvPÛýíB« Aq oôÿ ðÛBèú gõAðlû yl.
GpAÿ AðlAqû|âýpÿ ìÛlAo ðõuBó üB WBGXBüþ gÇþ ÚlAìþ|èãò ðvHQ Gú
gÈ yBÚõèþ, Aq SISP ô AðPùBÿ SISA ÎíõkøBüþ Gp ¾×dú yÇpðXþ
ouî yl. uLw Aüò kô ðÛÇú ko oôÿ ¾×dú yÇpðXþ Gú øî ô¾ê ylû
ô ô@ðùB ìÏéõï ô ÖB¾éú Îíõkÿ @ó ðÛÇú OB gÈ yBÚõèþ (Þú oôÿ
üßþ Aq gÇùBÿ ¾×dú yÇpðXþ ìñÇHÜ ylû Gõk) GB üà gÈ Þ{
ìýéýíPpÿ ìdBuHú yl. WBGXBüþ gÇþ èãò Gý{ Aq mc 3 ko Wéõÿ
gÈ yBÚõèþ, Gú ÎñõAó ìzh¿ú A¾éþ GpAÿ yñBuBüþ Kõu`p B.S
ko ðËp âpÖPú yl. uLw AÆç|ÎBR GluQ @ìlû GB ðpï AÖrAo @ìBoÿ SSPS
ìõok OXrüú ô Odéýê @ìBoÿ ÚpAo âpÖQ.
üBÖPú|øB
Aq @ðXB Þú Gpouþ OõqüÐ ìPÓýpøB GB @qìõó ÞõèíãpôÙ–AuíýpðõÙ ðzBó
køñlû ðpìBë Gõkó @ðùB Gõk, GpAÿ Gpouþ oAGÇú ìPÓýpøB, @qìõó Kýpuõó ô
GpAÿ ìÛBüvú ìýBðãýñùB Aq @qìõó t AuP×Bkû yl Þú ðPBüY qüp GluQ @ìl:
Gpouþ @ìBoÿ üBÖPú|øB ðzBó kAk Þú Kõu`p B.S GýzPpüò (12/93 %) ô
u`p kcab talF ÞíPpüò (29/3 %) yýõÑ oA ko WBìÏú ìõok ìÇBèÏú
kAok yýõÑ Kõu`p ðpìBë 73/13% ô øBüLp èõokôq 94/52% Gõk.
ko Gpouþ AìPlAk ì×B¾ê ìzhÀ yl Þú ìýBðãýò èõokôq AÖpAk âpôû B.S
GýzPp Aq AÖpAk âpôû ðpìBë AuQ (400/0=P) ô ìýBðãýò ÞBü×õq ko AÖpAk
âpôû B.S âp^ú Gý{ Aq AÖpAk âpôû ðpìBë AuQ AìB O×BôR ìÏñþ kAo @ìBoÿ
ðlAok (50/0>P) (ðíõkAo1).
ðíõkAo1. ìÛBüvú ìýrAó èõokôq ô ÞBü×õq ko kô âpôû Kõu`p ðpìBë ô
u`p B.S. ìýrAó èõokôq âpôû B.S GB 400/0 = P GýzPp Aq âpôû ðpìBë
AuQ ôèþ ìýrAó ÞBü×õq GB 50/0>P O×BôR ìÏñþ kAoÿ GB âpôû ðpìBë
ðlAok.
øí`ñýò ìýBðãýò OýéQ èãò AÖpAk âpôû B.S Gý{ Aq AÖpAk âpôû ðpìBë Gõk
AìB Aüò O×BôR ìÏñþ kAo ðHõk (ðíõkAo2).
1- Grid paper
2- Cobb
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ðíõkAo 2. ìÛBüvú OýéQ (yýI) èãò ko kô âpôû Kõu`p ðpìBë ô
u`p B.S Þú AgPç|Ù ìÏñþ kAoÿ ðlAoðl (50/0>P).
ìõAÖÜ GB Ký{ ÖpÅ Aüò OdÛýÜ Þú ìÛlAo ðõuBó èãò oA GÏñõAó ìÛýBuþ
GpAÿ OÏýýò AÖpAk B.S ko ðËp âpÖQ, ÆHýÏþ AuQ Þú ðõuBó (WBGXBüþ)
gÇþ ÚlAìþ|ko Kõu`p B.S clAÞTp ìÛlAo gõk oA kAyPú GByl Þú ko
ìÛBüvú ìýBðãýò ìÛlAo ðõuBó Gýò AÖpAk kô âpôû Aüò ìÇéI OBCüýl âzQ
(50/0<P) (ðíõkAo3).
ðíõkAo 3. ìÛBüvú ìýrAó WBGXBüþ gÇþ èãò Gú Wéõ k o kô âpôû Kõu`p
ðpìBë ô Kõu`p B.S. WBGXBüþ gÇþ èãò Gú Wéõ ko âpôû B.S GýzPp Aq
âpôû ðpìBë AuQ ô GB OõWú Gú Aüñßú 50/0 < P AuQ, Aüò AgPç|Ù
ìÏñþkAo AuQ.
ko AðlAqû|âýpÿ qôAüBÿ ì×B¾ê AðlAï OdPBðþ, ôÂÏýQ ðõOpAë (ìýBðú) ìa,
¾×p Kç|ðPBoÖéßvýõó, ìTHQ (+) ô kôouþ Öéßvýõó, ìñ×þ ( — ) k o
ðËp âpÖPú yl. ko ì׿ê qAðõ ô oAó ôÂÏýQ ÆHýÏþ, ¾×p Öéßvýõó,
ìTHQ (+) ô AÞvPBðvýõó, ìñ×þ ( — ) ko ðËp âpÖPú yl.
ðPBüY ðzBó kAk Þú ìa KBÿ AÖpAk âpôû B.S k o ìÛBüvú GB AÖpAk âpôû ðpìBë k o
cBèQ AüvPBkû oüéßw, Gú uíQ kôouþ Öéßvýõó oÖPú AuQ.
øí`ñýò ì׿ê qAðõ ô ì׿ê oAó AÖpAk âpôû B.S ko ìÛBüvú GB AÖpAk âpôû
ðpìBë Gú uíQ Öéßvýõó oÖPú AìB ìÛBüvú ìýBðãýò qôAüBÿ ì×B¾ê AðlAï
OdPBðþ ko Gýò kô âpôû O×BôR ìÏñþ|kAo @ìBoÿ ðzBó ðlAk (50/0>P)
(ðíõkAo4).
ðíõk Ao4. ìÛBüvú qôAüBÿ ì×B¾ê oAó, qAðõ ô ìa k o kô âpôû Kõu`p ðpìBë
ô Kõu`p B.S Þú AgPç|Ù ìÏñþ kAoÿ Gýò kô âpôû ôWõk ðlAok (50/0>P).
Gpouþ øíHvPãþ ìPÓýpøBÿ Þíªþ ko Kõu`p ðpìBë ðzBó kAk Þú ìÛlAo
ðõuBó èãò GB qAôüú ì׿ê oAó ô qAðõ AoOHBÉ ìÏñþ|kAo ìvPÛýî kAok
(50/0<P) üÏñþ øp^ú ìÛlAo ðõuBó èãò Gú Wéõ GýzPp GByl ì׿ê
oAó ô qAðõ Öéßw|Op ìþ|yõk. ko cBèþ Þú ^ñýò AoOHBÆþ ko Kõu`p B.S
üBÖQ ðzl. ìÛlAo ðõuBó èãò GB qAôüú ì׿ê ìa øî ko Kõu`p ðpìBë ô
øî ko B.S AoOHBÉ ìÏñþ kAo ìñ×þ kAok üÏñþ øp^ú ðõuBó èãò Gú Wéõ
GýzPp GByl ì׿ê ìa GýzPp Gú kôouþ Öéßvýõó ìþ|oôk ô ko Kõu`p
B.S øp^ú ì׿ê ìa kôouþ Öéßw|Op yõk ì׿ê qAðõ øî GýzPp Gú
Öéßvýõó ìþ|oôk.
øí`ñýò koAÖpAk GB Kõu`p ðpìBë, OýéQ èãò GB èõokôq AoOHBÉ ìÏñþ|kAo
ìvPÛýî kAok (50/0<P) üÏñþ øp^ú qAôüú OýéQ ÚlAìþ|èãò GýzPp GByl
èõokôq GýzPp ìþ|yõk. AìB ^ñýò AoOHBÆþ ko Kõu`p B.S külû ðíþ|yõk.
GdU
ðPBüY OdÛýÜ cBÂp yýõÑ GBæ|ÿ AgPç|ë Kõu`p B.S oA ko WBìÏú qðBó
Aó ìõok ìÇBèÏú ðzBó ìþ|køl(2/93%) Þú ìõöül ðËp GpAâýñr (6)
AuQ Þú @ðpA yBüÏPpüò AgPç|ë Kõu`pAë ìþ|kAðl. øí`ñýò ìõèùpó)3)
yýõÑ Kõu`p
B.S
oA ko süíñBuPùBÿ ìpk 001% ô ko süíñBuPùBÿ qó ¾×p
ìþ|kAðl. ko cBèýßú yýõÑ øíýò Kõu`p oA ko ìpkAó Òýp ôoqyßBo
5/26% ô ko qðBó ÒýpôoqyßBo 01% ârAo} Þpk. ko ìÇBèÏú øBqGpôá(73)
Gpouþ yýõÑ Kõu`pkcab yawS ô OÓýýpAR AüXBk ylû ko ...
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Gp oôÿ 5194 kAð{ @ìõq11 uBèú øéñlÿ, yýõÑ B.S GvýBo ÞíPp ârAo}
âpkül(k o Þê 7/0%, 9/0% ko KvpAó ô 5/0% ko kgPpAó). ðPBüY GluQ
@ìlû Aq ìÇBèÏú cBÂp ðzBó ìþ|køl Þú yýõÑ Aüò kÖõoìýPþ ko qðBó
WBìÏú ìB GvýBo GýzPp Aq ìÇBèÏBR küãpAó ìþ|GByl. ko OdÛýÜ cBÂp
OñùB ko 73/13% ìõAok, Kõu`p AÖpAk ðpìBë Gõk Þú ðzBó køñlû ðýBq Gú
Wú Wlÿ|Op ko ìõok Kõu`p qðBó WõAó ko WBìÏú ìB ìþ|GByl.
øíBðÇõo Þú ko ðPBüY ârAo} âpkül, ìýBðãýò èõokôq AÖpAk âpôû B.S
GýzPp Aq AÖpAk âpôû ÆHýÏþ Gõk Þú ðzBðãp AÖrAü{ èõokôq ko Kõu`p B.S
AuQ Þú GB AÊùBoAR ÞñlAë (11) ô ìBüpq (61) ìHñþ Gp ÞBø{ èõokôq ko
u`p B.S ìÓBüpR kAok ôèþ AÊùBoAR Þývñp (21), GpAâýñr(6),
âpüò(1), ìãþ(41) ô ìéßõèî (51) oA ìHñþ Gp AÖrAü{ èõokôq OBCüýl
ìþ|ðíBül. AèHPú Þývñp (21) ô GpAâýñr (6) Aüò AÖrAü{ èõokôq oA ¾pÖB« ko
ðBcýú Þípÿ OdPBðþ ârAo} Þpkðl Þú AcPíBë ìþ|oôk Glèýê OÓýýp
ðBìPÛBoó üB ÚÇÏúAÿ AìPlAk ðõAcþ Þípÿ ÖõÚBðþ ô OdPBðþ ko Kõu`p
B..S GByl Gú Aüò ¾õoR Þú AcPíBæ|« èõokôq ko ðBcýú OdPBðþ Þíp
AÖrAü{ ô ko ðBcýú ÖõÚBðþ ÞBø{ ìþ|üBGl Þú GpAÿ OBCüýl Aüò ìÇéI æ|qï
AuQ Þú ko GpouýùBÿ GÏlÿ, èõokôq AÖpAk B.S Gú ¾õoR ÚÇÏúAÿ
Gpouþ yõk. ÞBü×õq AÖpAk âpôû B.S âp^ú ìýê Gú AÖrAü{ kAyQ ôèþ
O×BôR ìÏñþ|kAoÿ GB AÖpAk âpôû ÆHýÏþ ðzBó ðlAk Þú AÊùBoAR ÞñlAë
(11), Þývñp (21), GpAâýñr(6) ô ìãþ (41) oA kAë Gp AÖrAü{ ÞBü×õq ko
u`p B.S OBCüýl ðßpk.
OýéQ èãò AÖpAk âpôû B.S ( 29/41 = ) ko ìÛBüvú GB AÖpAk âpôû ðpìBë
(48/21 = ) AÖrAü{ KýlA Þpkû Gõk ôèþ Aq ðËp @ìBoÿ ìÏñþ|kAo ðHõk Þú
Ký{ Gýñþ ÞñlAë(11), ìBüpq (61) ôìãþ (41) oA ìHñþ Gp OýéQ gé×þ
èãò ko Kõu`p B.S OBCüýl ðßpk Géßú OÓýýp ìzBølû ylû ko WùQ
AÖrAü{ OýéQ ÚlAìþ|ko Aüò Kõu`p AuQ Þú GB AÊùBoAR âpüò(1) ô
øBìýê(31) (Þú ìÏPÛlðl Kõu`p B.S ko ðPýXú OýéQ ÚlAìþ|èãò üB
ÂÏØ ÎÃç|R yßíþ AüXBk ìþ|yõk) ìÇBGÛQ kAok. Þývñp (21) ðýr
ìÏPÛl AuQ Þú ìýrAó OýéQ èãò ko Aüò Kõu`p ìPÓýp AuQ.
ko øp kô âpôû ðpìBë ô B.S, GB ðõuBó èãò Gú uíQ Wéõ, ì׿ê ìa Gú
uíQ kôouþ Öéßvýõó ìþ|oôk AìB ìÛBüvú qAôüú ì׿ê ìa AÖpAkB.S ô
AÖpAk ÆHýÏþ, kôouþ Öéßvýõó GýzPp AÖpAk B.S oA Aq ðËp @ìBoÿ OBCüýl
ðßpk Þú ðzBðløñlû ìßBðývî|øBÿ WHpAðþ ô OÓýýpAOþ ko AìPlAk ì×B¾ê
ÖõÚBðþ|Op ðËýp oAó ô qAðõ G¿õoR üà qðXýpû @ðBOõìýà ìþ|GByl Þú
GBÎU ylû GB ôk AoOHBÉ Gýò ðõuBó èãò ô qAôüú ìa, ìXíõÎú Aüò
OÓýýpAR ðPõAðl AìPlAk ì׿ê ìa oA GÇõo ìÏñþ|kAoÿ ko AÖpAk B.S OÓýýp
køl. ðPBüY Aüò OdÛýÜ, AkÎBÿ ÞñlAë(11) ìHñþ Gp OÓýýp WùQ ì׿ê
ìa Gú uíQ Kç|ðPBo oA ok ìþ|Þñl ôèþ ðPýXú âýpÿ ðùBüþ Aô oA Þú ìÏPÛl
AuQ ko ðùBüQ ì׿ê ìa ko cBèQ ÆHýÏþ ìþ|ìBðl oA OBCüýl ìþ|Þñl.
ÞñlAë(11) ÎéQ GBÚþ ìBðló ìa ko ôÂÏýQ ÆHýÏþ oA ðõuBó èãò Gú
uíQ Wéõ ìþ|kAðl Þú GBÎU ìþ|yõk ìa oA Gú kôouþ Öéßvýõó GHpk.
ko A¾ê ÞñlAë(11) ìÏPÛl AuQ Þú øBüLpAÞvPBðvýõó qAðõ ko Kõu`p
B.S ìõWI Kç|ðPBo Öéßvýõó Aôèýú ìa ìþ|âpkk Þú GÏl OõuÈ ðõuBó
èãò Gú Wéõ WHpAó ìþ|yõk. ko cBèýßú ko OdÛýÜ cBÂp, øî ko AÖpAk
ÆHýÏþ ô øî ko AÖpAk B.S GB AÖrAü{ ðõuBó èãò Gú Wéõ ì׿ê qAðõ Gú
Öéßvýõó ìþ|oôk Þú AèHPú ìÛBüvú ìýBðãýò ìÛlAo Öéßvýõó Gýò kô
âpôû, Aq ðËp @ìBoÿ ìÏñþ|kAo ðHõk. üÏñþ ðPBüY Aüò ìÇBèÏú Gpgç|Ù
AÊùBoAR ÞñlAë(11), øýa øBüLp AÞvPBðvýõðþ ko qAðõÿ AÖpAk B.S ðzBó
ðlAk Þú GBo küãp Gp èrôï OXpGú ô Gpouþ Þéýñýßþ Ký{ Gýñþ|øBÿ
GýõìßBðýßþ ko AgPç|æ|R Kõu`pAë OBCÞýl ìþ|Þñl.
ÎéýpÒî AoOHBÉ ìvPÛýî ðõuBó (WBGXBüþ) èãò Gú uíQ Wéõ ô
Öéßvýõó oAó ko AÖpAk ÆHýÏþ, Aüò AoOHBÉ ko AÖpAk B.S külû ðzl ô
ìÛBüvú qAôüú ì׿ê oAó ìýBó AÖpAk ÆHýÏþ ô AÖpAkâpôû B.S O×BôR
ìÏñþ|kAo @ìBoÿ ðzBó ðlAk. k o ìÛBküp GBæ|ÿ ðõuBó èãò Gú Wéõ (Gý{ Aq
mc 5) ìzBølû yl Þú ì׿ê oAó Gú uíQ AÞvPBðvýõó Ký{ ìþ|oôk.
Aüò OÓýýpAR âp^ú Aq ðËp @ìBoÿ ìÏñþ|kAo ðHõk ôèþ Ký{ Gýñþ|øBÿ
GýõìßBðýßþ ÞñlAë (11) ô Þývñp(21) ìHñþ Gp øBüLpAÞvPBðvýõó ì׿ê
oAó k o AÖpAk B.S oA æ| AÚê ko ìõAok g×ýØ B.S ìõok Opkül ÚpAo kAk.
ðPýXú âýpÿ
ko ìXíõÑ ðPBüY Aüò OdÛýÜ ðzBó kAk Þú B.S yBüÏPpüò AgPç|ë Kõu`p
ko qðBó WõAó (ô üB clAÚê kAðzXõ) WBìÏú ìBuQ ô Gú kèýê O×BôR kô
âpôû ko ìýrAó ðõuBó èãò, Gú ðËp ìþ|oul GpAÿ yñBuBüþ Kõu`p B.S,
ìÇíEò|Opüò ìÛýBx OzhýÀ ô kuPú Gñlÿ AÖpAk, ìýrAó ðõuBó ÚÇÏú
èãñþ Gú uíQ Wéõ ìþ|GByl ô Aq @ðXB Þú AÖrAü{ ÞBü×õq KzPþ ko
ðíõðú|øBÿ ìõok Gpouþ ko Aüò OdÛýÜ ìzBølû ðãpkül, ôWõk ÞBü×õq
GpAÿ OzhýÀ Kõu`p B.S Âpôoÿ Gú ðËp ðíþ|oul.
Gú ðËp ìþ|oul @ð`ú OB Þñõó k o ìõok AìPl Ak ì×B¾ê ko Kõu`pB.S ko
ìñBGÐ ìhPéØ ô OõuÈ OEõoüvýò|øBÿ GýõìßBðýßþ AÊùBo ylû ¾pÖB«
ìHñþ Gp Ký{ Gýñþ|øBÿ GýõìßBðýßþ Gõkû AuQ. AcPíBæ|« ðBkülû âpÖPò
ìßBðývíùBÿ WHpAðþ ô ôWõk AoOHBÆBR Ký`ýlû qðXýpû|øBÿ
GýõìßBðýßþ ko üà AoâBðývî qðlû, ìñzBF AgPç|Ù ðËp ìõWõk Gýò
OEõoüvýò|øB ìþ|GByl. ko cBèýßú GpAÿ ðPýXú âýpÿ ÚÇÏþ ko ìõok
AìPlAk ì×B¾ê ô uãíBðùBÿ ìhPéØ OñùB OXpGú Þéýñýßþ ô AðXBï
|èýç| uýípÕ ô øíßBo
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ÞBoøBÿ OXpGþ ô @qìBüzãBøþ AuQ Þú ìþ|OõAðl Gú oôyò yló ôÚBüÏþ
Þú ko AgPç|æ|R Kõu`pAë oôÿ ìþ|køl Þíà ðíBül. âp^ú øñõq øî
ðíþ|OõAó ko ìõok OÛlï ô OBCgp øp üà Aq Aüò ôÚBüÐ O¿íýî âýpÿ ðíõk
ôèþ ìþ|OõAó â×Q ko Kõu`pB.S kô WrF SBGQ Aq OÓýýpAR, ðõuBó
ÚlAìþ|èãò ô AÖrAü{ èõokôq ìþ|GByl Þú Aq Aüò kô WrF, OñùB ðõuBó èãò
AgP¿BÁ Gú Kõu`p B.SkAok ô AÖrAü{ èõokôq Þípÿ ko Kõu`pøBÿ
küãp ðËýp øBüLp èõokôq øî külû ìþ|yõk.
ko ðùBüQ GpAÿ OÏýýò yýõÑ ÚÇÏþ AgPç|æ|R Kõu`pAë ô AÊùBo ðËp
ìñBGÐ:
ÚÇÏþ ko ìõok oAuPBÿ ì×B¾ê, KýzñùBk ìþ|yõk ko GpouýùBÿ GÏlÿ,
ìÇBèÏú ko WBìÏú GroâPpÿ ¾õoR âýpk ô GpAÿ ðPýXú âýpÿ ÚÇÏþ ko
ìõok oAuPBÿ uPõó ÖÛpAR KzPþ ô Þípÿ, AoqüBGþ ÚÇÏúAÿ AðXBï yõk ô
Aq @ðXB Þú ^ãõðãþ AìPlAk ì×B¾ê ô uãíBðùBÿ Gló ko OÏBìê ðrküà GB
Æõë ô ÚloR ÎÃç|R ÚpAo kAok KýzñùBk ìþ|yõk Þú ÚloR ô Æõë
ÎÃç|R ko øp AgPç|ë Kõu`pÿ ìõok Gpouþ kÚýÜ ÚpAo âýpk OB Æpf
OípüñBR koìBðþ GpAÿ ðrküà Þpkó oAuPBÿ Gló Gú oAuPBÿ ÆHýÏþ GB
külÿ WBìÐ ô oôyò ¾õoR Knüpk.
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Mosby 1999; P 62.
2- Shunway-Cook A. Motor control theory & practice application. Second
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4- Hall M C. Theraputic exercise moving toward function. Lippincott,
Williams & Wilkins 1999, P 128-9.
5- Christie H J, Kumar S, Warrens A. Postural aberrations in low back
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Mosby, 1998, P 224.
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Wilkins, 1993, P 83-8.
12- Kisner C, Colby A. Theraputic Exercise. Japee, 1996; P 535-6.
13- Hamill J, Knutzen M K. Biomechanical basis of human movement.
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14- Magee J D. Orthopedic physical assessment. Third edition, WB
Saunders Company, 1997; P 702.
15- Malcolm T F. A practical guide to sports injuries. Bulter worth
Heinemon, 2000, P13.
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17- Bennett D L, Gillis D K, Portney L G, Romanow M. Comparison of
integrated electromyography activity and lumbar curvature during
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18- Bryan J M. Investigation of the flexible rule as a noninvasive meassure
of lumbar lordosis in black and white sample population. JOSPT 1989;
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... Sway-Back Posture (SBP) is the most common deviation or faulty posture of sagittal alignment 1,3 characterized by anterior translation of the pelvis and hip joints, beyond the center of gravity line, a flatted curve in the lumbar region and overextended hip and knee joints. 2 In one study, it has been reported that 35% of young girls may be affected by sway back posture. 4 In a study that specifically included gymnasts, 80% of female gymnasts demonstrated SBP, which suggests that this postural fault is highly prevalent in this population. 5 Gymnastics is a competitive sport that involves a series of maneuvers requiring strength, flexibility, balance and high levels of motor control. ...
Article
Background: The prevalence of sway back posture (SBP) is very high among elite gymnasts. This posture may be partly due to the improper function of lumbar multifidus muscles (LMM) as lumbar stabilizers muscles. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the thicknesses of LMM measured at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift between elite gymnasts with SBP and normal posture. Study design: Observational, descriptive, comparative. Methods: The participants consist of twenty gymnasts between the ages of 17 and 30 who had trained in gymnastics for more than ten years. They were assigned to two groups: SBP (n=10) and control (n=10). Posture analysis with grid paper and plumb line was performed for all subjects. The thickness of LMM on dominant side of spinal column was measured by a real-time ultrasound at five lumbar levels. The thickness of the LMM was measured both at rest and during the contraction elicited during an arm lift. The variation between the LMM thickness between the muscle at rest and muscle at the peak of contraction was regarded as LMM muscle function. Result: The thickness of LMM was less in SBP group than the control group at all lumbar segments. The variation in LMM thickness between the state of rest and muscle contraction was significantly less in athletes with SBP than controls when compared at all levels of the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The function of LMM may be disturbed in athletes with SBP as demonstrated by decreased thicknesses of LMM found in gymnasts with SBP. Additionally, the thickness of the LMM as a strong antigravity and stabilizing muscle group was decreased during arm raising in gymnasts with SBP. Level of evidence: 3a.
Article
Full-text available
Background and Aims: Swayback posture is one of the spinal abnormalities and one of the important causes for the pathology of the Lumbo-Pelvic region. However, due to inadequate information about the method of evaluation among researchers, and also lack of agreement about the muscular changes, less attention has been paid to muscle activity in this posture. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to compare the electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during standing in females with and without swayback posture. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 30 inactive females selected using purposive sampling method were assigned into two groups of swayback posture and control. Pelvic tilt and sway angles were obtained with camera and electromyography signals from the thoracic and lumbar erector spine, lumbar multifidus, gluteus maximus, medial hamstring, rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and rectus femoris muscles during standing posture. Results: The results of independent t-test demonstrated significant differences between swayback posture and control groups in the pelvic tilt (p ꞊ 0/001) and sway angles (p ꞊ 0/001). Also, no significant differences were shown between the two groups in the electromyographic activity of erector spine, lumbar multifidus, rectus abdominal, external oblique, and hip extensor muscles during standing (p > 0/05). Moreover, there was a significant difference between the two groups in the amounts of activity of the rectus femoris muscle (p ꞊0/012) and internal oblique (p ꞊0/018). Conclusion: The findings of the present study demonstrated that there are similar muscle contractions in the trunk and hip muscles between two groups of sway back posture and control, which contrary to the previous studies, the perception of passive swayback posture has been somewhat violated. Hence, this can provide a better understanding of the sway back posture for trainers and athletes in assessment and rehabilitation. Cite this article as: Zahra Darzi Sheikh, Foad Seidi*, Reza Rajabi, Hooman Minoonejad. Comparison of the electromyographic activity of trunk and hip muscles during standing in females with and without Swayback posture.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of abdominal strengthening on pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis in healthy subjects with established abdominal weakness, in a relaxed standing position. Data were collected on 20 subjects, before and after an 8 week abdominal muscle strengthening programme. Abdominal muscle strength was tested using a modification of Kendall's leg-lowering test, pelvic tilt was measured using a pelvic inclinometer, and lumbar lordosis was measured using a flexible ruler. Twenty control subjects were used to determine reliability of the measurements over the 8 week period. The intra-class correlation coefficients calculated for measures of pelvic tilt, lumbar lordosis and abdominal strength were 0.87, 0.96 and 0.55 respectively, demonstrating reliability of these measures over the 8 week period. In the subsequent ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, post-test mean muscle strength in the experimental group was found to be significantly greater than in the control group. However, there were no differences in mean post-test pelvic tilt or lumbar lordosis between the groups. Based on the results of this study, the clinical practice of strengthening the abdominal musculature to affect change in lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt in standing posture needs to be reconsidered.
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Therapeutic Exercise: Moving Toward Function, Third Edition provides a conceptual framework for learning how to make clinical decisions regarding the prescription of therapeutic exercise-from deciding which exercise(s) to teach, to how to teach them, to the dosage required for the best outcome. Readers will learn how to use therapeutic exercise and related interventions to treat the impairments that correlate to functional limitations and disability and to work toward optimal function. Highlights of this Third Edition include case studies in each chapter and more than 200 new photographs and illustrations. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, a Wolters Kluwer business. All rights reserved.
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Thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis and pelvic tilt were measured in standing in one hundred and three adolescent females, using a specially designed inclinometer. Indices of the muscle lengths (abdominals, erector spinae, iliopsoas, gluteals, rectus femoris and hamstrings) were measured using inclinometry and goniometry and expressed as angles of joint position. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the index of erector spinae length was negatively correlated with lumbar lordosis (r = - 0.24, p < 0.05). The abdominal length index was positively correlated with lumbar lordosis (r = 0.209, p < 0.05), and the hamstring length index was negatively correlated with lordosis (r = - 0.213, p < 0.05). No muscle length index was significantly related to pelvic tilt. A negative association between the degree of thoracic kyphosis and the abdominal length index was found (r = -0.245, p < 0.05).
Article
A technique is described for assessing lumbar sagittal mobility, which distinguishes between the motion of the upper and lower lumbar regions. The method employs a draughtsman's flexible curve and requires the location of three specific spinal landmarks. Validation procedures were performed which show that the method is capable of recording 'regional' sagittal mobility and correlates well with other methods. The intra- and inter-observer accuracy of the method was explored and the results show it to be reproducible to less than 9% for the same observer and 15% for different observers. The flexicurve technique is inexpensive and simple both to learn and to use.
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Low back pain is a common consequence of gymnastic training. Potential aetiological factors include postural muscle weakness and abnormal posture. This study assessed the incidence of, and relationship between, reduced postural muscle endurance, posture type and low back pain in 12 male and 10 female élite gymnasts and matched controls. Postural muscle endurance was assessed using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU). Posture was categorised subjectively by observation. History of low back pain was determined by questionnaire. Postural muscle endurance was non-significantly reduced (P > 0.05) in all gymnasts. The most common postures reported were sway-back (male gymnasts 100%; male controls 62.5%), lordosis (female gymnasts 80%) and normal (female controls 70%). Low back pain was reported in two female gymnasts, two female controls, nine male gymnasts and two male controls. Postural muscle endurance tended to reduce (P > 0.05) in those subjects with low back pain and lordotic postures. Low back pain was slightly more prevalent in those subjects with a sway-back posture. There is some evidence of a link between low back pain, posture and postural muscle endurance in gymnasts although no cause-and-effect relationships can be determined. These data should be further investigated and the practical implications for gymnasts and their training should be evaluated.
Article
The purposes of this paper were to describe a clinically useful and noninvasive method of characterizing the shape of the lumbar spine and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this measurement technique. A flexible ruler was applied to the skin over the lumbar spines of 23 normal adults and an angle in degrees between two spinous processes (L 1 -S2) was calculated. lntratester test-retest reliability was good (ICC = 0.97, N = 89) for two separate measures of two spinal postures. The validity of the flexible ruler measurements was also good when compared to two different measurement techniques from a limited number of patient roentgenographs. The flexible ruler was determined to be a reliable and valid measurement technique for the shape of the lumbar spine and may prove helpful in quantifying lumbar postures and the effectiveness of clinical treatments designed to affect lumbar postures. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(4):180-184.
Article
The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the authors and are not to be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Army, the Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government. The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of the flexible ruler as a noninvasive measure of lumbar lordosis in black and white adult females. The bony landmarks of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) and the intersection of the posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS) were palpated and marked on 45 adult females (21 blacks, 24 whites). Potential subjects with a previous history of activity-limiting low-back pain, spinal surgery, or spinal anomaly were excluded from the study. A lateral lumbosacral roentgenograph was taken of each subject, and an actual (skeletal) lumbosacral lordosis angle (ALS) was calculated from the roentgenograph. A flexible ruler was then molded to the contour of the subject's lumbosacral spine, and the previously marked L2 and PSIS intersection bony landmarks were located on the flexible ruler. The flexible ruler lordosis angle (FRA) was then calculated and correlated to the subject's ALS. The criterion validity of the flexible ruler as a measure of actual lumbosacral lordosis was poor (Pearsons' Correlation Coefficient = 0.30, N = 45). Because of the poor criterion validity of the flexible ruler compared to roentgenographically confirmed lumbar lordosis, the flexible ruler has questionable clinical value in the assessment of lumbar lordosis. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1989;11(1):3-7.
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The prevalence of trunk abnormalities was studied in 4,915 children aged 11 years (2,528 boys, 2,387 girls); 33% of the children were of non-Dutch origin. The following measurements were recorded: height, weight, signs of puberty, and menarche. Trunk abnormality was assessed in the erect child (asymmetry of shoulders, waistline, imbalance of the trunk, scoliosis, lordosis, kyphosis, swayback, and flexibility) and by the forward bending test (rib hump or lumbar prominence, persistence of scoliosis, kyphosis, deviant lateral aspect); 85.9% of boys and 81.3% of girls were symmetric, and abnormal forward bending test was noted in 7.1% of boys and 10.6% of girls. In non-Dutch girls, trunk abnormalities were more prevalent.