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Audiovisual physics reports: Students' video production as a strategy for the didactic laboratory


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Constant technological advancement has facilitated access to digital cameras and cell phones. Involving students in a video production project can work as a motivating aspect to make them active and reflective in their learning, intellectually engaged in a recursive process. This project was implemented in high school level physics laboratory classes resulting in 22 videos which are considered as audiovisual reports and analysed under two components: theoretical and experimental. This kind of project allows the students to spontaneously use features such as music, pictures, dramatization, animations, etc, even when the didactic laboratory may not be the place where aesthetic and cultural dimensions are generally developed. This could be due to the fact that digital media are more legitimately used as cultural tools than as teaching strategies.
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Audiovisual physics reports:
students’ video production as a
strategy for the didactic
Marcus Vinicius Pereira1, Susana de Souza Barros2,
Luiz Augusto C de Rezende Filho2and
Leduc Hermeto de A Fauth1,3
1Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
2Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
3Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
E-mail:,, and
Constant technological advancement has facilitated access to digital cameras
and cell phones. Involving students in a video production project can work as
a motivating aspect to make them active and reflective in their learning,
intellectually engaged in a recursive process. This project was implemented
in high school level physics laboratory classes resulting in 22 videos which
are considered as audiovisual reports and analysed under two components:
theoretical and experimental. This kind of project allows the students to
spontaneously use features such as music, pictures, dramatization,
animations, etc, even when the didactic laboratory may not be the place
where aesthetic and cultural dimensions are generally developed. This could
be due to the fact that digital media are more legitimately used as cultural
tools than as teaching strategies.
For the last 50 years there has been a tacit
agreement among science educators that experi-
mental work facilitates the understanding and con-
struction of physics concepts, encourages active
learning, motivates the interest of the students
and contributes to the development of logical
reasoning and communication, thus encouraging
enterprise, imagination and group work [1]. These
arguments led many to associate good physics
teaching practices to efficient strategies that help
implement, as much as possible, practical work at
school. It is also true that most of the research in
physics education correlates experimental practice
to improvement in students’ learning and in the
last few decades science education research work
has pointed out experimental work as a major
enhancer of physics learning, so for those reasons
labwork activities performed by the student have
been considered as a ‘magic wand’ needed to solve
the many learning difficulties known in physics
44 PHYSICS EDUCATION 47(1) 0031-9120/12/010044+08$33.00 ©2012 IOP Publishing Ltd
Audiovisual physics reports
The experimental activitiesat the introductory
physics level are expected to contribute to the
development of procedural skills. Nedelsky [2]
claims that their central goal is to bring the
student to comprehend the relationships between
science and nature. This aspect is corroborated
by Kirschner’s ideas [3]: ‘it is the teacher’s job to
teach science, teach about science, and teach how
to do science’.
Lunetta, Hofstein and Clough [4] are sceptical
and, searching for evidence in the vast literature of
the field, argue that the main goals of the learning
outcomes that should arise from the physics
teaching laboratory are often not met. These goals
involve conceptual understanding and procedural
abilities (exploring arguments from the data),
knowledge of how science and scientists work,
interest and motivation, understanding of research
methods and scientific reasoning, including the
nature of science. According to Borges [5]
the effectiveness of the didactic laboratory in
promoting learning has been in question over the
The European survey [6] conducted in seven
countries does not point to much improvement
in science education as related to labwork,
not even in those situations where schools
have the appropriate conditions for experimental
teaching. The report mentions that practical
activities tend to be limited to the manipulation
of objects/materials/instruments and they are
frequently performed with procedures where the
students follow precise instructions and methods
of analysis provided by programmed teacher’s
instructions. One of the recommendations is
related to the false pretence that a broad spectrum
of goals can be attained ‘at once’, objectives that
many a time may not be compatible with the type
of activity carried out. It is also worth commenting
that often teachers take for granted the ability of
the students to perform certain actions for which
they have not been instructed. Furthermore, the
survey recommends that in introductory physics
classes the tasks performed in a given laboratory
session should always be designed to deal with
only a few specific objectives [7,8].
As in many countries around the world,
laboratory classes in Brazil are seldom introduced
in regular programmes and when this is done
students follow a labwork guide that describes the
experiment to be performed, while equipment is
already laid out on the bench set up by the teacher
or tutor. Observations, results and conclusions
are already structured and so reported. Probably,
the main reason for this choice is the allocation
of a larger proportion of theory over practical
assignments within the science teaching schedule
of many schools.
This strategy gives little incentive for the
students to reflect on the conceptual aspects of
phenomena under study or to develop a deeper
understanding required to overcome the eventual
shortcomings of the experimental activity. The
planning of measurements and the exploration of
the relations between physical quantities involved
are also poorly done. Frequently, the physical
model underlying the phenomena and the possible
disagreements between predictions and results are
not shown in the conclusions, impoverishing data
interpretation and theoretical explanation.
From tradition to innovation
Currently school education can be seen in transi-
tion from traditional to innovative methodologies
and mostly the students still remain as the receivers
of information. There are also good reasons
to acknowledge the place taken by ICT (infor-
mation and communication technology) resources
because they are considered by political decision
makers as a solution for the teaching problems of
school science education. If this type of resource
can be used it is important to recognize its place
and limitations, because its role does not replace
what labwork does for sound science learning.
Because of the growth of ICT facilities and the
amount of didactic material currently offered,
there is a risk that they may replace the laboratory
as the new educational ‘magical wand’ of this
So it could be expected that the accelerated
technological revolution may contribute to the
demands of changes in education [9]. Physics
teaching can take advantage of these resources,
since it is possible to videotape physical phe-
nomena, opening a motivational strategy for the
students who could become producers of their own
Nowadays technological gadgets are within
the reach of the common citizen, thus making
it possible to introduce independent audiovisual
production as a new strategy. From this
perspective the school can be thought of as an
MVPereiraet al
irradiating pole of knowledge and the teacher as
the mediator, leading the students to externalize
their creative thinking while producing a video.
This is a new way of thinking and doing, to
make the students ‘discover new possibilities of
expression, performing group experiences in a
collective creation effort’[10].
This article proposes to discuss the role of
video production by the students as an approach to
the physics laboratory which has proven efficient
when implemented in a Brazilian high school.
Students’ video production project
The production of a video independently made
by the students brings a fresh perspective to
the practical work they experience in school.
The strategy allows the implementation of objec-
tives such as intellectual (academic), procedural
(trying concepts to realize physical quantities)
and cognitive–affective (motivating students to
undergo a process of metacognition throughout the
whole experiment).
The possibility of innovation changes the
rhythm of a physics classroom, modifying the
merely one way communication and introducing
activities planned, organized and performed by
the students. When using a video camera
they can externalize creative thoughts as well
as warrant the pedagogical potential, because it
allows visualization of physical situations related
to conceptual physical models, and so bring about
the discovery of new possibilities of expression
while experiencing exchanges while working in a
group in an effort of collective creation [10,11].
A strategy to develop laboratory activities
based on students’ video production of physics
experiments can provide a feasible substitute
for the traditional didactic laboratory [12].
When involved in the project the pupil engages
in different activities, both instrumental and
cognitive: hands on and minds on. They are
responsible for all the steps to mount and test the
experiment, which means involvement along the
complete line of events necessary for the task: to
identify and research key concepts, principles and
laws that allow them to understand and create the
experimental situation which will be tested and
modified as required.
For the development of their project the
students can either use the equipment available in
the school laboratory or create their own setup. It
is also essential to present a written outline of the
general ideas and processes to establish a timetable
for the activities to guide the production. This
organization gives the students a flexible schedule
to develop independent work as well as to allow
the feedback that characterizes this kind of task.
It is important that students realize the
assignment is not an amusing game, but it has
the intention of developing a structured piece of
work. Video attributes are anticipated in order
to structure the intellectual component of the
enterprise, so the following points are made clear
from the start. The video produced should:
pursue a set of a few main objectives;
allow concept comprehension;
be conceptually autonomous;
present a logical sequence;
integrate oral, written and visual languages
(clarity of communication);
be no longer than 4 min in length.
Several objectives define the project features:
cognitive: the project may enhance (induce)
students’ cognitive processes for the learning
of physics concepts;
motivational–technological: to immerse the
students actively in their learning process and
to use technological resources (digital video
cameras and other devices to record and
capture images, audio and software for
editing the video);
recursive–reflexive: the project is developed
in short related steps, which are not
necessarily linear, allowing ‘round trips’
according to the tasks.
Project development
The complete implementation of this project takes
about four months of school time, resulting in a
video produced in groups up to five students each.
To begin with, written material with back-
ground information, objectives, video characteris-
tics, timing/schedule and criteria of assessment is
presented. Each group selects a topic and begins
research of physical concepts and the choice of
practical activities. Next, the groups plan, mount
the set-up and test the experimental situation.
It is important to draw attention to the
importance of guidance in order to produce a video
as an audiovisual report. At this point they produce
Audiovisual physics reports
video production
selection of the topic
Figure 1. Video production flowchart.
initial orientation
discussion and inquiry
selection of information
concept mapping
testing experiments
storyboard critical reading
filming and editing
screenplay and review selection and information
proposition mapping
new ideas
self assessment
video, exhibition and evaluation
a simplified storyboard, which is discussed with
the teacher, to reflect the exploration of the
phenomenon. The subsequent screenplay guides
the steps of video production and editing. Once
the video is produced it will be exhibited to the
whole classroom and evaluations can be applied.
Figure 1illustrates the project development,
explicitly showing its feedback features.
Project implementation results
This project was implemented in five classes,
totalling around 100 students of a technical public
high school in Rio de Janeiro city. Regular
laboratory classes in this school are frequently
taught following traditional labwork guidelines.
Figure 2shows representative images of the
physics phenomena treated in the 22 videos. All
videos were edited non-linearly and have captions
as well as, in some cases, pictures and animations.
They also present commentary (most of them as
voice-over) and soundtrack juxtaposed with the
In this article each video is considered as
an audiovisual report. For the sake of analysis
the videos were divided in two components:
theoretical components (TC) and experimental
components (EC).
TC represents the objectives proposed, phys-
ical concepts, laws, principles and general ideas,
needed for the development of the experiment.
EC involves mounting and testing the experi-
ment, filming scenes and editing, where students
are responsible for developing procedures, gath-
ering and analysing data, discussing results and
presenting conclusions. Initial and final credits are
not included in the TC and/or EC.
Table 1shows the title assigned by the authors
(and the total length in minutes:seconds), place
of production (PP)—school laboratory (SL) and/or
home laboratory (HL)—and the discrimination
between time spent developing TC and EC.
MVPereiraet al
Figure 2. Videos produced.
The videos were filmed in different set-ups:
14 were produced in the school laboratory, four
of them in a home set laboratory and four were
recorded using both places. It is worth noticing
that two videos produced in the school laboratory
made use of dramatization resources: I and V.
In discriminating theoretical and experimental
components, it was found that three videos, J,
Q and R, did not fit these criteria, possibly due
to the fact that they are strongly focused on the
instrumental aspect of the experiment.
Most of the videos (14 out of 22) show
predominance of the EC over the TC. The four
videos which clearly develop the TC over the
EC are associated to physical principles and laws
(collisions and light refraction: B, C, U and
V). From a cognitive perspective, this can be
interpreted by the fact that these concepts are
easier to understand and express theoretically
rather than presented practically.
The audiovisual report allows a flexible struc-
ture when compared to the written report, as shown
Audiovisual physics reports
Table 1. Classification of videos according to place of production (PP)—school laboratory (SL) and/or home
laboratory (HL)—, theoretical (TC) and experimental (EC) components.
Video Title (and length in min:s) PP
A Resonance effect in pendulums (4:50) HL +SL 0:24 3:32
B Understanding physics: light refraction (2:45) SL 1:27 0:37
C Collisions: energy conservation (4:30) SL 2:55 1:05
D Ohmic and non-ohmic resistance (5:00) SL 0:40 3:47
E Physics aquarium (2:20) SL 0:08 1:49
F Pascal’s principle (4:15) SL 1:05 3:02
G Buoyancy (6:15) SL 1:10 4:43
H Centripetal and tension forces (3:30) SL 0:30 2:30
I Electromagnetic motor (3:40) HL +SL 1:41 1:33
J Chemie boat (2:25) HL 2:25
K Horizontal motion and gravity (4:50) HL 0:43 3:26
L Direct current motor (3:20) SL 0:52 2:13
M Heat propagation: convection currents (3:20) HL +SL 1:00 2:41
N Electromagnetic induction: Faraday’s law (5:00) SL 1:35 2:55
O Friction force (4:26) SL 0:40 3:20
P Mechanics: energy conservation (2:08) SL 0:22 1:26
Q Magnetic brake: Foucault’s currents (3:25) SL 3:25
R Magic diver (4:55) HL 4:55
S Liquid pressure (3:02) HL 1:00 1:48
T Electric motor (3:59) SL 1:10 2:30
U The case of the bent straw (5:27) HL +SL 3:10 1:03
V Light refraction (4:07) SL 2:30 0:45
in the following examples: (i) L presents the
experiment after explaining the theory to discuss
the results; (ii) U builds up a relationship between
the experimental activity and its daily application;
(iii) Q associates the activity to a problem situa-
tion. Another piece of evidence of this flexible
structure is observed in four videos where the con-
clusions are discussed along with the performance
of the experiment itself: E, F, M and N.
It is worth noting that resources related to
the aesthetic and cultural dimensions (music,
dramatization, picture/image, animation, etc)
enrich the videos and are spontaneously used
in an audiovisual report, indicating that the
students regard them as necessary to better express
themselves. This can be understood because
audiovisual resources are deeply rooted instudents
as a cultural tool rather than as a teaching strategy,
even when videos are produced as a physics
laboratory task. It can be pointed out, as a
positive aspect, that some videos exhibit elements
of humour, an emotion that is rarely shown in
relation to physics, seen by many students as the
‘bogeyman’. Table 2highlights these trends.
Most of the videos produced illustrate corre-
lations between the physical quantities involved in
the phenomena: B, D, E, F, G, I, K, L and N.
Table 2. Frequency (N) of resources used.
Resource N
Music 14
Dramatization 3
Commentary 19
Caption/text 19
Initial and/or final credits 22
Picture/photo/image 15
Animation/simulation/movies 5
Editing effects 20
Video N presents an important feature of the
magnetic induction phenomenon: the effect on the
ammeter of the speed of a magnet when introduced
in a coil is studied, but there is no date registered,
just the motion of the needle is shown as evidence.
Video D makes a formal study of Ohm’s law,
showing tables and a graphical representation of
the data gathered experimentally: current versus
voltage for two different circuit components, a
resistor and a lamp. The analysis allows the
students to conclude from experimental evidence
that the electrical resistance is dependent on
Correlations without explicit values of phys-
ical quantities involved are made in videos I
MVPereiraet al
and L—both dealing with the same system, an
electromagnetic motor. These videos control
physical quantities—radius, number of turns and
tension applied—that modify the magnetic field
generated in a wire loop and correlate them with
the speed of rotation of the coil (motor shaft). The
measurement of the wire loop speed is mentioned
verbally instead of obtaining it from the frame to
frame frequency of the video.
Archimedes’ principle is the issue of video G
which depicts the control of physical quantities
and their correlations, discussing relevant and
irrelevant physical quantities. In this video,
students make use of the same experimental design
in three different situations: a metal body attached
to a dynamometer that measures its weight when
suspended in air (reading 1) and its apparent
weight when fully immersed in a liquid (reading
2). The determination of buoyancy, the difference
between readings, is correlated with the density of
the liquid and the volume of the immersed body
(relevant quantities) and also the density of the
body (irrelevant quantity).
Some videos, A, H, J and M, mix up
description and explanation, as well as not making
correlations between physical quantities relevant
to the phenomena.
Table 3provides the links to some of the
videos produced in this project.
One of the advantages of this strategy compared
to the traditional laboratory is the responsibility
assumed by the students. This is because making
the video, which will be watched by others,
requires the students’ intellectual engagement
through research on the subject, comprehension
of key concepts and creation of an appropriate
experimental situation, which will be tested,
modified and checked as many times as necessary.
This feature reflects the operational necessity
to deal with phenomena expressed visually
that differentiates the video production labwork
from the experimental activities conducted in a
laboratory that, in general, it is an ordered process
required by the programmed report carried out
with a very low level of recursion. The technique
draws in skills such as handling equipment,
gathering, recording and analysing data, all of
Table 3. Audiovisual reports on Youtube.
Video Youtube link
which lead to a concrete product—the audiovisual
The audiovisual report shows intrinsic char-
acteristics which do not exactly match with the
components of the typical written report (theory,
objectives, equipment, etc), either due to the
production process or because of the students’
expression in audiovisual language. This fact
is evidenced by the free-form chosen by the
students to structure the physical phenomena,
making free use of resources, not requested in
the guidelines, which characterize the audiovisual
format (narration, caption, animation, images,
etc) to explain concepts, laws and/or physical
principles while developing and manipulating the
Another advantage of the audiovisual over
the written report is the fact that it does not
require sequenced guidelines. In such a way it
can be expected that this type of project may
enhance imagination and creativity as well as
having implicit cognitive aspects.
Received 3 June 2011, in final form 1 July 2011
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Marcus Vinicius Pereira teaches at the
Education, Science and Technology
Institute of Rio de Janeiro (IFRJ). He
majored in physics and is a doctoral
student in science and health education.
His main interest is information,
communication and technology in
science education, specifically video
production and video reception.
Susana de Souza Barros is a
graduate-level physics teacher at the
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
(UFRJ). She researches physics strategies
for pre-service and in-service physics
teacher training and is also involved in
studying the efficiency of classroom
Luiz Augusto Coimbra de Rezende
Filho teaches in the Science and Health
Education Graduate Program at UFRJ.
He majored in media studies and cinema
and does research in education and
communication. His interests are
documentary film theory, educational
video and cinema, media reception,
audiovisual archives, and science and
health education.
Leduc Hermeto de Almeida Fauth is a
physics teacher and also an electronics
technician and held a scholarship at IFRJ
(2009–11). His interests are the
production of teaching materials, video
production and low-cost materials for
physics teaching.
... In the specific case of physics teaching, there are interesting initiatives regarding the production of short videos, based on structuring themes proposed in the PCN+ and BNCC itineraries, focusing on the teaching of mechanics and electromagnetism that the students themselves carried out as an activity, as an alternative strategy for the physics laboratory at the high-school level (Pereira & Barros, 2010;Pereira et al., 2012). According to Pereira et al., one of the advantages of this strategy, when compared to the traditional laboratory, is the responsibility the students must assume, as the videos will be watched "by other people," which requires them to research more and understand better the main concepts. ...
... According to Pereira et al., one of the advantages of this strategy, when compared to the traditional laboratory, is the responsibility the students must assume, as the videos will be watched "by other people," which requires them to research more and understand better the main concepts. So, the strategy going beyond the production of conventional reports and enable students to explore -in the process of preparing the videos -other elements of culture with imagination and creativity (Pereira et al., 2012). Moreover, the increased production of videos on channels such as Youtube has led to the search for quality criteria to support the choice of materials to be used by teachers (Kulgemeyer & Peters, 2016). ...
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... The use of video making by k-18 science students and STEM teaching students to learn science content has been reported since video cameras became available, but has become widespread with the advent of YouTube and the proliferation of video recording smartphones [1,[3][4][5][6][7][8][9]. Since 2015, SUNY Buffalo State College preservice and in-service STEM teachers taking physics (and some general science) undergraduate and graduate courses have been completing video projects. ...
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... Physics learners have been producing school-quality lab, book, and project reports as standard classroom practice for over a century, and we recognize that these efforts represent a series of gradual, iterative approximations in which the process, not the product, is of greatest value for promoting student physics learning. [13][14][15] Hence, we require a proof of concept video, ordinarily not or actors ("talent") in the frame should be dressed in a reproducible fashion, e.g., white shirt and black pants, so if reshoots are required, continuity of appearance can be maintained. This continuity of dress often becomes a trademark for professionals (e.g., Derek Muller's clothing in Veritasium). ...
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... Considering that the educational service offered by IES should, First, face the mathematical weaknesses within which the students enter at the first academic semester, second, contribute to the development of mathematical skills that facilitate and allow their graduates to perform optimally in the work environment, reviewing this Parameters the need to provide alternative solutions arises through (ICT) [6][7], for the promotion, strengthening and assurance of mathematical skills in higher education; that lead to the students enhance their own academic performance with innovative, didactic and flexible methods [8][9]. ...
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Through the most recent years Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) have been positioned as powerful and revitalizing mechanisms in the educational processes. Therefore, this study measures the incidence of a digital platform by the learning of real functions with a view of identifying didactic strategies that contributes to the strengthening and development of mathematical knowledge in reference to the variational thought. The original random sample was primary conformed by students of second semester at a technological academic formation of an institution of higher education based on Santander-Colombia (N = 176). The respective quantitative study is being considering by the correlation type, with the proper use of the Spearman's correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. The used program to realize this kind of analysis was the statistical software SPSS. So far at this point the results shows that the average academic performance on the partial of functions evidenced was 2.61 with standard deviation (SD)0.92, meanwhile in another way by the independent work that is being taken in the Khan-Academy's platform scored 3.72 with a (SD) 0.2. Besides, it can be said that the bivariate correlation coefficient shown a substantial relation of 0.846 with a significance level of 1%. in all the process the conclusions that can be considered, it can be affirmed the strong relation between the study variables, denoting in fact that the correlation coefficient showed a clear association between the variables.
... MinutePhysics, Veritasium, PhysicsGirl and many other YouTube physics videos are produced by teams of paid, trained and talented professionals. Physics learners have been producing school-quality lab, book and project reports as standard classroom practice for over a century and we recognize that these efforts represent a series of gradual, iterative approximations in which the process, not the product is of greatest value for promoting student physics learning [13,14,15]. Hence a proof of concept video, ordinarily not shared outside the classroom, as would student lab reports. ...
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We describe student creation of short YouTube-like video projects-limited 'proof-of-concept' physics videos within introductory physics courses, presented during the final week of class. We include classroom guidance for teachers regarding appropriate course expectations, grading and evaluation for such video projects.
We describe a curricular innovation for STEM teacher preparation—the use of video projects in undergraduate and graduate physics courses for future physics teachers at SUNY Buffalo State. US courses were adapted under the guidance of our colleagues’ similar work at Universität zu Köln (Abbott D, Roberts A, MacIsaac D, Falconer K, Genz F, Hoffmann S, Bresges A, and Weber J, Adding Student Video Projects to Physics Courses, Phys. Teacher 2019 57 224.). Our students prepared end-of-course short “proof of concept” rough video vignettes of 5-10 min duration addressing both physics content and physics pedagogical topics. YouTube (MacIsaac D (2020a) [YouTube Video channel] Available from: Accessed 15 Jan 2021) example videos are provided, resources for replicating our intervention are presented, and insights are shared.
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Zeitschrift für Didaktik der Biologie (ZDB) - Biologie Lehren und Lernen Erklärvideos können das fachliche Lernen bereichern, vorausgesetzt, sie werden didaktisch begründet ausgewählt oder produziert sowie eingesetzt. Beispielsweise unterstützen sie die mentale Vorstellungskraft und ermöglichen Lernenden eine gute Performanz sowie Sicherheit beim Experimentieren. Trotz ihrer Potenziale liegen bisher fast ausschließlich empirische Befunde aus der Instruktionspsychologie und nur wenige Untersuchungen vor, die sich aus einer fachdidaktischen Perspektive mit Erklärvideos auseinandersetzen. Angesichts der wachsenden Bedeutung von Erklärvideos beim informellen Lernen werden drei Thesen zum formalen Lernen im Biologieunterricht diskutiert, welche die Verfügbarkeit und Qualität von Erklärvideos, lernförderliche Einsatzszenarien und die professionelle Wissensbasis über Qualität und Einsatz von Erklärvideos betreffen. Ziel des Beitrags ist, die Diskussion zu den Thesen zusammenzufassen und in die Literatur einzuordnen. Es wird erläutert, anhand welcher Kriterien sich die Qualität von Erklärvideos einschätzen lässt, wie ein zielführender und didaktisch begründeter Einsatz von Erklärvideos aussehen kann und welches Wissen Lehrkräfte benötigen, um qualitativ hochwertige Videos zu er-kennen und diese didaktisch begründet einzusetzen. Die in der Diskussion aufgezeigten Wirkungsbereiche von Erklärvideos verdeutlichen, wo zukünftige Forschung ansetzen kann, um die Unterrichtspraxis in der Biologie durch empirische Befunde zum lernförderlichen Videoeinsatz weiterzuentwickeln. Explanatory videos can contribute to subject-specific learning, as long as they are selected, produced, and used in a didactically justified manner. For example, they support the mental imagery and enable learners to perform better and more confidently when experimenting. Despite their potentials, there are so far almost exclusively empirical findings from instructional psychology and only a few studies that deal with explanatory videos from a didactic perspective. Given the increased significance of explanatory videos in informal learning, three theses on formal learning in biology education are discussed, concerning the availability and quality of explanatory videos, instructional settings conducive to learning, and the professional knowledge base on the quality and use of explanatory videos. The aim of this work is to summarize the discussion on the theses and to situate them in the existing literature. It explains which criteria can be used to assess the quality of explanatory videos, what a goal-oriented and didactically justified use of explanatory videos can look like, and what knowledge teachers need in order to recognize high-quality videos and to use them in a didactically justified way. The range of applications of explanatory videos identified in the discussion illustrates where future research could start in order to further develop teaching practice in biology through empirical findings on the use of explanatory videos in a way that promotes learning.
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Digital videos have an important (and increasing) presence in learning processes, especially within online universities and schools. However, creating videos is a time-consuming activity for teachers, who are usually not expert in video creation. Therefore, it is important to know which kind of video is perceived as more satisfactory and useful by students, among the videos that docents usually create. In this paper we show a structural model with the relation between satisfaction, the way in which a video has been created, the kind of video (with or without the hands of the teacher and with or without the body/head of the teacher), perceived usefulness, contents of the video (theory or problems) and the potential impact of videos on passing rates. The experiment has been performed in an introductory Physics of Engineering course with over 200 first year students in both: at 100% online university, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC); and at a face-to-face university, Salesian University School of Sarrià (EUSS). Tests have been performed with around 100 videos of two types: videos created with a digitizing tablet and screen capture and videos created by recording the hands of the teacher. Results have been quantitatively analysed . The research shows that results are independent of the environment and that students prefer videos with hands. On the other hand, little effect has been found regarding the content of the video in the perceived usefulness or satisfaction. The performance results show that videos can improve the chances of passing the subject. Thus, the paper shows that videos with hands are a useful complement to challenging subjects, like introductory physics in Engineering, to effectively assimilate scientific knowledge. The main contributions of this paper are: to analyse the perception that students have of video in a specific context, introductory course of Physics in Engineering, in different environments; and to analyse the perception of the video regarding the way in which it has been created, and the kind of content.
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O laboratório didático de física no ensino médio é uma temática de pesquisa recorrente na área de Educação em Ciências, desde investigações sobre objetivos específicos para os diferentes tipos de laboratório àquelas que se debruçam sobre a epistemologia envolvida na realização de uma atividade experimental pelos estudantes. Por outro lado, a área pouco tem questionado e investigado as especificidades de recursos audiovisuais quando envolvidos em processos de ensino-aprendizagem, em particular o vídeo. É nesse cenário que esta pesquisa busca entender a relação entre a produção e a recepção de vídeos por estudantes de ensino médio no âmbito de uma atividade prática no laboratório didático de física e seus repertórios culturais, buscando identificar e descrever elementos da cultura inerentes à produção audiovisual que atravessam tal estratégia. Dessa forma, a pesquisa foi desenhada de forma a se investigar tanto a produção, por meio da análise do processo de elaboração-construção feito pelos alunos-produtores, como a recepção, por meio da análise das leituras produzidas por alunos espectadores ao assistirem a vídeos produzidos por outros alunos. Para o processo de produção, utilizamos referenciais que dão conta dos processos interativos entre diferentes sujeitos (os estudantes) e um mediador (o professor) sob uma perspectiva sociocultural (Lemke, Vygotsky e Wertsch). A análise fílmica francesa (Vanoye e Goliot-Lété) foi utilizada para se investigar os textos audiovisuais. Para os estudos de recepção fizemos uso de um modelo multidimensional (Schrøder) a partir do modelo de codificação/decodificação de Hall. O estudo da produção revelou que houve aumento do engajamento e da responsabilidade assumida pelos estudantes. Eles fizeram uso espontâneo de elementos como música, animação, dramatização etc., itens não solicitados na orientação inicial, mas necessários na construção da linguagem audiovisual. Sobre o exemplo da produção do vídeo “Eletroforese: a corrida do RNA”, podemos destacar a escolha da equipe técnica pelos integrantes do grupo por suas habilidades e aptidões. Os alunos produtores se preocuparam com o áudio e a imagem, reconhecendo como pontos positivos o produto final (vídeo) e o fato de ser um vídeo divertido e produzido com descontração, uma vez que levaram em conta o endereçamento aos seus colegas de turma, preocupando-se em motivar e prender a atenção. Os resultados dos estudos de recepção mostraram que, em geral, os alunos privilegiaram em suas leituras os aspectos científicos apresentados no vídeo e deram menos relevância aos aspectos estéticos. Espera-se, com essa pesquisa, contribuir com a área de Educação em Ciências, ao levar em conta o jovem aluno como produtor e espectador, fazendo uso de referenciais do vídeo, cinema e comunicação, que pouco figuram em pesquisas da área, mesmo quando se debruçam sobre fazer e/ou assistir vídeos, ao se levar em conta características e especificidades do ensino-aprendizagem com audiovisuais.
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A project for students' video production is proposed as an alternative strategy for the high school physics laboratory - whose contribution to learning has been frequently criticized since the middle of last century to these days. The project was implemented in 2008 in three high school classes in Rio de Janeiro and developed along 4 months. Fourteen videos were produced and they were analyzed within two reference frames: Nedelsky's for the labwork features and Driver's for the students' epistemological representations. The strategy proved to be fruitful since the objectives of labwork along the stages of development provoked both intellectual engagement and the motivation of the students. The next step will study the effect of this strategy on students' conceptual learning.
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The laboratory has been given a central and distinctive role in science education, and science educators have suggested that rich benefits in learning accrue from using laboratory activities. Twenty years have been elapsed since we published a frequently cited, critical review of the research on the school science laboratory (Hofstein & Lunetta, Rev. Educ. Res.52(2), 201–217, 1982). Twenty years later, we are living in an era of dramatic new technology resources and new standards in science education in which learning by inquiry has been given renewed central status. Methodologies for research and assessment that have developed in the last 20 years can help researchers seeking to understand how science laboratory resources are used, how students' work in the laboratory is assessed, and how science laboratory activities can be used by teachers to enhance intended learning outcomes. In that context, we take another look at the school laboratory in the light of contemporary practices and scholarship. This analysis examines scholarship that has emerged in the past 20 years in the context of earlier scholarship, contemporary goals for science learning, current models of how students construct knowledge, and information about how teachers and students engage in science laboratory activities. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sci Ed88:28–54, 2004; Published online in Wiley InterScience ( DOI 10.1002/.sce10106
Guillermo Orozco Gomes, professor da Universidade de Guadalajara, México, aborda importantes questões relativas à comunicação na América Latina, tais como as relações entre a cultura local e global e a importância da televisão e da indústria cultural na constituição das culturas nacionais. De passagem pelo Brasil, faz uma análise para a revista Comunicação & Educação sobre o advento dos novos meios de comunicação – o computador, os celulares e outros equipamentos digitais –, assim como conclama a escola a participar das novas formas de interagir e conhecer que se estabelecem no mundo.
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