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The influence of close others’ exercise habits and perceived social support on exercise


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Objectives: Exercise rates are low, but perceived support from close others can influence exercise habits. The purpose of the study was to examine the influence of perceived support for exercise as well as close others' exercise habits on own exercise, and to examine the differential effects of friend's exercise and romantic partner's exercise. Design: Undergraduates (N = 220) at a northeastern university completed questionnaires on their own exercise habits, their romantic partner's and best friend's exercise habits, and perceived support for exercise. Results: Friend's exercise was associated with own exercise, but only when perceived support was high. Being male, partner's exercise, and friend's exercise all independently predicted own exercise. Conclusions: Exercise habits of close others are associated with one's own exercise habits, though this relationship may vary depending on perceived support. Attention should be paid to women's exercise habits, since they are less likely to exercise than men.
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The inuence of close othersexercise habits and perceived social
support on exercise
Susan D. Darlow
, Xiaomeng Xu
Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA
article info
Article history:
Received 23 August 2010
Received in revised form
31 March 2011
Accepted 24 April 2011
Available online 30 April 2011
Social support
Objectives: Exercise rates are low, but perceived support from close others can inuence exercise habits.
The purpose of the study was to examine the inuence of perceived support for exercise as well as close
othersexercise habits on own exercise, and to examine the differential effects of friends exercise and
romantic partners exercise.
Design: Undergraduates (N¼220) at a northeastern university completed questionnaires on their own
exercise habits, their romantic partners and best friends exercise habits, and perceived support for
Results: Friends exercise was associated with own exercise, but only when perceived support was high.
Being male, partners exercise, and friends exercise all independently predicted own exercise.
Conclusions: Exercise habits of close others are associated with ones own exercise habits, though this
relationship may vary depending on perceived support. Attention should be paid to womens exercise
habits, since they are less likely to exercise than men.
Ó2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Exercise increases longevity, prevents obesity, and reduces risk
of some chronic illnesses such as coronary heart disease and
hypertension (U.S. DHHS, 1996). Exercise also benets mental
health, with positive effects on depressive symptoms (Ross &
Hayes, 1998) and anxiety (Sallis & Owen, 1999). Exercise is also
related to high self-esteem and overall quality of life (McAuley &
Rudolph, 1995). Despite the many benets of exercise, rates of
activity among people who live in the United States are extraordi-
narily low, with over half not engaging in the recommended
amount of physical activity (CDC, 2007). These low rates are trou-
bling given the association between exercise and decreased risk of
chronic illness.
Support from close others can inuence exercise (Courneya,
Plotnikoff, Hotz, & Birkett, 2000). Behavior can be encouraged by
close others, and people may be more likely to engage in behaviors
when their close others do so. Exercise may be modeled by close
others, and these close others may also provide praise during
exercise, as well as opportunities to exercise (Sallis & Hovell, 1990).
Therefore, support to exercise can occur in a variety of forms. For
example, positive feedback from close others, as well as close
others being physically active, is related to greater physical activity
(Booth, Owen, Bauman, Clavisi, & Leslie, 2000). Since women tend
to afliate with their social networks more than men do (Taylor,
2002), it is possible that the impact of social support may be
more robust for women. This is illustrated by studies demon-
strating the importance of support on womens exercise habits
(Castro, Sallis, Hickmann, Lee, & Chen, 1999; Eyler et al., 1999).
Other studies have shown that exercise habits of both men and
women are impacted by perceived social support (Leslie, Owen,
Salmon, Bauman, & Sallis, 1999). The inuence of close others
exercise may vary depending on whether the close other is
a romantic partner or a friend. While romantic partners exercise
has been shown to be related to ones own exercise (Booth et al.,
2000; Wallace, Raglin, & Jastremski, 1995), less research has been
done on the impact of friends exercise. Some studies have exam-
ined differences in support to exercise from family and friends
(Eyler et al., 1999), and a measure has also been developed that
assesses support from various specic close others (Sallis,
Grossman, Pinski, Patterson, & Nader, 1987), but few studies have
examined differences in the impact of the exercise habits of close
others. When close others engage in a behavior, they model the
behavior. On the other hand, people may seek out close others who
engage in the same behaviors. Much of the research on social
support and behavior fails to examine whether the relationship
between close othersbehavior and ones own behavior will vary
depending on the identity of the close other.
*Corresponding author. Department of Psychology, Stony Brook University, Stony
Brook, NY 11794-2500, USA. Tel.: þ1 631 632 9208; fax: þ1 631 632 7876.
E-mail address: (S.D. Darlow).
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Psychology of Sport and Exercise
journal homepage:
1469-0292/$ esee front matter Ó2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Psychology of Sport and Exercise 12 (2011) 575e578
The purpose of the study was to examine the inuence of
perceived support for exercise as well as close othersperceived
exercise habits on ones own exercise. Differences in the inuence
of romantic partners as opposed to best friends exercise were
examined, and the role of gender was also considered. We
hypothesized that perceived support for exercise and perceived
partners and friends exercise would all predict own exercise. We
also predicted that levels of own exercise would be greatest when
both support for exercise and close othersexercise was high, and
this hypothesis was examined by testing interactive effects. We
believed that friendsexercise habits would be just as important as
that of a romantic partner and that hypothesized effects would be
stronger for women than for men.
Undergraduates at a public northeastern university who were
required to fulll research participation requirements participated
in the study. Since a focus of the study was to compare perceived
exercise habits of friends and romantic partners, only participants
in a romantic relationship were included (N¼220). Participants
reported on the perceived exercise habits of their best friend and
their romantic partner. Participantsage ranged from 18 to 26
(M¼18.9), and gender was 56.4% female and 43.6% male. The racial
self-identication of participants was as follows: 40.9% Asian
American/Pacic Islander, 31.4% European American, 14.5% other/
mixed, 7.3% Latino/Hispanic, 5.5% African-American/Black, and .5%
American Indian.
Participants lled out computer questionnaires as part of a larger
departmental mass testing session and received credit toward
a research participation requirement.
Own exercise, as well as perceived partners and friendsexer-
cise were assessed using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Ques-
tionnaire (Godin & Shephard, 1985). This psychometrically robust
four-item questionnaire assessed frequency of mild, moderate,
and strenuous exercise (dened for respondents in the instruc-
tions). Participants lled out the questionnaire three times: once
for own exercise, once for romantic partnersexercise, and again for
best friendsexercise. A composite exercise score was created for
own, partners, and friends exercise by weighting mild, moderate,
and vigorous exercise accordingly.
Perceived support for exercise was measured by one item: How
much support do you receive for participating in regular physical
activity from the people closest to you?The item was scored on a ve
point scale, with 1being None at alland 5being Very much.
We also measured Body Mass Index (BMI), which was calculated
from participantsself-reported height and weight. The following
standard formula was used: (wt
Data analysis
Data was inspected for outliers, non-normality, and missing data.
Descriptive statistics and correlations were calculated, and inde-
pendent samples t-tests were conducted to examine gender differ-
ences. Hierarchical regression analysis was conducted for own
exercise. BMI, gender, perceived support for exercise, and perceived
friends and partners exercise were entered on Step One. Perceived
support and friends and partners exercise were centered at the
grand mean. All six two-way interactions were entered on Step Two:
gender support, gender friends exercise, gender partners
exercise, support friends exercise, support partnersexercise,
and friendsexercisepartners exercise. All four three-way inter-
actions were entered on Step Three. The four-way interaction was
entered on Step Four. Therefore, we tested all possible interactions
among study variables in order to detect any moderating effects.
Statistically signicant interactions are described rst, followed by
signicant main effects. We report results from the full model only
(i.e. all main effects and interactions entered), as these provide the
strongest test of study hypotheses. Signicant interactions were
inspected using simple slopes analyses.
Descriptivestatistics and correlationsbetween study variables for
the sample are reported in Table 1. We tested for multicollinearity by
examining variance ination factors, none of which exceeded 4.0,
indicating no problems with multicollinearity (Kleinbaum, Kupper,
Muller, & Nizam, 1998). Independent samples t-tests examining
gender differences for support for exercise and own, partners, and
friends exercise were not statistically signicant.
Results of the hierarchical regression are displayed in Table 2.
We found a signicant gender support friends exercise inter-
action, t(203) ¼3.14, p<.01, r¼.22. Simple slopes analysis revealed
that when support to exercise was high (at least one standard
deviation above the mean), friends exercise was associated with
own exercise for both men, simple slope ¼.42, t(203) ¼2.40,
p<.05, and women, simple slope ¼.71, t(203) ¼2.41, p<.05.
Friends exercise was not signicantly associated with own exercise
when perceived support was low (at least one standard deviation
below the mean) for both men and women.
A signicant support friends exercise interaction was found,
t(203) ¼2.61, p<.05, r¼.18, but the simple slopes analysis
indicated no signicant trends. The interaction of friends exercise
and partners exercise marginally predicted own exercise,
t(203) ¼1.96, p¼.05, r¼.14. When partners exercise was low
(at least one standard deviation below the mean), friends exercise
was associated with own exercise, simple slope ¼.30, t(203) ¼3.32,
p<.01. Friends exercise was not associated with own exercise
when partner exercise was at average or above average levels.
Analyses of main effects show that being male, t(203) ¼2.63,
p<.01, friends exercise, t(203) ¼3.36, p<.01, and partnersexer-
cise, t(203) ¼3.77, p<.001, were independently associated with
own exercise.
With exercise rates being low, it is important to examine
predictors of exercise, such as perceived social support. Findings
Table 1
Correlations, means, and standard deviations of study variables for entire sample
Variables BMI Support Own
BMI e.04 .12 .02 .18**
Support for exercise e.18* .08 .15*
Own exercise e.45*** .47***
Partner exercise e.40***
Friend exercise e
M22.8 2.3 32.7 33.9 30.6
SD 4.2 1.2 28.4 32.0 31.1
*p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001. Note: range of values: BMI (15e39), support (0e4),
own exercise (0e133), partner exercise (0e136), friend exercise (0e136).
S.D. Darlow, X. Xu / Psychology of Sport and Exercise 12 (2011) 575e578576
demonstrated that perceived exercise habits of both best friends
and romantic partners are independently associated with ones
own exercise habits, when controlling for body weight. There are
a few possible explanations for this association. First, friends and
romantic partners may model exercise behavior. That is, people
may exercise based on what they see their close others doing.
Actions taken by close others that one admires suggest that the
behavior being engaged in is desirable and normal (Christakis &
Fowler, 2007). Engaging in the same behaviors as a close other
provides opportunities to spend time together and also provides
a conversation topic. Finally, itis also likely that we seek out friends
and romantic partners who are similar to us or who engage in
similar health behaviors such as eating and physical activity habits
(Bahr, Browning, Wyatt, & Hill, 2009).
The perceived exercise habits of friends were associated with
own exercise, but only when perceived support for exercise was at
least above average. Although this trend was found for both men
and women, the association was stronger for women, who we
found reported less exercise than men. Men are more likely than
women to engage in recommended levels of physical activity (U.S.
DHHS, 1996). Women tend to perceive more barriers to exercise
than men do (Lee, 1993), and some women feel discouraged from
exercising by their close others, or feel self-conscious in an exercise
environment (King et al., 2000). Men, on the other hand, may be
expected to exercise or do not experience similar levels of self-
consciousness, as men are highly visible in professional sports
(Hargreaves, 1994). Therefore, support from close others may be
important for women since they are less likely to initiate physical
This study had several strengths. First, most studies of social
support and exercise focus on romantic partners (Booth et al., 2000;
Pettee et al., 2006). Few studies examine the impact of a best
friends exercise habits. We compared the impact of a romantic
partners exercise habits, as well as that of a close friend. We found
that both factors impact ones own exercise habits, but future
research should continue to examine how the two types of close
others inuence individuals in different ways. We also considered
social support in two different ways. Not only did we ask partici-
pants to indicate the degree to which they perceive support to
exercise, we also considered the perceived amount of exercise close
others engage in as a form of support. Finally, the statistical anal-
yses that we conducted were comprehensive in that they accoun-
ted for both main effects and interactions between study variables.
In other words, this test of study hypotheses included an exami-
nation of multiple factors associated with physical activity in one
model, in order to assess independent effects of these factors, as
well as interactions.
The study is not without its limitations. First, all questionnaires
were self-report in which participants indicated their perceptions
of their close othersexercise. Therefore, it is possible that they may
have over- or under-estimated their close othersexercise. Also, our
measure of support consisted of one item. There are measures that
are designed to assess support for exercise (Sallis et al., 1987), and
ndings should be replicated using these measures. Third, we
included only participants in a romantic relationship. It is possible
that friends exercise will have a different impact for someone who
is not in a romantic relationship. Finally, our study lacked a theo-
retical framework, such as that provided by the theory of planned
behavior (Ajzen & Madden, 1986). However, testing the validity of
a health behavior theory was beyond the scope of this study, as the
purpose of the study was to examine associations of close others
exercise, perceived social support, and gender with onesown
exercise habits.
This study demonstrated the impact of close others on exercise.
We showed that the perceived exercise of close others is associated
with ones exercise habits, with friends exercise only being asso-
ciated with own exercise when there is perceived support to do so.
Future research should explore why perceived support to exercise
may moderate the inuence of the exercise habits of friends but not
romantic partners. Future studies should also investigate how other
factors such as self-efcacy and attitudes toward exercise interact
with perceived support and perceived exercise by close others to
impact own exercise. Social support is important for engaging in
health behaviors. By further exploring the different ways in which
Table 2
Hierarchical regression for variables predicting own exercise (N¼220).
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Step One
BMI .35 .40 .05 .36 .41 .05 .51 .40 .07 .47 .40 .07
Gen 5.57 3.33 .10 6.10 3.46 .11 9.50 3.57 .17** 9.39 3.58 .17**
Supp 2.61 1.35 .11 3.07 1.98 .13 3.26 2.05 .14 2.73 2.15 .12
F ex .27 .06 .30*** .27 .09 .29** .31 .09 .33** .30 .09 .33**
P ex .30 .06 .33*** .33 .10 .37** .38 .10 .43*** .38 .10 .43***
Step Two
Gen Supp .65 2.79 .02 1.19 2.86 .04 .66 2.93 .02
Gen F ex .00 .12 .00 .04 .12 .03 .02 .13 .01
Gen Pex .04 .13 .04 .15 .13 .13 .13 .13 .11
Supp F ex .01 .05 .01 .18 .07 .26* .19 .07 .28*
Supp P ex .03 .05 .04 .10 .07 .14 .09 .07 .13
FexP ex .00 .00 .03 .00 .00 .17 .00 .00 .18
Step Three
Gen Supp Fex .31 .10 .33** .31 .10 .33**
Gen Supp Pex .10 .10 .10 .08 .10 .09
Gen Fe
xPex .00 .00 .14 .01 .00 .16
Supp FexPex .00 .00 .03 .00 .00 .09
Step Four
Gen Supp FexPex .00 .00 .09
.32 .33 .38 .38
Ffor change in R
20.41*** .11 4.40** .67
*p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001. Note: Gen ¼gender; Supp ¼support; F ex ¼friends exercise; P ex ¼partners exercise.
S.D. Darlow, X. Xu / Psychology of Sport and Exercise 12 (2011) 575e578 577
support from close others can inuence healthy behaviors, ways
that social support can be incorporated into exercise interventions
can be investigated.
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S.D. Darlow, X. Xu / Psychology of Sport and Exercise 12 (2011) 575e578578
... As expected, social support was positively associated with regular LTPA. The effect of social support on physical activity has been reported in both men and women (Darlow & Xu, 2011), and in young (Allgower et al., 2001;Gruber, 2008) and older adults (Smith et al., 2017). Men and women's LTPA were positively related to family and friend support specific to exercise (Darlow & Xu, 2011;Smith et al., 2017). ...
... The effect of social support on physical activity has been reported in both men and women (Darlow & Xu, 2011), and in young (Allgower et al., 2001;Gruber, 2008) and older adults (Smith et al., 2017). Men and women's LTPA were positively related to family and friend support specific to exercise (Darlow & Xu, 2011;Smith et al., 2017). Moreover, older adults' physical activity were positively associated with social support, especially when coming from family members (Smith et al., 2017). ...
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Aims This exploratory study, using mixed methods research, aimed to (1) examine the associations among self‐efficacy, social support and regular leisure‐time physical activity of nursing staff, and (2) identify motivators and barriers to leisure‐time physical activity. Background It is important to engage nursing staff in regular leisure‐time physical activity as a countermeasure against high occupational stress and poor health. Limited research has examined nursing staff's participation in leisure‐time physical activity and associated factors. Methods Nursing staff employed at a community hospital in the northeastern United States were invited to participate in this cross‐sectional survey with close‐ and open‐ended questions in March 2016. Results A total of 363 nurses and nursing assistants responded, among whom, 59.8% reported regular leisure‐time physical activity. Poisson regression models suggested that self‐efficacy and social support had an interactive association with increased prevalence of regular leisure‐time physical activity. Conclusion Self‐efficacy and social support have an important synergistic association with regular leisure‐time physical activity of nursing staff. Effective interventions intending to facilitate nursing staff's leisure‐time physical activity should consider improving their self‐efficacy and social support. Qualitative comments suggested that work‐out areas in the workplace with release time and organized activity may promote regular leisure‐time physical activity of nursing staff.
... Los modelos de rol, en movilidad peatonal, son personas que al caminar animan a otros a hacerlo también, propiciando el aumento de las relaciones interpersonales dentro de una comunidad. Dentro de la figura del modelo de rol, un papel destacado lo desempeñan familiares, amigos o una pareja físicamente activa (Darlow, & Xu, 2011;Harley et al., 2009). Si bien los estudios de Mesters et al. (2014) no evidenciaron una influencia directa entre este factor y el caminar y realizar actividad física en general, otras investigaciones asignan al modelo de rol un papel destacado en el estímulo de las personas para que realicen más actividad física y caminen en la ciudad (Booth et al., 2005). ...
... Al incrementarse la proporción de viajes a pie en el total de viajes de miembros de la familia, se anima a las personas a caminar más. Esto está en línea con los hallazgos de estudios previos que mostraron el impacto positivo del modelo de rol y el entorno familiar activo en el estímulo y el aumento de la actividad física y la caminata (Booth et al., 2005;Darlow, & Xu, 2011;Harley et al., 2009). ...
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Caminar es el modo de desplazamiento más sostenible y apropiado en tiempos de pospandemia, especialmente, en las ciudades de tamaño medio. Sin embargo, la movilidad peatonal se ha reducido significativamente durante las últimas décadas en Temuco, Chile. A este respecto, el estudio tiene como objetivo examinar la contribución de factores sociodemográficos, de entorno familiar activo, de densidad de población y de la densidad residencial en la merma observada. Los factores mencionados se examinan en función del propósito que motiva los viajes a pie, aspecto que ha sido destacado en investigaciones anteriores que han abordado el tema. El estudio utilizó los resultados de la Encuesta Origen Destino 2013 (Secretaría de Planificación del Transporte [Sectra], 2014), en Temuco, relacionando datos con su localización a través de un Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG). El análisis de las variables arrojó como resultado la correlación entre mayor movilidad peatonal y familias de bajos ingresos. En esa línea, se encontraron asociaciones entre una mayor movilidad peatonal y factores sociodemográficos, como la edad, género, disponibilidad de licencia de conducir y posesión de vehículos en el hogar, entre otros. Además, se hallaron igualmente relaciones con un entorno familiar activo y con la densidad residencial. Estos hallazgos pueden aportar contenidos a la actual discusión en política urbana, en especial, al identificar la conjugación de factores que inciden con mayor peso en el incremento de la caminata como forma de desplazamiento en la ciudad.
... When it comes to walking, role models are persons who walk and urge others to do so as well. Physical exercise and walking are directly related with the support of family and friends, such as a partner or friends who are physically active [39,40]. A physically active family setting has a significant influence in encouraging people to engage in more physical exercise and walking, according to the role model indicators [41]. ...
... In addition, the "number of persons walking in each household" adds to increased retail walking. This is consistent with prior research, which found that role models and an active family environment have a considerable impact on increasing physical exercise and walking [39][40][41]. The policy makers of this city should pay attention to this motivational factor in order to improve walking behavior in this city. ...
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The increase in active travel contributes to maintaining the minimum rate of physical activity and therefore has a positive impact on inhabitants’ public health. The level of walking for daily transport has decreased significantly during the last decades in Temuco, Chile. This study examined the contribution of socio-demographic factors, active family environment, and built environment factors to walking behavior and walking level based on three types of destination in Temuco. The results of Encuesta Origin Destino (EOD 2013), geographic information system (GIS), and, finally, hierarchical multiple regression analysis were used to examine the objectives. Correlations were found between total walking behavior, walking level based on three destination types, and several socio demographic factors such as age, gender, and access to TV and Internet. Furthermore, correlations were found between walking behavior and active family environment, as well as several built environment factors. For instance, the higher mixed land use as well as number of parks and plazas contribute towards more overall walking as well as two types of walking. Identifying that most persons who walk come from low-income families and the negative impact of network connectivity on overall walking are the major differences between this context and developed countries.
... Role models, in regard to walking, are people who walk and whose participation encourages others to become involved. The support of family and friends and having a partner or friends who are physically active is significantly associated with physical activity and walking (Darlow and Xu 2011;Harley et al. 2009). Among the indicators of role model, physically active family environment has a remarkable role in the encouragement of people to do more physical activity and walking (Booth et al. 2005). ...
... Increasing the proportion of walking trips from the overall trips of the family members encourages them to walk more. This is in line with the findings of the previous studies which have showed the positive impact of role models and active family environment on encouragement and increasing the physical activity and walking (Booth et al. 2005;Darlow and Xu 2011;Harley et al. 2009). The policy makers of this city need to pay attention to this motivational factor to enhance walking behavior in Temuco. ...
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The improvement of walking contributes to maintain the minimum rate of physical activity and therefore the residents’ public health. This is while the amount of walking in daily transport of inhabitants has significantly decreased during the last decades in Temuco, Chile. In addition, the impact of socio-demographic as well as social factors on the improvement of walking behavior has been paid less attention in previous studies. This study aims to examine the contribution of socio-demographic factors and the active family environment to walking behavior as well as walking level based on three types of destinations in Temuco. The results of “Encuesta Origin Destino” (EOD) in Temuco were used to examine the objectives. It was found that a high percentage of people who walk in Temuco belong to low-income families. Moreover, most of the people who walk, do not have a driver’s license nor private cars in their household. Certain socio-demographic factors such as age, gender, driver’s license, private cars, and access to TV were found to have associations with overall walking behavior as well as walking level depending on three different destination types. Furthermore, the correlation was found between walking behavior and active family environment. These findings were discussed and their implications were addressed as well.
... In line with the aforementioned studies, more than two-thirds of the inactive women in the current study were mothers or were in charge of a child. Having the support of partners, family, or friends can help with work-life balance and being able to devote time to LTPA [96,97]. Women in the active group reported higher family and spousal support to participate in LTPA, which indicates that having a support network might help to increase the level of LTPA and maintain it over time. ...
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Abstract: Inactivity is higher among women than among men, and there are few specific question- 14 naires used to assess physical activity (PA) in women that are truly meaningful to them. This article 15 tackles the design and validation process of an ad hoc multidimensional questionnaire to assess lei- 16 sure time physical activity (LTPA) among adult women of Gipuzkoa. The questionnaire was com- 17 pleted by 3595 adult women (43.5 ± 12.1 years), 32% of which were inactive and 68% of which were 18 active. Content validation, ecological validation and internal consistency analysis results were sat- 19 isfactory. The Gipuzkoa Women's Physical Activity Questionnaire (GWPAQ) consists of four di- 20 mensions and 21 items. Barriers to PA were found related to intrapersonal, environmental and so- 21 cio-cultural aspects. The importance of family and spousal support in increasing PA levels was also 22 observed. It is concluded that the GWPAQ is valid for obtaining evidence that can be used by public 23 institutions to optimise women-specific PA promotion policies
... Se ha sugerido que el efecto de las redes sociales sobre el ejercicio podría deberse a un moldeamiento comportamental de los pares, amigos o la pareja sentimental. Así, las personas pueden ejercitarse porque están continuamente viendo cómo otras personas cercanas a ellos lo hacen (36). Además, como consecuencia de esta participación en actividades conjuntas, podrían percibir mayor apoyo social (37) y esta podría ser una razón por la cual continúan realizando este tipo de actividades. ...
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Hay un número creciente de adicciones conductuales que aún no han sido incluidas en el DSM pero que están siendo abordadas científicamente, como la dependencia al ejercicio físico. Con el objetivo de contribuir al estudio de esta problemática, se analizó la posible contribución del uso adictivo de redes sociales, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y el riesgo de trastorno de conducta alimentaria, junto con otras variables sociodemográficas, en una muestra de 407 usuarios regulares de gimnasios. Se realizó el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple en función del sexo. Para los hombres, las variables incluidas en el modelo fueron, en orden del valor del coeficiente de regresión: las horas por día en el gimnasio (B = 5,347, p<0,0001), los días por semana en el gimnasio (B = 2,917, p = 0,001), la dependencia al ejercicio físico (B = 1,801, p<0,0001), las lesiones (B = 1,006, p = 0,036) y el uso excesivo de redes sociales (B = 0,431, p= 0,006). Para las mujeres, los días por semana en el gimnasio (B = 3,812, p<0,0001), el nivel socioeconómico (B = -2,874, p = 0,024), la edad (B = 0,797, p=0,001), el valor total de la prueba de actitudes alimentarias (B = 0,697, p<0,0001) y el valor total del cuestionario de adicción a las redes sociales (B = 0,406, p =0,0001). Se encontró también una elevada prevalencia
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Background Tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and harmful use of alcohol are key behavioural risk factors for non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Individuals’ behaviours and attitudes are affected by their social environment, which can lead to the spreading of a behavioural risk factor through social connections. Understanding the spread of behavioural risk factors through social networks may allow us to identify targets amenable to intervention to reduce risk factor prevalence and ultimately death and suffering from non-communicable disease. Agent-based models are under-utilised as a tool to give insight into the epidemiology of non-communicable diseases. Methods We propose an agent-based model of the spread of four behavioural risk factors through social networks (defined as friendships and household relationships), based on the linear threshold cascade model. We created a synthetic community of agents each assigned a unique ID, an age (in three age-groups: 18–34, 35–64 and 65+ years), sex, and a number of connections in the relevant communities (friendships and household contacts), as well as a level ([0–2], based on increasing risk of CVD) for each of the behaviours modelled. Parameters were evidence-informed estimates, based on epidemiological data published in the literature and expert opinion. Where possible nationally representative data from the UK or England were used to estimate parameters. We used the Python package NetworkX to create the network. Results The method was applied to find the population risk of cardiovascular disease over 10 years for a population size of 10,000. Our model estimated rates of cardiovascular disease from 1.3 events per 1000 person years in 18–39 year old women to 83.1 events per 1000 person years in 65+ year old men which are consistently smaller than rates from observed data. We found that the model was most sensitive to the estimates of influence of spouse behaviour on agent behaviour. It was also sensitive to the average number of household contacts, particularly for the 18–34 age-group. Conclusion Future work is needed to address our model’s limitations which include that the model only considers two communities for each agent: its household and its friendships. Other communities such as workplaces and neighbourhoods could be integrated in the future. Future improvements will also be to add ethnicities and deprivation level to agents. Interactions between multiple behaviours are also relevant here. Our simplistic model assumes no interactions between concepts but integrating this in future versions will be necessary to model closer to reality.
In a sample of 28 individuals cohabiting with a partner in NYC, Boston, or Chicago, this study tested whether implementation of stay-home orders to combat the spread of COVID-19 disrupted physical activity and whether high-quality romantic relationships buffered adverse effects. Participants provided FitBit data between February and October, 2020. Stay-home orders were associated with a reduction in daily step counts, B = -1595.72, p = 0.018, increased sedentary minutes, B = 33.75, p = 0.002, and reduced daily minutes of light and moderate physical activity, B = -25.01, p = 0.011; B = -0.72, p = 0.021. No moderation effects emerged.
Background Bike share has been hypothesized to be a phenomenon of social contagion. The current study describes the features of the social network of annual subscribers of the Citi Bike share system in NYC and the characteristics of those who ever took a trip with another member. Methods Associations comparing members who rode with others (social) to those who rode alone (non-social) on selected study variables were examined. Social network analysis was performed to examine characteristics of the network of Citi Bike members. A social trip was determined based on start and end trip time and station locations. Results There were 241,340 active Citi Bike members with at least 365 days of membership between May 13, 2013 and December 31, 2018. Those who had taken at least one social trip (n = 139,302, 57.7%) were more likely to be older; have higher household income; have ridden a bike in NYC 12 months before membership; not own a car; self-report as physically active; self-report good health; live in a ZCTA with a Citi Bike station; and list primary reasons for membership as a faster way to get around town or as friends and family joining. Those who never took a social trip were more likely to have requested safety tips from Citi Bike; and to report their primary reason for membership as an alternative to public transportation, personal health and fitness, or support for the program. The social network of Citi Bike members was composed of 139,302 members with 164,735 unique connections to other members. The average number of connections per social member was 2.4 and the maximum was 66. The network was not very dense or well connected with 19,809 subnetworks. Conclusion Social members differed from non-social members in several ways. Understanding the characteristics of key network members could play a part in promoting and encouraging bike share usage. In particular, organized social trips could increase bike share usage among women.
This review examines the effects of exercise and physical activity on the psychological well-being of older adults. Unlike most of the literature in this area, this review focuses primarily on those psychosocial outcomes that are generally positive in nature. As well as considering the overall effects of physical activity, the roles of program length, subject sex, age, physical fitness, and measurement are considered. Overall, the results of the 38 studies reviewed are overwhelmingly positive, with the majority reporting positive associations between physical activity and psychological well-being. This relationship appears to be moderated by the length of the exercise programs; longer programs consistently report more positive results. There is little evidence that exercise has differential psychological effects on men and women or on individuals of differing ages. Whereas training protocols seem to result in significant changes in physical fitness and well-being, such improvements appear to be unrelated. The review concludes with a brief discussion of possible mechanisms underlying the physical activity/psychological health relationship, and several directions are recommended for future research.
The prevalence of obesity has increased substantially over the past 30 years. We performed a quantitative analysis of the nature and extent of the person-to-person spread of obesity as a possible factor contributing to the obesity epidemic. We evaluated a densely interconnected social network of 12,067 people assessed repeatedly from 1971 to 2003 as part of the Framingham Heart Study. The body-mass index was available for all subjects. We used longitudinal statistical models to examine whether weight gain in one person was associated with weight gain in his or her friends, siblings, spouse, and neighbors. Discernible clusters of obese persons (body-mass index [the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters], > or =30) were present in the network at all time points, and the clusters extended to three degrees of separation. These clusters did not appear to be solely attributable to the selective formation of social ties among obese persons. A person's chances of becoming obese increased by 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6 to 123) if he or she had a friend who became obese in a given interval. Among pairs of adult siblings, if one sibling became obese, the chance that the other would become obese increased by 40% (95% CI, 21 to 60). If one spouse became obese, the likelihood that the other spouse would become obese increased by 37% (95% CI, 7 to 73). These effects were not seen among neighbors in the immediate geographic location. Persons of the same sex had relatively greater influence on each other than those of the opposite sex. The spread of smoking cessation did not account for the spread of obesity in the network. Network phenomena appear to be relevant to the biologic and behavioral trait of obesity, and obesity appears to spread through social ties. These findings have implications for clinical and public health interventions.
1. Theories of Sport - The Neglect of Gender 2. Sports Feminism - The Importance of Gender 3. Nature and Culture - Introducing Victorian and Edwardian Sport 4. The Legitimation of Female Exercise - The Case of Physical Education 5. Recreative and Competitive Sports - Expansion and Containment 6. The Interwar Years - Limitations and Possibilities 7. Femininity of Musculinity? - Images of Women's Sport 8. Relations of Power - Institutionalized Discrimination 9. Olympic Women - A Struggle for Recognition 10. Sport for All Women - Problems and Progress 11. Towards 2000 AD - Diversity and Empowerment.
A proposed theory of planned behavior, an extension of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980, Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood-Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall) theory of reasoned action, was tested in two experiments. The extended theory incorporates perceived control over behavioral achievement as a determinant of intention (Version 1) as well as behavior (Version 2). In Experiment 1, college students' attendance of class lectures was recorded over a 6-week period; in Experiment 2, the behavioral goal was getting an “A” in a course. Attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions were assessed halfway through the period of observation in the first experiment, and at two points in time in the second experiment. The results were evaluated by means of hierarchical regression analyses. As expected, the theory of planned behavior permitted more accurate prediction of intentions and goal attainment than did the theory of reasoned action. In both experiments, perceived behavioral control added significantly to the prediction of intentions. Its contribution to the prediction of behavior was significant in the second wave of Experiment 2, at which time the students' perceptions of behavioral control had become quite accurate. Contrary to expectations, there was little evidence for interactions between perceived behavioral control and the theory's other independent variables.
The purpose of this study was to identify comlates of physical activity for sedentary. ethnic minority women and determine if these comlatcs were modified by an intervention. One hundred twenty-five women panicipated in a randomized. controlled trial of a walking program. The intervention was designed to alter social learning-based correlates through telephone counseling and mailings. Walking and correlates were assessed at baseline, 8-week post-test. and 5-month follow-up. Both intervention and control groups increased walking and decreased in respons of perceived barriers, self-efficacy. and enjoyment from baseline to post-test. and baseline to follow-up. Social support increased over time, with intervention participants reporting greater increases. Change in self-efficacy from baseline to follow-up was associated with increases in walking. The results provide some evidence that self-efficacy correlated with walking for participants. but 3 of 4 correlates were not positively influenced by the intervention.