Cambio climático y pobreza en el Distrito Federal


por el Centro Virtual de Cambio Climático de la Ciudad de México (CVCCCM) y la UNAM. Los autores agra-decen los valiosos comentarios de dos dictaminadores anónimos. 45 I����������� La mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre los impactos del cambio climá-tico se han enfocado en determinar los costos a nivel agregado (macroeco-nómico), utilizando indicadores tales como el producto interno bruto (PIB) y el empleo (Stern et al. 2006). De hecho, existen pocos estudios que permitan identificar los impactos del cambio climático a nivel microeconómico, por ejemplo, en los niveles de bienestar de los individuos y de las familias a nivel regional. La importancia de contar con estudios a nivel hogar reside en que se podría contar con cifras específicas, respecto a los costos para ciertos grupos de individuos, que permitirían diseñar, implementar y evaluar políticas públicas enfocadas a aminorar los costos del cambio climático.

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  • Diana del Cisne Encalada-Jumbo · Armando Sánchez-Vargas
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    ABSTRACT: In this article we aim at eliciting households’ willingness to pay (WTP) for protecting water quantity and quality, by restoring a small basin, in the face of climate change in Ecuador. To do so, we carry out a discrete choice experiment based on a representative survey of 248 users of the water system that depends on such basin; this type of methodology is often used in the economics literature to predict consumer choice and prices. Our results suggest that about 62.1 % of the respondents are willing to pay to secure water quantity and quality at home by carrying out a restoration plan of the basin to cope with climate extreme events. Households’ willingness to pay for restoring the basin and securing water quality and quantity is about 1.24 and 0.5 dollars, respectively. These payments would be charged in the water bill in the form of monthly local taxes. Our findings also suggest that households’ climate change perceptions have a significant effect on the willingness to pay. These results might constitute important inputs for policy makers to take decisions on the value of water and on the amount of investments needed to adapt to climate change.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015
  • Armando Sánchez-Vargas
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    ABSTRACT: We carry out a statistical analysis to estimate the probability of households having access to water and identify the most vulnerable people in counties with extreme weather in Mexico City. We use a methodology that combines the use of spatial, climate, and household survey data. Our results suggest that locations in 10 out of 16 counties in Mexico City are currently affected by extreme conditions and in addition show a lower probability of having water access at home. From the 8.8 million people living in Mexico City, about 3,142,660 are living in areas with decreasing mean rainfall over time, “scarce rainfall zones,” and approximately 1,500,100 in areas with an increasing mean temperature over time, “high temperature zones.” Only five counties are currently affected by scarce rainfall and high temperature at the same time; which implies that there are around 508,840 highly vulnerable people in Mexico City affected by both types of extreme conditions. We also find that by coincidence, the odds of having water at home are much lower for people living in six counties with extreme conditions and their odds are reduced between 20 and 30 %. Such counties also have high poverty levels, so water scarcity conditions are reinforcing the vulnerability of the population. Knowing the precise spatial location and the number of affected people will definitively contribute to improve the implementation of public policies and the effectiveness in the use of resources devoted to problems like water access in the face of extreme events.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2015