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Low-Cost Sewerage

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... The dodecane samples were then analyzed by GC/MS (Thermo Scientific DSQII single quadrupole GC/MS, Restek, Bellefonte, USA) as described elsewhere (Zöllig et al., 2015a). Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) were analyzed in a certified laboratory according to DIN EN 1485(DIN EN 1485:1996-11, 1996. ...
... Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie, Berichte der Bunsengesellschaft für physikalische Chemie 61, (1) 10-18. DIN EN 1485:1996-11, 1996 ...
... . Water quality -Determination of adsorbable organically bound halogens (AOX); German version EN1485:1996. Beuth. Donaghue, A., Chaplin, B.P., 2013. ...
Article
Electrolysis can be a viable technology for ammonia removal from source-separated urine. Compared to biological nitrogen removal, electrolysis is more robust and is highly amenable to automation, which makes it especially attractive for on-site reactors. In electrolytic wastewater treatment, ammonia is usually removed by indirect oxidation through active chlorine which is produced in-situ at elevated anode potentials. However, the evolution of chlorine can lead to the formation of chlorate, perchlorate, chlorinated organic by-products and chloramines that are toxic. This study focuses on using direct ammonia oxidation on graphite at low anode potentials in order to overcome the formation of toxic by-products. With the aid of cyclic voltammetry, we demonstrated that graphite is active for direct ammonia oxidation without concomitant chlorine formation if the anode potential is between 1.1 and 1.6 V vs. SHE (standard hydrogen electrode). A comparison of potentiostatic bulk electrolysis experiments in synthetic stored urine with and without chloride confirmed that ammonia was removed exclusively by continuous direct oxidation. Direct oxidation required high pH values (pH > 9) because free ammonia was the actual reactant. In real stored urine (pH = 9.0), an ammonia removal rate of 2.9 ± 0.3 gN·m(-2)·d(-1) was achieved and the specific energy demand was 42 Wh·gN(-1) at an anode potential of 1.31 V vs. SHE. The measurements of chlorate and perchlorate as well as selected chlorinated organic by-products confirmed that no chlorinated by-products were formed in real urine. Electrode corrosion through graphite exfoliation was prevented and the surface was not poisoned by intermediate oxidation products. We conclude that direct ammonia oxidation on graphite electrodes is a treatment option for source-separated urine with three major advantages: The formation of chlorinated by-products is prevented, less energy is consumed than in indirect ammonia oxidation and readily available and cheap graphite can be used as the electrode material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... For example, von Munch and Mayaumbelo (2007) found that annual costs for FS management from VIP latrine and urine-diverting dry toilet systems, including processing, ranged from 36 to 45 USD per capita. Similarly, Mara (1996) found that annual costs for low-cost sewerage systems (exclusive treatment) were in the range of 35-390 USD per person. Hutton and Varughese (2016) estimated annual capital and O&M costs for 'safely managed' sanitation of USD 12-19 capita −1 year −1 , which is in line with the value obtained in this study for the FS regime (Figure 3). ...
... The Kampala Sanitation Master Plan mentions a proposal to experiment with condominium sewerage systems, to increase connectivity in urban poor areas at lower cost. Condominium sewers are well established, for example, in Latin America, and are a proven way to reduce costs for the conveyance of sewage (Mara 1996). NSWC should thus explore condominium sewers within its sewage regime, as well as options for extending its service within the FS regime. ...
Article
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Like many low-income countries, Uganda is struggling to provide sanitation to its inhabitants. Meeting the Sustainable Development Goal related to sanitation (SDG6) will require major investments in sanitation. This study uses the concept of service regimes to analyze existing sanitation infrastructure and services and their respective costs. The service regimes investigated are the sewage regime and the fecal sludge (FS) regime. The results show that approximately 56% of the fecal flow in Kampala is estimated as ‘safely managed’. The results also show that the annual per capita costs for the sewage regime (USD 186) are more than 13-fold those for the FS regime (USD 14). Additionally, there are large differences in subsidies between the regimes. When allocating public funds, decision-makers are advised to consider (i) number of customers within regimes, (ii) total capital and operating costs of services, (iii) cost allocation between stakeholders, and (iv) infrastructure performance.
... de pessoas. Em outros países, há experiências registradas em água e esgotos em El Alto, Bolívia (Foster, s.d.) e em esgotos no Paquistão(Mara, 1998).Certamente, trata-se de solução com potencial revolucionário para o atendimento populacional, tanto pela sua concepção física quanto pelo seu modelo gerencial. Do ponto de vista físico, o sistema modifica o conceito tradicional de unidade receptora do serviço. ...
... Estimula-se ainda a descentralização das unidades coletivas, sejam estações de tratamento de esgotos ou reservatórios de água. Globalmente, tal concepção propicia significativa economia de custos, quando comparada com a solução convencional de esgotamento sanitário(Mara, 1998).Em termos de sua lógica gerencial, o modelo prevê a formação dos condomínios de usuários, que se tornam responsáveis pela implantação e manutenção dos ramais condominiais. Tal estratégia propicia a organização da comunidade em torno da problemática do saneamento e uma relação mais próxima entre o órgão prestador dos serviços e o usuário. ...
... Namun pada SPAL tercampur, kinerja IPAL menjadi kurang efektif jika air limbah diencerkan oleh air hujan, serta saat hujan lebat akan memberikan beban permukaan di IPAL yang melebihi beban hidrolis. Untuk mengatasi kendala tersebut, beberapa kota membangun SPAL yang terpisah dari drainase air hujan (Mara, 1985). ...
Article
In scientific practice, the quality of aquatic systems is identified by using three main characteristics which is physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Belgium and other European countries have already used three of these characteristics as an obligatory requirement in monitoring and protecting their aquatic system quality. In fact, some developing countries such as Indonesia still use physical and chemical characteristic only in regulative standard of the quality of their aquatic systems. The biological characteristic should be taken account to determine the quality of aquatic system in order to obtain the condition of aquatic system quality comprehensively. Two approaches that already well-known internationally to characterize the biological quality of aquatic system are BBI (Belgian Biotic Index) and MMIF (Multimetric Index Flanders) Approaches. The quality of aquatic ecosystem is explained by order: that the higher BBI number is the better that aquatic system is, and MMIF number as well. In practical, MMIF approach is known to have more representative result in determining the biological quality of aquatic system. Nevertheless, BBI approach is also attractive option as it lies in simplicity, rapidity, reliability, low cost, and practical utility. In the future, related Institutions or Stakeholders are freely to choose between these approaches.
... El sistema de humedales permite la depuración de la materia orgánica de manera natural, lo cual evitará la contaminación de los cuerpos de agua cercanos al resguardo.En relación con los parámetros empleados en el diseño de la red de alcantarillado, debe aclararse que éstos difieren de los rangos típicos considerados en la normatividad Colombiana. Sin embargo, son sustentados en las experiencias en sistemas de conducción de agua residual de bajo costo de Duncan Mara, investigador del Departamento de Ingeniería Civil de la Universidad de Leeds en el Reino Unido, mundialmente reconocido por sus avances en este campo(Mara, 1996).4.2. RecomendacionesComponente social:Implementar equipos sanitarios y garantizar agua potable en todo el mundo, generaría un mayor impacto en la disminución de la pobreza y mejoraría la calidad de vida y la salud pública, que cualquier otro programa que se desarrolle(WSSCC, 2008). ...
... For example, in the United States, small-diameter gravity sewers (SGDS) as small as 50 mm are used (Otis, 1986;Field et al., 2000). In Africa, settled sewerage systems are based on a similar idea using septic tanks to remove the solids prior to smaller-sized sewers (Mara, 1996). In developing countries, sewers may in fact be open channels, and also susceptible to the ingress of many more large gross waste and other solids (litter and debris) (e.g., Kolsky, 1998). ...
... Main sewers will be referred to as sewers with a pipe diameter > 200 mm. Unconventional sewerage systems are considered outside the scope of this review, as these systems are governed by a different flow regime (Mara, 1996). ...
Article
The performance of lateral house connections can have a substantial impact on the overall level of service provided by sewer systems. However, knowledge on the failure probability of these components remains scarce. This paper analyses field data to determine failure rates. A distinction is made between different mechanisms that contribute to the overall failure probability of lateral house connections. Root causes that promote the occurrence of these failure mechanisms are derived from a literature review. Results of a trend analysis shows a time constant failure rate, which exceeds blockage rates reported for main sewers. Fat, oil, and grease deposits are the dominant failure mechanism for both a specific case study in Rotterdam and the Netherlands. Literature suggests misuse and the structural condition as main root causes for this failure mechanism. The sheer number of failures associated with lateral house connections suggests that these components should be taken into account in sewer asset management.
... Main sewers will be referred to as sewers with a pipe diameter > 200 mm. Unconventional sewerage systems are considered outside the scope of this review, as these systems are governed by a different flow regime (Mara, 1996). ...
Article
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Container-based sanitation (CBS) - in which wastes are captured in sealable containers that are then transported to treatment facilities - is an alternative sanitation option in urban areas where on-site sanitation and sewerage are infeasible. This paper presents the results of a pilot household CBS service in Cap Haitien, Haiti. We quantify the excreta generated weekly in a dense urban slum,(1) the proportion safely removed via container-based public and household toilets, and the costs associated with these systems. The CBS service yielded an approximately 3.5-fold decrease in the unmanaged share of faeces produced, and nearly eliminated the reported use of open defecation and “flying toilets” among service recipients. The costs of this pilot small-scale service were higher than those of large-scale waterborne sewerage, but economies of scale have the potential to reduce CBS costs over time. The paper concludes with a discussion of planning and policy implications of incorporating CBS into the menu of sanitation options for rapidly growing cities.
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