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DNA waves and water


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Some bacterial and viral DNA sequences have been found to induce low frequency electromagnetic waves in high aqueous dilutions. This phenomenon appears to be triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency. We discuss this phenomenon in the framework of quantum field theory. A scheme able to account for the observations is proposed. The reported phenomenon could allow to develop highly sensitive detection systems for chronic bacterial and viral infections.
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arXiv:1012.5166v1 [q-bio.OT] 23 Dec 2010
DNA waves and water
L. Montagnier1,2, J. Aissa2, E. Del Giudice3, C. Lavallee2, A.
Tedeschi4, and G. Vitiello5
1World Foundation for AIDS research and Prevention (UNESCO), Paris, France
2Nanetics Biotecnologies, S.A. 98 rue Albert Calmette, F78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
3IIB, International Institute for Biophotonics, Neuss, Germany
4WHITE HB, Milano, Italy
5Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universit`a di Salerno and
INFN, Gruppo Collegato Salerno, I-84100 Salerno, Italy
Abstract. Some bacterial and viral DNA sequences have been found to induce low frequency
electromagnetic waves in high aqueous dilutions. This phenomenon appears to be triggered by
the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency. We discuss this phenomenon
in the framework of quantum field theory. A scheme able to account for the observations is
proposed. The reported phenomenon could allow to develop highly sensitive detection systems
for chronic bacterial and viral infections.
1. Introduction
Over the last 60 years, the development of basic knowledge in biology as well as many medical
applications owes much to the discoveries made in DNA. Here is a partial list emphasizing the
main advances in DNA discovery:
1944 Transformation of bacteria by DNA (O. Avery, C. McLeod, and M. McCarty)
1953 Double helix structure elucidated (J. Watson, F. Crick, M. Wilkins, R. Franklin)
1956 DNA polymerase (A. Kornberg)
1968 Restriction enzymes (W. Arber)
1969 Reverse transcription of retroviruses (H. Temin, D. Baltimore)
1976 DNA sequencing (A. Maxam, W. Gilbert, F. Sanger)
1986-1988 Polymerase chain reaction (K. Mullis) Taq polymerase (R.K. Saiki)
2001 First Human Genome Sequence
2004-2010 High-Throughput DNA Sequencing.
On the other hand, in the same times evidence has been accumulated on the influence of
electromagnetic (em) fields on living organisms. The frequencies of the involved em fields cover
different intervals corresponding to the different scales present in the organisms. In the present
paper, by referring to recently published experimental results [1, 2, 3], we discuss the appearance
of a new property of DNA correlated with the induction of extremely low frequency (ELF) em
fields. These fields can be induced by suitable procedures in water dilutions which become able
to propagate the information contained in the DNA of the original organisms to other ones.
Figure 1. Device for the capture and analysis of em signals. (1) Coil made up of copper wire,
impedance 300 Ohms. (2) Plastic stoppered tube containing 1 ml of the solution to be analyzed.
(3) Amplifier. (4) Computer. From Ref. 1
The paper includes three Sections: the new facts, a theoretical scheme where to discuss them
and the medical applications.
2. The new facts: a new property of DNA and the induction of electromagnetic
waves in water dilutions
The story started ten years ago when one of us (L.M.) studied the strange behaviour of a small
bacterium, a frequent companion of HIV, Mycoplasma pirum, and like HIV a lover of human
lymphocytes. L.M. was trying to separate the bacterium, which is about 300 nm in size, from
viral particles whose size is about 120 nm by filtration using filters of 100 nm and 20 nm.
Starting with pure cultures of the bacterium on lymphocytes, the filtrates were indeed sterile
for the bacterium when cultured on a rich cellular medium, SP4. Polymerase chain reaction
(PCR) and nested PCR, based on primers derived from a gene of M. pirum which had been
previously cloned and sequenced, adhesin, were negative in the filtrate. However, when the
filtrate was incubated with human lymphocytes, (previously controlled for not being infected
with the mycoplasma) the mycoplasma with all its characteristics was regularly recovered! Then
the question was raised: what kind of information was transmitted in the aqueous filtrate? It
was the beginning of a long lasting investigation bearing on the physical properties of DNA in
water. Indeed, a new property of M. pirum DNA was found: the emission of low frequency
waves in some water dilutions of the filtrate, soon extended to other bacterial and viral DNAs.
The apparatus used to detect the electromagnetic signals comprises a solenoid capturing the
magnetic component of the waves produced by the DNA solution in a plastic tube converting
the signals into electric current. This current is then amplified and finally analyzed in a laptop
computer using specific software (Fig. 1).
Here is a brief summary of the laboratory observations, which are described in more detail
in [1, 2, 3]:
1) Ultra Low Frequency Electromagnetic Waves (ULF 5003000 H z) were detected in certain
dilutions of filtrates (100 nm, 20 nm) from cultures of micro-organisms (virus, bacteria) or from
the plasma of humans infected with the same agents (Fig. 2). Same results are obtained from
their extracted DNA.
2) The electromagnetic signals (EMS) are not linearly correlated with the initial number of
bacterial cells before their filtration. In one experiment the EMS were similar in a suspension
of E. coli cells varying from 109down to 10. It is an all or none phenomenon.
Figure 2. Typical signals from aqueous dilutions of M. pirum (Matlab software). Note the
positive signals from D-7 to D-12 dilutions. From Ref. 1
3) EMS are observed only in some high water dilutions of the filtrates. For example, from
109to 1018 dilutions in some preparations of E. coli filtrates.
4) In the case of M. pirum, an isolated single gene (adhesin, previously cloned and sequenced)
could induce the EMS. As the gene was cloned in two fragments, each of the isolated fragments
was able to generate EMS, suggesting that a short DNA sequence was sufficient to induce the
signals. Similarly, a short HIV DNA sequence (104 base pair) is found to be sufficient to produce
the EMS.
5) Some bacteria are not producing EMS: this is the case of probiotic bacteria such as
Lactobacillus and also of some laboratory strains of E. coli used as cloning vector.
6) These studies have been extended to viruses, although not all the viral families have been
explored. Similar EMS were detected from some exogenous retroviruses (HIV, FeLV), hepatitis
viruses (HBV, HCV), and influenza A (in vitro cultures). In general, EMS are produced by
20 nm filtrates of viral suspensions or from the extracted DNA: a question remains for RNA
viruses (HCV, influenza) as to whether the RNA from the mature viral particles is a source
of EMS, or not. In the case of HIV, EMS are not produced by the RNA of viral particles,
but rather are produced by the proviral DNA present in infected cells. In the case of bacteria,
EMS are produced by 100 nm filtrates and not by 20 nm filtrates, indicating that the size of
the structures producing EMS is ranging between 20 and 100 nm. This justifies the name of
nanostructures. These studies are highly suggestive that one is dealing with nanostructures
made of water. Highly purified water samples are used, although one cannot exclude the role of
minimal traces of impurities. The EMS production by the nanostructures is resistant to: Rnase
treatment, Dnase (while this will destroy the DNA at the origin of EMS), Protease (proteinase
K), Detergent (SDS). However, they are sensitive to heat (over 70 C) and freezing (80 C).
This sensitivity is reduced when dealing with purified short DNA sequences. The technical
conditions for EMS induction is summarized by the following list:
- Filtration: 450
100 nm for bacterial DNA, 450
20 nm for viral DNA
Figure 3. Transmission of DNA genetic information into water through electromagnetic waves.
From Ref. 3
- High dilutions in water
- Mechanical agitation (Vortex) between each dilution
- Excitation by the electromagnetic background of extremely low frequency (ELF), starting
very low at 7 Hz. The excitation is not induced when the system is shielded by a mu-metal
The stimulation by the electromagnetic background of very low frequency is essential. The
background is either produced from natural sources (the Schumann resonances [4] which start
at 7.83 Hz) or from artificial sources.
2.1. Transmission of DNA sequence through waves and water
In further experiments a fragment of HIV DNA taken from its long terminal repeat (LTR) has
been used as the DNA source. This fragment was amplified by PCR (487 base pairs) and nested
PCR (104 base pairs) using specific primers. In a first step, DNA dilutions were made, in which
the production of EMS under the ambient electromagnetic background was detected. Then the
following steps were taken. As shown in Fig. 3, one of the positive dilutions (say 106) was placed
in a container shielded by 1 mm thick layer of mu-metal (an alloy absorbing ultralow frequency
waves). In its vicinity another tube containing pure water was placed. The water content of each
tube was filtered through 450 nm and 20 nm filters and diluted from 102to 1015. A copper
solenoid is placed around them and receives a low intensity electric current oscillating at 7 H z,
produced by an external generator. The produced magnetic field is maintained for 18 hours at
room temperature. EMS are then recorded from each tube. Now also the tube containing water
emits EMS, at the dilutions corresponding to those positive for EMS in the original DNA tube.
This result shows that, upon 7 H z excitation, the transmission into pure water of the oscillation
of the nanostructures initially originated from DNA has been achieved. The following controls
were found to suppress the EMS transmission in the water tube:
- Time of exposure of the two tubes less than 16 18 hrs
- No coil
- Generator of magnetic field turned off
- Frequency of excitation <7Hz
- Absence of DNA in tube 1.
At this point the most critical step was undertaken, namely to investigate the specificity
of the induced water nanostructures by recreating from them the DNA sequence. For this
all the ingredients to synthesize the DNA by polymerase chain reaction (nucleotides, primers,
polymerase) were added to the tube of signalized water. The amplification was performed under
classical conditions (35 cycles) in a thermocycler. The DNA produced was then submitted
to electrophoresis in an agarose gel. The result was that a DNA band of the expected size
of the original LTR fragment was detected. It was further verified that this DNA had a
sequence identical or close to identical to the original DNA sequence of the LTR. In fact, it
was 98 % identical (2 nucleotide difference) out of 104. This experiment was found to be
highly reproducible (12 out of 12) and was also repeated with another DNA sequence from a
bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease. It was shown clearly that the water
nanostructures and their electromagnetic resonance can faithfully perpetuate DNA information.
These elements give support to a provocative explanation of our Mycoplasma pirum filtration
experiment (Fig. 1): the nanostructures induced by M. pirum DNA in the filtered water represent
different segments of its genomic DNA. Each nanostructure when in contact with the human
lymphocytes is retro-transcribed in the corresponding DNA by some cellular DNA polymerases.
Then there is a certain probability (even very low) that each piece of DNA recombines within the
same cell to other pieces for reconstructing the whole DNA genome. We have to assume that in
presence of the eukaryotic cells the synthesis of the mycoplasma components (membrane lipids,
ribosomes) can be also instructed by the mycoplasma DNA. One single complete mycoplasma
cell is then sufficient to generate the whole infection of lymphocytes. Recent experiments of the
G. Vinter group have shown [5] that a synthetic genomic DNA is sufficient to maintain all the
characteristics of a mycoplasma. All the steps assumed in the regeneration from water can be
analyzed and open to verification.
3. The theoretical framework
The above experimental observations fit into the physical view which addresses biological
dynamics as an interplay of chemical processes and em interactions; in other words, as an
array of em assisted biochemical reactions.
We will try to interpret the above experimental results in the framework of a recently proposed
theory of liquid water based on Quantum Field Theory (QFT) [6]-[11]. This theory is intrinsically
non-linear and it provides the suitable tools to describe a complex ensemble of processes which
are also non-linear.
Let us first summarize the main points of such a theory, whose details can be found in the
quoted references.
The starting point is the realization that liquid water molecules cannot be assumed to be
bound by purely static interactions (H-bonds, electric dipole-dipole interaction). Their binding
is actually induced by the time-dependent radiative long range em field. Short range static
bonds, such as H-bonds, then set in as a consequence of the molecule condensation induced by
such long range radiative fields.
The main results of the theory are [6]-[11]:
a) An ensemble of molecules interacting with the radiative em field acquires, above a density
threshold and below a critical temperature, a new non-trivial minimum energy state, different
from the usual one where the oscillations of the molecules are uncorrelated and the em field
is vanishing. The new minimum energy state implies a configuration of the system where all
molecules enclosed within an extended region, denominated Coherence Domain (CD), oscillate
in unison in tune with an em field trapped within the CD. The size of this extended region
is just the wavelength λof the trapped em field. The collective coherent oscillation of the
molecules component the CD occurs between the individual molecule ground state and an excited
state whose volume, according to atomic physics, is wider than the ground state volume. The
wavelength λof the trapped em field depends on the excitation energy Eexc through the equation:
The CD is a self-produced cavity for the em field because of the well known Anderson–
Higgs–Kibble mechanism [9] which implies that the photon of the trapped em field acquires
an imaginary mass, becoming therefore unable to leave the CD. It is just this self-trapping of
the em field that guarantees that the CD energy has a finite lower bound. Because of this
self-trapping the frequency of the CD em field becomes much smaller than the frequency of the
free field having the same wavelength. The above results apply to all liquids. The peculiarity
of water is that the coherent oscillation occurs between the ground state and an excited state
lying at 12.06 eV just below the ionization threshold (12.60 eV ). In the case of liquid water, the
CD (whose size is 100 nm according to Eq. (1)) includes an ensemble of almost free electrons
which are able to accept externally supplied energy and transform it into coherent excitations
(vortices) whose entropy is much lower than the entropy of the incoming energy. Consequently,
water CDs could become dissipative structures in the sense of the thermodynamics of irreversible
processes [12]-[14].
b) Coherence among molecules is counteracted at any non-vanishing temperature T by
thermal collisions which could put molecules out of tune, like in the Landau picture of liquid
Helium [15]. The competition between electrodynamic attraction and thermal noise produces
a permanent crossover of molecules between a coherent regime and a non-coherent one. For
a given value of T, the total number of coherent and non-coherent molecules are constant,
but each molecule oscillates between the two regimes producing a continuous change of the
space distribution of the coherent and non-coherent fractions of the molecules. It is just this
flickering landscape of the two phases of liquid water to produce, in the case of experiments whose
resolution time is long enough, the appearance of water as a homogeneous liquid. However, the
above property holds only for bulk water. Near a surface, the attraction between water molecules
and the surface could protect the coherent structure from the thermal noise, giving rise to a
stabilization of the coherent structure. This is in particular the case of living organisms where
water molecules are bound to membranes or biomolecule backbones. In this case CDs live long
enough to exhibit the peculiar properties of coherence.
c) CDs store externally supplied energy in form of coherent vortices. These vortices are long
lasting because of coherence, so that a permanent inflow of energy produces a pile up of vortices;
they sum up to give rise to a unique vortex whose energy is the sum of the partial energies of
the excitations which have been summed up. In this way water CDs can store a sizeable amount
of energy in a unique coherent excitation able to activate molecular electron degrees of freedom;
this high-grade energy is the sum of many small contributions, whose initial entropy was high.
d) CDs oscillate on a frequency common to the em field and the water molecules and this
frequency changes when energy is stored in the CD. When the oscillation frequency of the CD
matches the oscillation frequency of some non aqueous molecular species present on the CD
boundaries, these “guest” molecules become members of the CD and are able to catch the
whole stored energy, which becomes activation energy of the guest molecules; consequently, the
CD gets discharged and a new cycle of oscillation could start. The above mechanism fits the
intuition of Albert Szent-Gyorgyi [16] who proposed half a century ago that water surrounding
biomolecules should be at the origin of the excitations of molecule electron levels responsible for
chemical reactions. Moreover, should the ensemble of frequencies able to attract the component
monomers of a polymer be excited in the water CD, the polymer would be created by the
attraction of the monomers on the CD, provided that they be present in the solution. In this
way it is possible to induce the polymerization of monomers by supplying to the water CDs of the
monomer solution the em fields having the relevant frequencies (electromagnetic information).
e) A collective performance of water CDs, which could give rise to a biochemical activity
synchronous in a mesoscopic region, should demand a uniform rate of energy loading for all the
involved CDs. This requirement is satisfied by a mechanism which includes electrolyte ions,
whose essential role in the biological dynamics is widely recognized. Ions close to water CDs are
attracted by the em field trapped in the domains; so they are kept orbiting around the domain
moving at a circular speed proportional to the so called cyclotron frequency νc:
where qand mare the electric charge and the mass of the ion, respectively, and Bis the
magnetic field. Since DNA and also proteins are polyelectrolytes, they are surrounded by a
cloud of positive counter-ions; ions having a cyclotron frequency in the interval between 1 and
100 Hz play an important role. It has been experimentally detected by M. Zhadin [17] and later
by Zhadin and Giuliani [18] that by applying a magnetic field, having a frequency which matches
the ion cyclotron frequency, on a system where ions are present, these ions are extracted from
their orbits. This mechanism has been theoretically clarified in [19]. Due to the conservation
of angular momentum, the extraction of ions from the cyclotron orbits produces a rotational
motion of the quasi free electrons of the water CDs, which therefore become energetically excited
[20]. In the case where the ion concentration could be assumed to be uniform in a mesoscopic
region and the externally applied magnetic field has also a mesoscopic size, the amount of
energy excitation could be assumed uniform in a region including a large number of water CDs
which correspondingly are excited in a uniform way, thus ensuring the coherence among them.
The persistence in time of such extremely low frequency magnetic fields guarantees a steady
excitation of the water CDs and correspondingly of the biochemical activity catalyzed by them.
Let us analyze now the experimental results reported in Section 2 within the theoretical
framework summarized above.
The role played by the background of low em frequency is understood by observing that in
order to load energy in the water CDs, we need a resonant alternating magnetic field. In higher
organisms, such as the humans, this field can be produced by the nervous system. Elementary
organisms, such as bacteria, should use environmental fields. Good candidates are the Schumann
modes of the geomagnetic field [4]. These modes are the stationary modes produced by the
magnetic activity (lightnings or else) occurring in the shell whose boundaries are the surface of
the Earth and the conductive ionosphere, which acts as a mirror wall for the wavelengths higher
than several hundreds of meters. These stationary modes should have a frequency νswhich in
the ideal case is [4]
νs(n) = c
2πR qn(n+ 1) ,(3)
where Ris the radius of the Earth. The real Earth-ionosphere cavity is not an ideal one, so that
real frequencies are a little bit lower than the values given by Eq. (3). Actually, peaks around
7.83, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8Hz are experimentally found.
Consequently, in order to produce the energy loading of CDs, the biological system should
select ion species having a q
mratio such that, given the local value of Bin the organism, the value
given by Eq. (2) fits with one of the Schumann resonances. The local value of Bis expected to
be not much different from the value of the Earth’s magnetic field, which is in the order of 50
As explained in the point eabove, ions are extracted from their orbits when a magnetic field
Bis applied so to match the ion cyclotron frequency. This is done indeed by the Schumann
mode of 7.83 Hz of the geomagnetic field. Such an extraction of ions from their cyclotron orbits
produces in turn, because of conservation of angular momentum, a counter-rotation of the
plasma of quasi-free electrons in the CDs, whose frequency depends, of course, on the number of
involved ions, namely on their concentration, which therefore is the only relevant variable. The
phenomenon occurs in the same way on all the CDs of the system, whose number is irrelevant
for this purpose, in agreement with the item 2 in Section 2.
As a result, the so induced rotation of the plasma of the quasi-free electrons in the CDs
produces the observed EMS signal.
A confirmation that the observed frequencies are produced by magnetic activity is given by
the circumstance that the excitation is prevented by mu-metal absorption.
Summarizing, the above analysis fits with the role that the frequency at 7.83 Hz plays in the
observations (see Section 2).
It is interesting to observe that, should the cyclotron orbits around the water shell be
saturated by an ion species which does not match the Schumann resonances, the activity of
the biological system would be inhibited. This prediction is in agreement with facts since
we know that there are ions promoting biological activity and ions inhibiting it. The above
conclusion holds, of course, if the only em background is the natural one (Schumann modes) or
an artificial em background with frequencies similar to the Schumann ones; should an artificial
em background with a different frequency distribution be present, a reshuffling of the favorable
and unfavorable ion species would occur. This feature could provide a rationale for the observed
impact of ELF fields on the physiological activity.
We observe also that the dependence on the concentration is at the origin of the dependence
of the signal frequencies on the aqueous dilution. Since angular momentum is quantized, a
threshold in the dilution (ion concentration) value is naturally expected, as indeed observed.
In more detail, suppose one is able to extract nions per CD, then the plasma of Nquasi-free
electrons starts to rotate with a frequency much higher than the ion cyclotron frequency since
electron mass is much smaller than the ion mass. A corresponding co-resonating field appears
in the surroundings of the rotating CDs and could be at the origin of an extended coherence
among CDs.
The CD frequency is decreased by the increase of aqueous dilution. The existence of a window
of dilutions (see point 3 in Section 2) could be understood by presuming that the signal produced
by the lower dilutions could have a frequency higher than the interval of the values detectable
by the used instruments. Higher dilutions, on the contrary, could produce no signal because the
ion concentration is decreased below the threshold able to excite the CDs.
We note that the coherence among the CDs in a region of mesoscopic extension, produced in
the presence of the excitation energy in such a region, may sustain the non-dispersive propagation
of the em radiative field. Here a peculiar role is played by the specific DNA structure and by
the coherent water surrounding it. This is a point to be further analyzed on the basis of the
specific chemical structure of the DNA fragments used in the experiments. Such an important
investigation is in our future plans.
The field associated to the observed EMS, generated through the highly non-linear mechanism
described above, may also trigger the coherence among the CDs in a second tube containing
pure water where it is allowed to penetrate under the conditions set in the experiments
described in subsection 2.1. This phenomenon is similar to the proximity effect observed in two
superconducting samples or in the arrays of Josephson junctions, by which the samples or the
junctions fall into a phase-locking regime. In the case under study, such a phase-locking regime
manifests itself in the observed transmission of the excited em field of the water microstructures
which surrounded the DNA in the first tube. Once the water CDs of the second tube are excited
by the em field coming from the first tube, the DNA is fabricated according to the process
suggested in the point dof the present section. The phase-locking at the specific frequency
of the em field propagating in the original DNA tube is clearly reflected in the specificity of
the induced water microstructures out of which the original DNA sequence (98 % identical) is
recreated. On the other hand, the observed high reproducibility of this experiment finds its
explanation in the high stability of the coherent structures (CDs and coherent clusters of CDs)
into play. A series of experiments aimed at verifying the correctness of the described theoretical
scheme have recently been undertaken.
Finally, we observe that, at the present stage of the theoretical analysis, our discussion can
only lead us to qualitative agreement with the features observed in the experiments. For a
quantitative fitting we need to introduce specific models in the frame of the general theoretical
scheme depicted above. We leave this to a future work.
4. Conclusions and medical applications
In this paper we have described the experiments showing a new property of DNA and the
induction of electromagnetic waves in water dilutions. We have briefly depicted the theoretical
scheme which can explain qualitatively the features observed in these experiments.
We remark that it is possible to detect the same EMS from the plasma of patients suffering
from various infections and chronic diseases. The plasma has to be kept fresh and unfrozen. If the
plasma is frozen at 70 Cthen one must extract the DNA in order to recover the signals. The
DNA can be also extracted from tissue biopsies. The list of diseases in which EMS have been
found (such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, Multiple Sclerosis, various neuropathies, chronic Lyme
syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis) indicate clearly that their presence is not limited to diseases
known to be of infectious origin: The fact that EMS have been found in diseases not known
to be of infectious origin is intriguing, and leads us to seek bacterial or viral factors in these
diseases. A special case is that of HIV. Signals have been regularly detected coming from HIV
DNA sequences in the blood of patients treated by antiretroviral therapy and responding well to
that treatment by the disappearance of viral RNA copies in the circulating blood. This would
indicate that such DNA comes from a reservoir not accessible to the classical treatment, and not
from viral particles circulating in the blood. Moreover, not only the plasma of the patients, but
also the red blood cell fraction contains DNA emitting signals. This is intriguing, as the red cells
do not contain any cellular DNA, and as the virus does not bind to erythrocyte membrane. The
possibility that a third element is involved is under investigation. The hypothesis [2] has been
put forward that the antiretroviral treatment, which includes reverse transcriptase inhibitors,
is itself selecting for a new way of viral DNA replication involving one or several cellular DNA
polymerases. As for the M. pirum DNA, it is suggested that the HIV DNA fragments and
their nanostructures present in the blood may not originate from cell lysis but, on the contrary,
represent pieces of definite size able to recombine in the appropriate recipient cells (lymphocytes)
to form whole genomic DNA and finally regenerate infectious virus. Whatever is the origin of
this DNA, its easy detection by electromagnetic signals may render it a unique biomarker for
attacking the viral reservoir. Its existence in the blood by more classical PCR technology has
also been confirmed [2]. One thus has a powerful tool to test new types of treatment aimed
at eradicating HIV infection, which has never yet been achieved, by the treatments actually in
use. This is particularly important for patients in countries in which HIV prevalence is very
high, (5 10 % in a large part of sub-Saharan Africa). The process of launching clinical trials in
West and South Africa to test new therapeutics is planned. Their efficacy will be monitored by
this new test, together with the improvement of more classical parameters, evaluating the full
restoration of the immune system. The objective here is eradication of HIV infection, so that it
will not be necessary for patients to be treated for life by a combination of toxic and expensive
drugs. Our work is interdisciplinary, involving biologists, physicists, and medical doctors. There
are of course many unresolved questions raised by our findings, which deserve more work and
more interactions. DNA signalling is stimulated by 7 Hz naturally occurring waves on earth.
Waves produced by the human brain are also in the range of 7 H z. These are interesting
questions to be asked and possibly answered.
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Over the years, several authors have discussed the possibility of considering somatic dysfunction (SD) as a “nosological element” detectable on palpation. There are many aspects to consider regarding the etiology and diagnosis of SD, and the literature on osteopathic issues provides details on physiological signs that characterize it, including tissue texture changes. Recent knowledge suggests that how tissue and, in particular, connective tissue, responds to osteopathic treatment may depend on the modulation of the inflammation degree. Low-grade inflammation (LGI) may act on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and on cellular elements; and these mechanisms may be mediated by biological water. With its molecules organized in structures called exclusion zones (EZ), water could explain the functioning of both healthy and injured tissues, and how they can respond to osteopathic treatment with possible EZ normalization as a result. The relationship between inflammation and DS and the mechanisms involved are described by several authors; however, this review suggests a new model relating to the characteristics of DS and to its clinical implications by linking to LGI. Tissue alterations detectable by osteopathic palpation would be mediated by body fluids and in particular by biological water which has well-defined biophysical characteristics. Research in this area is certainly still to be explored, but our suggestion seems plausible to explain many dynamics related to osteopathic treatment. We believe that this could open up a fascinating scenario of therapeutic possibilities and knowledge in the future.
The results of a study on the mechanisms of the influence of an increased level of microwave radiation on the growth of infectious, primarily viral, diseases in the environment are presented. This is the radiation of the earth's ionosphere, which reached its maximum in the late 1980s-early 2000s, following an increase in the level of solar activity since the 17th century. Over the past 30 years, the anthropogenic electromagnetic background has increased 100 times due to the development of cellular mobile communications and computerization. The predicted interaction of natural and anthropogenic sources of microwaves sharply increases their negative impact on the ecological situation. Of particular concern is the active spread in recent years of the new 5G communication standard; in the future, it is the development of the most dangerous millimeter range in our country. Energy from the environment in the microwave range can cause "unexpected behavior" in the DNA of viruses. Clarifications to the recommendations of experts on the protection of the population with the help of electromagnetic shielding, obtained in the framework of supramolecular physics of the environment, are proposed.
Background Recent experimental results supporting the dynamization process show modification in the characteristics of solid mixtures. Objective The present work aims to evaluate the physicochemical properties of metallic zinc and lactose, evidencing the interactions between all chemical components presented in dynamized solid mixtures by analytical techniques. Methods Mixtures of zinc and lactose (1:9 w/w) were successively triturated at the same proportion according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia, receiving the designation of 10−1 – 10−6 (1dH – 6dH). All samples were submitted to the following characterization techniques: Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry (TG), and Raman Spectroscopy (RS). Results AAS results detected 97.0% of zinc in the raw material, and the triturated zinc lactose system (ZnMet) presented mean values similar to those expected for the physical mixtures: i.e., 9.94%, 1.23%, and 0.11% in the three first proportions (10−1, 10−2, 10−3), respectively. SEM images showed particle size reduction due to the trituration process. The XRD assays of ZnMet 10−3 and 10−6 indicated peak changes at 12.3° and 43.26°, probably associated with modifications of inter-atomic crystalline spacing. The thermal analysis results of dynamized samples suggest modifications in the chemical interaction between zinc and lactose induced by the physical forces applied. RS experiments showed variation in vibration frequencies due to the dynamization procedure, in which marked ZnMet 10−6 spectral modifications were detected at 357, 477, 1086 and 1142 cm−1, and in the wavelength range 860–920 cm−1. Conclusion These results highlight the importance of applying suitable characterization methods to improve our understanding of the properties of homeopathic solid mixtures, whereas the uses of sensitive tools evidence the influence of trituration on the crystalline properties and in the enthalpy variation of dynamized samples.
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Terahertz spectroscopy allows for the analysis of vibrations corresponding to the large-scale structural movements and collective dynamics of hydrogen-bonded water molecules. Previously, differences had been detected in the emission spectra of interferon-gamma (IFNγ) solutions surrounded by extremely diluted solutions of either IFNγ or antibodies to IFNγ without direct contact compared to a control. Here we aimed to analyse the structural properties of water in a sample of an aqueous solution of IFNγ via terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Tubes with the IFNγ solution were immersed in fluidised lactose saturated with test samples (dilutions of antibodies to IFNγ or control) and incubated at 37 °C for 1, 1.5–2, 2.5–3, or 3.5–4 h. Fluidised lactose was chosen since it is an excipient in the manufacture of drugs based on diluted antibodies to IFNγ. After incubation, spectra were recorded within a wavenumber range of 10 to 110 cm−1 with a resolution of 4 cm−1. Lactose saturated with dilutions of antibodies to IFNγ (incubated for more than 2.5 h) changed the structural properties of an IFNγ aqueous solution without direct contact compared to the control. Terahertz spectra revealed stronger intermolecular hydrogen bonds and an increase in the relaxation time of free and weakly bound water molecules. The methodology developed on the basis of THz-TDS could potentially be applied to quality control of pharmaceuticals based on extremely diluted antibodies.
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The sensitivity of DNA to electromagnetic radiation in different ranges differs depending on various factors. The aim of this study was to examine the molecular dynamics of DNA under the influence of external periodic influences with different frequencies. In the present paper, within the framework of a mechanical model without simplifications, we investigated the effect of various frequencies of external periodic action in the range from 1011 s−1 to 108 s−1 on the dynamics of a DNA molecule. It was shown that under the influence of an external periodic force, a DNA molecule can perform oscillatory movements with a specific frequency characteristic of this molecule, which differs from the frequency of the external influence ω. It was found that the frequency of such specific vibrations of a DNA molecule depends on the sequence of nucleotides. Using the developed mathematical model describing the rotational motion of the nitrogenous bases around the sugar–phosphate chain, it is possible to calculate the frequency and amplitude of the oscillations of an individual DNA area. Such calculations can find application in the field of molecular nanotechnology.
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Cytokines are important molecules that orchestrate the immune response. Given their role, cytokines have been explored as drugs in immunotherapy in the fight against different pathological conditions such as bacterial and viral infections, autoimmune diseases, transplantation and cancer. One of the problems related to their administration consists in the definition of the correct dose to avoid severe side effects. In the 70s and 80s different studies demonstrated the efficacy of cytokines in veterinary medicine, but soon the investigations were abandoned in favor of more profitable drugs such as antibiotics. Recently, the World Health Organization has deeply discouraged the use of antibiotics in order to reduce the spread of multi-drug resistant microorganisms. In this respect, the use of cytokines to prevent or ameliorate infectious diseases has been highlighted, and several studies show the potential of their use in therapy and prophylaxis also in the veterinary field. In this review we aim to review the principles of cytokine treatments, mainly IFNs, and to update the experiences encountered in animals.
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The phenomenon of magnetization of water by an electromagnetic field (EMF) represented a major challenge in the current research. The aim of this work is to improve the efficiency of the electromagnetic device and make the magnetic treatment as efficient as possible. In other words, the characterizations of the parameters that influence the process of magnetization of tap water (TW) were investigated. The Aqua-4D device generates an EMF playing the role of an external impulse, which will influence the magnetization of TW with a speed of 0.2 m / s, T = 26.5° C and pH = 8.25. The circulation of TW under the effect of the EMF generates magnetized water. The parameters were estimated after stopping the EMF. The magnetization time of water was monitored by the Kobra interface using the software Latis pro. It was shown that the magnetization time of the treated water persisted about 15 h, the magnetization time is strongly influenced by temperature, salinity, velocity but the pH has no influence on the magnetization time. The water molecules represented a major challenge in the current research.
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The coupling of a ligand with a molecular receptor induces a signal that travels through the receptor, reaching the internal domain and triggering a response cascade. In previous work on T-cell receptors and their coupling with foreign antigens, we observed the presence of planar molecular patterns able to generate electromagnetic fields within the proteins. These planes showed a coherent (synchronized) behavior, replicating immediately in the intracellular domain that which occurred in the extracellular domain as the ligand was coupled. In the present study, we examined this molecular transduction - the capacity of the coupling signal to penetrate deep inside the receptor molecule and induce a response. We verified the presence of synchronized behavior in diverse receptor-ligand systems. To appreciate this diversity, we present four biochemically different systems - TCR-peptide, calcium pump-ADP, haemoglobin-oxygen, and gp120-CD4 viral coupling. The confirmation of synchronized molecular transduction in each of these systems suggests that the proposed mechanism would occur in all biochemical receptor-ligand systems.
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Liquid water has been recognized long ago to be the matrix of many processes, including life and also rock dynamics. Interactions among biomolecules occur very differently in a non-aqueous system and are unable to produce life. This ability to make living processes possible implies a very peculiar structure of liquid water. According to modern Quantum Field Theory (QFT), a complementary principle (in the sense of Niels Bohr) holds between the number N of field quanta (including the matter field whose quanta are just the atoms/molecules) and the phase Ф. This means that when we focus on the atomic structure of matter it loses its coherence properties and, vice versa, when we examine the phase dynamics of the system its atomic structure becomes undefined. Superfluid liquid Helium is the first example of this peculiar quantum dynamics. In the present paper we show how consideration of the phase dynamics of liquid water makes the understanding of its peculiar role in the onset of self-organization in living organisms and in ecosystems possible.
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A novel property of DNA is described: the capacity of some bacterial DNA sequences to induce electromagnetic waves at high aqueous dilutions. It appears to be a resonance phenomenon triggered by the ambient electromagnetic background of very low frequency waves. The genomic DNA of most pathogenic bacteria contains sequences which are able to generate such signals. This opens the way to the development of highly sensitive detection system for chronic bacterial infections in human and animal diseases.
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Electromagnetic signals of low frequency have been shown to be durably produced in aqueous dilutions of the Human Imunodeficiency Virus DNA. In vivo, HIV DNA signals are detected only in patients previously treated by antiretroviral therapy and having no detectable viral RNA copies in their blood. We suggest that the treatment of AIDS patients pushes the virus towards a new mode of replication implying only DNA, thus forming a reservoir insensitive to retroviral inhibitors. Implications for new approaches aimed at eradicating HIV infection are discussed.
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We report the design, synthesis, and assembly of the 1.08–mega–base pair Mycoplasma mycoides JCVI-syn1.0 genome starting from digitized genome sequence information and its transplantation into a M. capricolum recipient cell to create new M. mycoides cells that are controlled only by the synthetic chromosome. The only DNA in the cells is the designed synthetic DNA sequence, including “watermark” sequences and other designed gene deletions and polymorphisms, and mutations acquired during the building process. The new cells have expected phenotypic properties and are capable of continuous self-replication.
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Combined parallel static and alternating magnetic fields cause a rapid change in the ionic current flowing through an aqueous glutamic acid solution when the alternating field frequency is equal to the cyclotron frequency. The current peak is 20-30% of the background direct current. The peak is observed with slow sweep in the alternating magnetic field frequency from 1 Hz-10 Hz. Only one resonance peak in the current is observed in this frequency range. The frequency corresponding to the peak is directly proportional to the static magnetic field. The above effect only arises at very small alternating field amplitude in the range from 0.02 microT-0.08 microT.
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We show that the usually neglected interaction between the electric dipole of the water molecule and the quantized electromagnetic radiation field can be treated in the context of a recent quantum field theoretical formulation of collective dynamics. We find the emergence of collective modes and the appearance of permanent electric polarization around any electrically polarized impurity.
It is shown that when the density becomes larger than a critical density an ensemble of water molecules evolves towards a coherent ground state, where molecules oscillate in phase with the e.m. field. At each temperature, liquid water is found to consist of a coherent phase of molecules in such a ground state and of a normal phase, whose population is determined by thermal excitations. The observed thermodynamical quantities as well as their wellknown anomalous behaviors are satisfactorily described by our theory.
Ecological modelling has not yet received from basic “hard” sciences, like conventional physics and chemistry, an adequate conceptual support. Mechanistic simulation techniques are very far from achieving a satisfactory understanding of ecosystem dynamics.In this paper we discuss how to build a bridge between basic sciences and ecodynamics, able to justify the emergence of novelties.It is shown that two important theoretical frameworks, thermodynamics of irreversible processes and quantum field theory, exhibit significant convergences on a number of points. They provide a rationale for the appearance of different phases of the same system, for the onset of non-linear self-consistent dynamics able to give rise to domains extended in space and evolving in time in an irreversible way, for the appearance of self-organization which is the main feature of life. A possible dynamical implementation of the thermodynamic concept of negentropy is suggested. The emergence of autocatalytic features is discussed.
The Belousov-Zhabotinsky phenomenon is analyzed in a framework where the dynamics of dissipative structures outlined by Prigogine is implemented through the collective dynamics produced in liquid water by Quantum Electrodynamics, which has received recently some experimental support. A mechanism allowing the appearance of self-produced oscillations is suggested.
A recent experiment on a physical, nonbiological system of ions at room temperature has proved that microscopic ion currents can be induced by applying simultaneously two parallel magnetic fields, one rather weak static field, (-->)B(0) and one much weaker alternating field, (-->) B(ac),[B(ac) approximately 10(-3) B(0)] whose frequency coincides with the cyclotron frequency v = qB(0)/2pim of the selected ion. As a result, ionic bursts lasting up to 20 s and with amplitude up to 10 nA arise. The much larger exchanges of energy induced by thermal agitation (the "kT-problem") appear to play no role whatsoever. We have analyzed this problem in the framework of coherent quantum electrodynamics, reaching the following conclusions: (a) as has been shown in previous articles, water molecules in the liquid and solute ions are involved in their ground state in coherent ordered configurations; (b) ions are able to move without collisions among themselves in the interstices between water coherence domains; (c) because of coherence, ions can follow classical orbits in the magnetic fields. A full quantitative understanding of the experiments is thus reached.