National Standards for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States
The Diabetes Educator (Impact Factor: 1.79). 09/2012; 38(5):619-29. DOI: 10.1177/0145721712455997
Source: PubMed
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Available from: Andrew S Rhinehart, Dec 02, 2015
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    • "blood glucose levels) and the prevention and/or management of diabetes related complications. As outlined in evidence based treatment guidelines for diabetes [32] [33] [34] these behaviours include: dietary management, physical exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose, medication adherence, foot care, smoking cessation, and appointment attendance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Depression and anxiety are common in diabetes and are associated with lower diabetes self-care adherence. How this occurs is unclear. Our systematic review explored the relationship between cognitive illness representations and poor emotional health and their combined association with diabetes self-care. Medline, Psycinfo, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched from inception to June 2013. Data on associations between cognitive illness representations, poor emotional health, and diabetes self-care were extracted. Random effects meta-analysis was used to test the relationship between cognitive illness representations and poor emotional health. Their combined effect on diabetes self-care was narratively evaluated. Nine cross-sectional studies were included. Increased timeline cyclical, consequences, and seriousness beliefs were associated with poorer emotional health symptoms. Lower perceived personal control was associated with increased depression and anxiety, but not mixed anxiety and depressive symptoms. Remaining cognitive illness representation domains had mixed statistically significant and non-significant relationships across emotional states or were measured only once. Effect sizes ranged from small to large (r=±0.20 to 0.51). Two studies explored the combined effects of cognitions and emotions on diabetes self-care. Both showed that cognitive illness representations have an independent effect on diabetes self-care, but only one study found that depression has an independent effect also. Associations between cognitive illness representations and poor emotional health were in the expected direction - negative diabetes perceptions were associated with poorer emotional health. Few studies examined the relative effects of cognitions and emotions on diabetes self-care. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify directional pathways.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Journal of psychosomatic research
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    • "This review suggested that these positive effects on HbA1c may decrease over time, which is similar to the effects of more traditional group-based self-management education on HbA1c which also show a similar decline in benefits over time [4,12,13].The American Diabetes Association standards for self-management education recognise the need for both initial training and subsequent on-going support to try and maintain the benefits of educational interventions [14]. Internet-based interventions are ideally suited to providing ongoing self-management support that could allow sustained improvements and long-term improvements in outcomes. "
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    ABSTRACT: Self-management by people with type 2 diabetes is central to good health outcomes and the prevention of associated complications. Structured education to teach self-management is recommended by the National Institute for Heath and Clinical Excellence; however, only a small proportion of patients report being offered this education and even fewer attend. This study aims to evaluate the implementation of a new internet-based self-management intervention: HeLP-Diabetes (Healthy Living for People with type 2 Diabetes) within the National Health Service. Specific objectives are to a) determine the uptake and use of HeLP-Diabetes by services and patients; b) identify the factors which inhibit or facilitate use; c) identify the resources needed for effective implementation; d) explore possible effects of HeLP-Diabetes use on self-reported patient outcome measures. This study will use an iterative design to implement HeLP-Diabetes into existing health services within the National Health Service. A two stage implementation process will be taken, whereby batches of General Practice surgeries and diabetes clinics will be offered HeLP-Diabetes and will subsequently be asked to participate in evaluating the implementation. We will collect data to describe the number of services and patients who sign up to HeLP-Diabetes, the types of services and patients who sign up and the implementation costs. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with patients and health professionals and cohorts of patient participants will be asked to complete self-report measures at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. This study will evaluate the implementation of a new online self-management intervention and describe what happens when it is made available to existing National Health Services and patients with type 2 diabetes. We will collect data to describe the uptake and use of the intervention and the resources needed for widespread implementation. We will report on patient benefits from using HeLP-Diabetes and the resources needed to achieve these in routine practice. Interviews with key stake holders will identify, define and explain factors that promote or inhibit the normalization of new patterns of patient and professional activity arising from HeLP-Diabetes.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · BMC Health Services Research
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To identify real-world factors affecting adherence to insulin therapy in patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: A literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE in November 2011 to identify studies reporting factors associated with adherence/non-adherence to insulin therapy in adults with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes. Results: Seventeen studies were identified; six used self-reported measures and 11 used calculated measures of adherence. Most (13/17) were conducted exclusively in the USA. Four categories of factors associated with non-adherence were identified: predictive factors for non-adherence, patient-perceived barriers to adherence, type of delivery device and cost of medication. For predictive factors and patient-perceived barriers, only age, female sex and travelling were associated with non-adherence in more than one study. Fear of injections and embarrassment of injecting in public were also cited as reasons for non-adherence. Conversely, adherence was improved by initiating therapy with, or switching to, a pen device (in four studies), and by changing to an insurance scheme that lowered the financial burden on patients (in two studies). Conclusions: Adherence to insulin therapy is generally poor. Few factors or patient-perceived barriers were consistently identified as predictive for non-adherence, although findings collectively suggest that a more flexible regimen may improve adherence. Switching to a pen device and reducing patient co-payments appear to improve adherence. Further real-world studies are warranted, especially in countries other than the USA, to identify factors associated with non-adherence and enable development of strategies to improve adherence to insulin therapy.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2013 · Diabetic Medicine
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