Children with Apert Syndrome as Adults: A Follow-Up Study of 28 Scandinavian Patients

Göteborg, Sweden From the Department of Plastic Surgery, Institute for Clinical Sciences, University of Göteborg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (Impact Factor: 2.99). 10/2012; 130(4):573e-7e. DOI: 10.1097/PRS.0b013e318262f355
Source: PubMed


: Apert syndrome (acrocephalosyndactyly type 1) includes craniofacial deformities, malformations of the extremities and the central nervous system, and often mental retardation. The aim of this study was to investigate the life situation of adult patients with Apert syndrome.
: Thirty-three patients with Apert syndrome born before 1990 were identified in the Göteborg craniofacial registry. The authors used a questionnaire mainly dealing with education, employment, social relations, and quality of life. A matched control group was created for comparison.
: Five of the patients had died. Twenty-four of the remaining patients answered the questionnaire. The level of education was lower in patients than in controls (p = 0.007), but there was no significant difference in the extent of employment between the two groups. The difference in housing was significant (p < 0.001) and the majority of patients lived with their parents. Patients were less often married (p < 0.001), had fewer friends (p < 0.001), and had less experience with sexual relationships (p < 0.001). The somatic health was lower in patients [e.g., they had more hearing problems (p < 0.001) and more epilepsy (p = 0.005)]. Depressive mood periods were more common in patients (p < 0.001), but there was no difference between the groups regarding a generally positive attitude toward life.
: This study shows that patients with Apert syndrome manage relatively well in adulthood. The discrepancy in social relations between the Apert patients and the healthy control group indicates that further improvement of the treatment is desirable.

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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Crouzon syndrome presents with craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, exophtalmus, and sometimes hampered neuropsychological development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life for adult patients with Crouzon syndrome. Forty patients with Crouzon syndrome born before 1990 could be identified. A questionnaire addressing education, employment, social relations, and quality-of-life was used. A matched control group was created for comparison. Logistic regression, correcting for the influence of age and sex, was used to compare patients and controls. Thirty-one patients and 285 controls answered the questionnaire. The level of education was lower in patients than in controls (p < 0.015). Patients were less often married or had a partner (p = 0.059), had fewer children of their own (p = 0.004), and had less experience of a sexual relationship (p < 0.001). The difference in housing was not significant, and only one patient lived in a care centre and three patients required a personal assistant to manage activities of daily living. The patients' estimation of their somatic health was equal to that of the controls, but the patients more often used anti-epileptic medication (p = 0.003). Periods of depressive mood were more common in patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between the groups regarding a general positive attitude to life. In conclusion, patients with Crouzon syndrome often have intellectual and social shortcomings that negatively affect their lives. However, the range of abilities is wide in this group.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013
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    ABSTRACT: Crouzon and Apert syndromes are the most common syndromic forms of craniofacial dysostosis. Apert syndrome has a broad clinical spectrum, including complex craniofacial involvement, as well as limiting deformities of the hands, feet, and other joints that require multiple surgical procedures when compared with Crouzon syndrome, which is generally less severe. The authors hypothesized that the quality of life of Apert syndrome patients is inferior to that of Crouzon syndrome patients. The quality of life of Apert (n = 8) and Crouzon (n = 12) syndrome patients was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the quality-of-life scores between Apert and Crouzon patients. Values were considered significant for a confidence interval of 95 percent (p < 0.05). Apert patients showed an overall higher (score > 60 percent) quality of life in most World Health Organization Quality of Life-100 facets (68 percent) and domains (83.33 percent), with significance (p < 0.05) in three facets (energy and fatigue, mobility, and environment in the home), compared with Crouzon patients. Contrary to the authors' initial hypothesis, both the highest-functioning Apert patients and the Crouzon patients presented a satisfactory quality of life, demonstrating that these syndromic patients had acquired the necessary repertoire to manage the adverse daily situations of their lives.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2014 · Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives Apert syndrome is characterized by craniosynostosis and complex hand and foot syndactyly, as well as an increased risk of brain, palate, heart and visceral malformations, and intellectual disability. This study aims to describe the structural brain abnormalities detected by dedicated neuroimaging of fetuses with Apert syndrome.Methods Retrospective review of ultrasound and MRI brain imaging obtained in 6 fetuses with a diagnosis of Apert syndrome.ResultsFive fetuses had attenuation of the septal leaflets, and two had corpus callosum dysgenesis. All six had temporal lobe expansion and overconvolution and temporal lobe clefts. The temporal lobe abnormalities preceded the development of cranial deformity in two fetuses.Conclusion Overexpansion and overconvolution of the temporal lobe is evident antenatally and is particularly conspicuous in the fetus when the normal brain is still relatively smooth (approximately 24 to 28 weeks of gestation). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Prenatal Diagnosis