Gender Differences in the Presence of Drugs in Violent Deaths.
Population Research Center and Department of Sociology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA.Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 09/2012; 108(3). DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04098.x
AIMS: To investigate differences in the presence of drugs, by gender, when considering deaths attributable to homicides and suicides. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of mortality data collected by the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 5,791 Colorado decedents who died of violent causes from 2004 through 2009. MEASUREMENT: Forensic pathologist autopsy data on drug presence at time of death, coded as present, not present, or missing. FINDINGS: Postmortem presence of drugs is strongly associated with the specific cause of violent death. Compared with suicide decedents, homicide decedents are significantly more likely to test positive for amphetamines (odds ratio (OR) 1.79; CI 1.34, 2.39), marijuana (OR 2.03; CI 1.60, 2.58), and cocaine (OR 2.60; CI 2.04, 3.31), and are less likely to test positive for opiates (OR 0.27; CI 0.18, 0.39) and antidepressants (OR 0.17; CI 0.10, 0.28). When other drugs are controlled for the influence of alcohol is abated dramatically. The patterns of drug prevalence associated with homicide (particularly marijuana) are stronger among males; the patterns of drug prevalence associated with suicide are stronger among females. CONCLUSIONS: Suicide and homicide decedents are characterized by varying patterns of licit and illicit drug use that differ by gender. Drugs associated with homicide (marijuana, cocaine, and amphetamines) are stronger among males; while drugs associated with suicide are stronger among females (antidepressants and opiates). Taking these differences into consideration may allow for targeted interventions to reduce violent deaths.
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ABSTRACT: The link between substance use and suicide is well established. However, little research analyzes how substance use is related to the method of suicide. This article analyzes how specific drugs are associated with method of suicide, a critical topic because drug use bears on the etiology of suicide and may lead to policies aimed at deterring suicide. We use the Colorado Violent Death Reporting System and logistic regression to examine postmortem presence of drugs among 3,389 hanging and firearm suicides in Colorado from 2004 to 2009. Net of demographic controls, we find that opiates are positively associated with firearms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.27, 2.86]) while antidepressants are positively associated with hanging (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = [1.04, 2.03]). For cocaine and opiates, the association between drug use and violent method vary by educational attainment. Importantly, knowledge of the presence and type of specific drug is strongly associated with the method of suicide.
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