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... Since then, several analytical frameworks appeared that used the term SES to explain the relationship between environmental functionality and social development (Fleischman et al., 2014;Cumming 2018). Fisheries are an uncontrolled productive activity, whose management implies an adequate understanding of biophysical as well as socioeconomic processes, and the interdependence derived from their interactions (FAO 2003;Jenkins and Garrison 2013;FAO 2018). Therefore, the SES concept is very useful to understand fisheries systems. ...
... The main theories or frameworks (other than Ostrom) found in the literature were related to: sustainability science (Clark 2007;Agrawal and Chhatre, 2011;Partelow and Winkler 2016), resilience and vulnerability theory (Folke 2006;Thiault et al., 2018;Silva et al., 2019;Lauerburg et al., 2020), network analysis (Fisher 2011;Barnes et al., 2016;Yletyinen et al., 2018;Armitage 2017, 2018), and stakeholder engagement, including LEK and TEK (Jenkins and Garrison 2013;Adom et al., 2019;Johnson et al., 2020;Hossain et al., 2020). Some academic approaches have been more relevant in the past decade despite the variety of frameworks, such as LEK and TEK (Adom et al., 2019;Johnson et al., 2020;Hossain et al., 2020). ...
... In this review, we found that stakeholder engagement (LEK or TEK) has certain advantages which are 1) fishers actively participate in decision making and implementation of management plans, and 2) it enhances positive responses to management plans, which can be restrictive in the short term but beneficial in the long term (Jenkins and Garrison 2013;Adom et al., 2019;Johnson et al., 2020;Hossain et al., 2020). ...
Article
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Fisheries are complex and unpredictable; the design and use of adaptive tools to understand and manage them are therefore necessary. The social-ecological systems (SES) approach seeks to achieve an integrated understanding of fisheries to find sustainable solutions applied to real-world uncertainties. The number of SES studies has increased since the arrival of Ostrom's reference framework in 2009, especially in the past 6 years. In the present review, we identified the trends in scientific literature focused on marine fisheries social-ecological systems (MFSES) published in the past two decades. The main objectives were to: (1) identify MFSES research trends and (2) detect how the social-ecological reference framework has evolved and how transdisciplinary approaches are occurring in fisheries science. Results showed that the most frequent approach was theoretical or conceptual, qualitative, using mainly secondary data. The greatest number of researches were undertaken in the northern Pacific, northern Atlantic, and the western coast of Africa. The most frequently used variables to analyze MFSES were related to the social subsystem. We conclude that the conceptual development of information on SES and specifically on MFSES is very extensive due to the need to analyze complex SES, particularly in marine fisheries.
... In some situations, changing gear type may increase average income for fishers while reducing ecosystem impacts (Chuenpagdee et al. 2003;Rouxel and Montevecchi 2018). Gear substitutions, collectively referred to here as 'gear-switching' , can be short-term or permanent (Jenkins and Garrison 2013). Although gear-switching has the potential to reduce bycatch of some species, economic and ecological tradeoffs should be evaluated before and after implementation. ...
... These types of negative consequences can be avoided when gear-switching options are developed collaboratively with fishers and a balance of costs and benefits are considered. Incentives for gear-switching include subsidies and buyback programs for gear replacement, training and education for alternative gears, recognition of adoption of alternative gears, and flexibility in management to facilitate long-term sustainable benefits (Fulton and Smith 2007;McClanahan et al. 2009;Jenkins and Garrison 2013;Eayrs et al. 2015;Loring 2017;Barz et al. 2020). ...
Article
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Despite the global scale of gillnet bycatch, universal measures that effectively reduce bycatch of seabirds in gillnets have not been found. Bycatch in coastal gillnet fisheries is an ongoing threat for several seabird species. Strategies to reduce seabird bycatch in gillnet fisheries were evaluated, focusing on the effectiveness of time-area fishing restrictions and gear-switching to meet seabird conservation objectives, ensure fisher acceptance, and avoid unintended consequences. A review of case studies showed that variations in the spatial and temporal distributions of target and non-target species may cause a mismatch between time-area regulations and high bycatch, but consideration of bycatch species behavior can help define effective fine-scale spatial and temporal measures. The potential for meeting conservation objectives through gear-switching is promising, with some further development needed for successful application. Combining measures (e.g., time-area fishing restrictions, gear-switching, visual and acoustic deterrents) may be feasible in some regions, if fine-scale spatial and temporal information about the overlap of seabirds and gillnet gear is available. A holistic approach to reduce seabird bycatch in gillnets, including understanding of seabird biology, habitat preference, and feeding ecology combined with information about fishing activity, target species, and socioeconomic impacts provides a framework to develop mitigation measures.
... As well as modifications within the existing configurations of problematic gillnets and traps, it might be feasible to examine (and mandate) alternative gears. Due to their fishing methods, some 1100 configurations are inherently more environmentally benign (Chuenpagdee et al. 2003) and have relatively fewer impacts on some species than other configurations (Rulfison 2007; Atkins et al. 2013; 1102 Jenkins and Garrison 2013). For example, based on the trend of relatively lower discard mortality observed in this review, trapping might be a coherent substitute for some gillnets although, like above, 1104 the relative efficiencies would require consideration (Suuronen et al. 2012 ). ...
... But it is also evident that technological solutions have the potential to substantially reduce unwanted impacts (Dietermann et al. 2000; Grant 2003; Brock et al. 2006a). The realization of such 1252 benefits is obviously not only a function of proven reliability (through adequate scientific experimentation), but also wide-scale acceptance, adoption and correct use ( Cornwell 1254 2008; Jenkins and Garrison 2013). Thus, the rate of success is inherently tied to prevalent management regimes (Gutiérrez et al. 2011; Berkes 2012) and carefully crafted compliance models to 1256 facilitate adoption of the relevant technological measures (Keane et al. 2008). ...
Article
Gillnets and traps often are considered to have fewer holistic environmental impacts than active fishing gears. However, in addition to the targeted catches, gillnets and traps still cause unwanted mortalities due to (i) discarding, (ii) ghost fishing of derelict gear, (iii) depredation, (iv) escaping or dropping out of gear, (v) habitat damage, and potentially (vi) avoiding gear and predation and (vii) infection of injuries sustained from most of the above. Population-level concerns associated with such ‘unaccounted fishing mortalities’ from gillnets and traps have been sufficient to warrant numerous attempts at mitigation. In this article, we reviewed relevant research efforts, locating 130 studies in the primary literature that concomitantly quantified mortalities and their resolution through technical modifications, with the division of effort indicating ongoing concerns. Most studies (85) have focused on discard mortality, followed by ghost-fishing (24), depredation (10) and escape (8) mortalities. The remaining components have been poorly studied (3). All problematic mortality components are affected by key biological (e.g. species), technical (e.g. fishing mechanisms) and/or environmental (e.g. temperature) factors. We propose that these key factors should be considered as part of a strategy to reduce impacts of these gears by first assessing modifications within and then beyond conventional configurations, followed by changes to operational and handling practices. Justification for this three-tiered approach is based not only on the potential for cumulative reduction benefits, but also on the likely ease of adoption, legislation and compliance.
... Assessment of mitigation measures is crucial for fishery managers. Gear substitution for instance can be an effective mitigation measure to reduce impact levels (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003), but only if reducing one impact does not lead to other unintended impacts (Jenkins and Garrison, 2013;Shester and Micheli, 2011). Managers thus need an all-inclusive and all-encompassing assessment that addresses fishing effects in a consistent and equitable way according to an analogous set of principles (Rice, 2011). ...
... Other techniques such as interviews with fishermen might help in providing sufficient data for SAGE (e.g. Jenkins and Garrison, 2013;Shester and Micheli, 2011). Applying SAGE with minimum data was not formally tested in our study; such testing would increase the applicability of this approach. ...
... Most published research regarding trap impacts on benthic habitat focus on a single trap on a single buoy line (van der Knaap, 1993;Auster and Langton, 1999;Marshak et al., 2008;Jenkins and Garrison, 2013;Stephenson et al., 2017). These studies have largely been conducted within coral reef sites in shallow clear water. ...
... Previous research investigating impacts of trap fishing on benthic structure was limited to a single trap or three-trap lines (Eno et al., 2001;Jenkins and Garrison, 2013;Stephenson et al. 2017), which were not representative of trap lines containing 10 or more traps. Dragging of traps along the ocean floor, specifically for single traps, has been documented since the late 1990s (Auster and Langton, 1999). ...
Article
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Alteration and degradation of benthic structure by fishing gear can impede efforts to manage fish stock sustainably. Although the impacts of mobile gear are well known, effects of passive gear (e.g. fish traps) upon structure have been little studied. We modified commercial traps for American lobster Homarus americanus and black sea bass Centropristis striata by attaching GoPro®️ cameras to ascertain the degree and nature of impacts to seafloor habitats. Customized traps were included within a line of 20 traps, deployed and retrieved according to standard commercial fishing practice. Less than 5% of traps landed directly on bedforms when deployed. However, during retrieval traps dragged along the ocean floor, increasing trap-habitat contact rate to 50%, and causing traps to collide with corals, bryozoans, and other epifauna. Drag time of traps depended on the position in the trap line. Experimentally extending the trap line reduced drag time during retrieval for traps near the distal end of the line. Our results show that impacts of commercial trap fishing can be substantial during trap retrieval, and that the impact depends on their location on a trap line. Fishing practices should be developed that minimize effects of trap retrieval on structural benthic habitat.
... This finding builds on other observations that multiple gear changes can address the shortfalls of any one mechanism and can increase the benefits for both fishery and fishers (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003;Jenkins & Garrison, 2013). ...
... In addition, the results of chapter five also show that investing in both mechanisms is the most profitable strategy for fishers that are less risk averse. Overall, these findings build on other observations that multiple gear changes can address the limitations of any one mechanism and at the same time can increase the benefits for both fishery and fishers (Chuenpagdee et al., 2003;Jenkins & Garrison, 2013). ...
... Understanding how fishers may respond to potential change, whether regulatory, environmental, or market-based, is critical for identifying key interactions between social, management, economic, and ecological processes which can either enhance or jeopardize fishery sustainability including social capital [51,52,53,54,55]. Recently, scenarios have been used as a research tool in other fisheries to specifically evaluate fisher responses to area closures, declines in catch, and gear conversion alternatives [56,57,58]. These highlight how social responses may amplify or dampen exploitation, bycatch, and habitat impacts and how choices made by resource users can be incorporated into adaptation planning and policy discussions [56,57,58]. ...
... Recently, scenarios have been used as a research tool in other fisheries to specifically evaluate fisher responses to area closures, declines in catch, and gear conversion alternatives [56,57,58]. These highlight how social responses may amplify or dampen exploitation, bycatch, and habitat impacts and how choices made by resource users can be incorporated into adaptation planning and policy discussions [56,57,58]. Although Florida Keys lobstermen have continually been involved in the public comment portion of the regulatory process and can serve on Advisory Panels to regional Fishery Management Councils, they are not generally included in the research undertaken in support of regulations but see [23,59]. ...
... Most of the examples of technological or operational changes to reduce bycatch fall in this category. Changing hook type (circle vs J, offset vs not offset, etc.), hook size, mesh size, net or line depth (shallow or deep), time of setting (day vs night), will most likely have consequences on the selectivity of the gear for many species (Watson et al. 2005, Jenkins andGarrison 2013). Table 1 (from Andraka et al. 2013) will serve to illustrate the problem. ...
Conference Paper
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I attempt to provide a perspective on some developments around the bycatch problem. The definition of bycatch continues to be an unsettled matter, but for most people it has a clear negative connotation, and I try to reflect that. The options to reduce bycatch are better understood using the components of bycatch estimates: effort and bycatch per unit of effort. Factors affecting BPUE can be used to find adequate strategies. The bycatch/catch ratio is useful to minimize the losses in production while reducing bycatch and it reflects the " ecological cost " of production. The evolution of the role of observers is traced through time, and the improvements developing mitigation programs are discussed. Populations: Using numbers of incidental mortalities to assess the impacts on the so-called " bycatch species " populations are simplistic and alternative metrics (e.g., the characteristics of the individuals killed) should be considered. Ecosystems: Obstacles to the progress of ecosystem-based fisheries management range from institutions and advocates with narrow foci, to the difficulties of choosing between alternative impacts. If the decisions made by managers are influenced by the intensity of the advocacy, or by the charisma of the different species, then we will be ignoring our objective of ecosystem-based fisheries management. A conceptual revolution proposes an alternative way to harvest an ecosystem based on a diversification of the harvest, reducing species, and size selectivities. This seems to be a better way to preserve the ecosystem while utilizing its resources. Even though much progress has been achieved through improvements in fishing gear technology, the real revolution has not happened: a change from gear that causes mortality to most of what is captured, 0204 Hall—More on Bycatches: Changes, Evolution, and Revolution and then a portion is retained, to a system based on live captures, where only those meant to be retained are killed.
... However, there are many biases associated with fishing gears which can result in differences in catchability and selectivity (Arreguín-Sánchez, 1996; Huse et al., 2000). Fishing is often restricted spatially and temporally due to marine geomorphology and fisheries legislation (Cappo et al., 2004; Jenkins and Garrison, 2012). Additionally, serial depletion may be a major bias for research programmes which have a temporal component requiring ongoing sampling at a site or location (Murphy and Jenkins, 2010). ...
Article
Baited remote underwater video systems are becoming a widely adopted tool for sampling fish assemblages. One of the outstanding knowledge gaps associated with this technique is the effect of different quantities of bait on the fish assemblages sampled. We investigated how different quantities of bait (0 g, 200 g, 1000 g or 2000 g of crushed pilchards, Sardinops sagax) influenced the relative abundance and species richness of a temperate, Western Australian reef fish assemblage sampled with baited remote underwater stereo-video systems (stereo-BRUVs). The presence of bait significantly increased the relative abundance and numbers of fish species sampled, with few differences between the three quantities of bait. Trends in fork length were identified between bait quantities for some species. For example, juvenile stage Coris auricularis (a protogynous labrid) were significantly larger in the unbaited treatment, whereas males of the same species were significantly smaller at unbaited treatments. This pattern was interpreted as being the result of intraspecific competition and the dominance of larger males in the presence of bait. When bait was present, fish were significantly closer to the stereo-BRUVs. However, there was again no difference between the three baited treatments. At this location in temperate Western Australia, stereo-BRUVs with 200 g of bait are as effective at sampling the temperate reef fish assemblage as stereo-BRUVs set with greater quantities of bait. In our study, the numbers of high trophic level species recorded were low. In areas with abundant high trophic level fishes, such as tropical reef systems, greater quantities of bait may be required to prevent it being quickly depleted by intense feeding.
... A number of fishers would potentially modify their gear as long as it did not affect their catch, was not too much work, and did not cost them money. This is a common hurdle for fisheries management to overcome as marine fishers have voiced similar opinions when presented with different BRDs or gear substitutions (Tucker et al. 1997, Broadhurst 2000, Jenkins & Garrison 2013. In the case of the eastern Ontario commercial fishery, target fish catch reductions have not occurred when BRDs were experimentally implemented (Larocque et al. 2012b); providing this information to fishers may make them more amenable to using such devices. ...
... In a second "focused" stage a researcher is able to "sort, synthesise, integrate and organise" large volumes of data through use of the most important or significant initial codes which may require a final selective stage [51]. The main idea behind grounded theory is to help identify common themes and construct "exploratory theories" through data collection and "hypothesis testing" [52] and to facilitate substantive theory development [53]. Coding procedures are then used to identify thematic content using an inductive approach [54][55][56][57][58][59]. ...
... Naturally public engagement will not resolve all conflicts, and the inclusion of local stakeholders may in fact result in a longer and more costly decision-making process [21,[34][35][36][37]. However, this additional cost may prove a worthwhile investment if local knowledge allows developers to identify concerns and potential conflicts early in the planning stage when it is easier to implement changes or consider alternatives [9,31,32,34,[38][39][40]. ...
Article
For marine energy to be truly sustainable, its social and ecological impacts must be identified and measures by which to mitigate adverse effects established before devices are deployed in large arrays. To inform future research and encourage environmentally-sensitive developments, this review aims to identify the most significant social and ecological issues associated with wave and tidal current energy generation. Modifications to wave climates, flow patterns, and marine habitats, particularly through increased underwater noise and collision risk, are identified as key ecological issues. Social acceptance of renewable energy is found to be closely linked to the level of stakeholder involvement and the public perception of renewable energy. The review concludes with a call for a more strategic and collaborative research effort between developers, academia, and the public sector to improve environmental monitoring standards and best practices for device and array design.
... In a second "focused" stage a researcher is able to "sort, synthesise, integrate and organise" large volumes of data through use of the most important or significant initial codes which may require a final selective stage [51]. The main idea behind grounded theory is to help identify common themes and construct "exploratory theories" through data collection and "hypothesis testing" [52] and to facilitate substantive theory development [53]. Coding procedures are then used to identify thematic content using an inductive approach [54][55][56][57][58][59]. ...
... Usually the FEK is collected to answer a particular question or fill in a specific gap in fisheries knowledge. Previous studies have found that FEK can assist fisheries management by: 1) supplying further information to be used in stock assessments (Neis et al. 1996); 2) providing feedback on management measures (Blyth et al. 2002;Jenkins and Garrison 2013;Neis et al. 1996); 3) imparting knowledge on the status of poorly understood species or data-poor fisheries (Aswani and Hamilton 2004); 4) generating novel ideas and questions; 5) contributing to spatial planning and the establishment of marine protected areas (Aswani and Lauer 2006); 6) directing surveys spatially and temporally (Aswani and Hamilton 2004;Bergmann et al. 2004;Davis et al. 2004;Johannes et al. 2000); and 7) facilitating support for future management programs. ...
... Usually the FEK is collected to answer a particular question or fill in a specific gap in fisheries knowledge. Previous studies have found that FEK can assist fisheries management by: 1) supplying further information to be used in stock assessments (Neis et al. 1996); 2) providing feedback on management measures (Blyth et al. 2002;Jenkins and Garrison 2013;Neis et al. 1996); 3) imparting knowledge on the status of poorly understood species or data-poor fisheries (Aswani and Hamilton 2004); 4) generating novel ideas and questions; 5) contributing to spatial planning and the establishment of marine protected areas (Aswani and Lauer 2006); 6) directing surveys spatially and temporally (Aswani and Hamilton 2004;Bergmann et al. 2004;Davis et al. 2004;Johannes et al. 2000); and 7) facilitating support for future management programs. ...
... There have been several exercises performed by conservation scientists and practitioners to identify the most important conservation science problems that need current research to address Fleishman et al., 2011). It is unclear from the literature in most cases where research truly reflects deep partnership from the early phases of project definition, but one such example involves work on bycatch where engagement of both fishers and fisheries managers is regarded as crucial to success (e.g., Jenkins and Garrison, 2013). ...
Article
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In a human-altered world where biodiversity is in decline and conservation problems abound, there is a dire need to ensure that the next generation of conservation scientists have the knowledge, skills, and training to address these problems. So called ''early career researchers'' (ECRs) in conservation science have many challenges before them and it is clear that the status quo must change to bridge the knowledge–action divide. Here we identify thirteen practical strategies that ECRs can employ to become more relevant. In this context, ''relevance'' refers to the ability to contribute to solving conservation problems through engagement with practitioners, policy makers, and stakeholders. Conservation and career strategies outlined in this article include the following: thinking 'big picture' during conservation projects; embracing various forms of knowledge; maintaining positive relationships with locals familiar with the conservation issue; accepting failure as a viable (and potentially valuable) outcome; daring to be creative; embracing citizen science; incorporating interdisciplinarity; promoting and practicing pro-environmental behaviours; understanding financial aspects of conservation; forming collaboration from the onset of a project; accepting the limits of technology; ongoing and effective networking; and finally, maintaining a positive outlook by focusing on and sharing conservation success stories. These strategies move beyond the generic and highlight the importance of continuing to have an open mind throughout the entire conservation process, from establishing one's self as an asset to embracing collaboration and interdisciplinary work, and striving to push for professional and personal connections that strengthen personal career objectives.
... Future management interventions and conservation actions for Maui's and Hector's dolphins could benefit from vulnerability assessments that address the knowledge gap of context of impact (Tribbia & Moser, 2008), with particular emphasis on incorporating information from important subgroups that are likely to have special needs as well as be exposed to disproportionate effects from possible measures (Tuler et al. 2008). Addressing these resiliency issues and pairing them with financial incentives would make it more likely that strategies such as conversion to alternative methods or adoption of BRTs are successful (Jenkins & Garrison, 2013). As noted by interviewees in our study, flexibility of fishers is limited unless risks associated with conversion to or adoption of potential BRT's are mitigated. ...
Research
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New Zealand’s endemic Maui’s dolphin (Cephalorhynchus hectori maui) is listed as critically endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature with an estimation of 55 adult individuals remaining. Efforts to protect the dolphin have prompted a series of management interventions to mitigate risks from its biggest threats. While research on the Maui’s population spurred the development of fishing restrictions within the dolphin’s known range, some stakeholders have expressed concern that current regulations are not sufficient to avoid extinction. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand stakeholder perspectives and attitudes towards the Maui’s dolphin and management interventions. Barriers to the implementation of proposed management interventions were cited by interviewees as the following: lack of clear funding sources, institutional barriers, impacts on livelihoods, and knowledge gaps of dolphin habitat and behavior. The exploratory study of fisher attitudes revealed that individuals and subgroups suffer disproportionate impacts from management interventions, resulting in a lack of perceived legitimacy of policy and decreased adaptability and social resiliency. The recently established Māui Dolphin Research Advisory Group has the potential to build trust, support relationship building among stakeholders, and provide a neutral knowledge storehouse for research on the Maui’s dolphin; However, there are issues regarding participation, purpose, and the collaborative process that need to be resolved within the group as it continues to develop. Recommendations as a result of this study include vulnerability assessments to identify where future disproportionate impacts might occur, increasing communication between and participation of stakeholders, identifying and securing explicit sources of funding for conservation and management, and reducing social ecological knowledge gaps in addition to biological ones.
... They are also potentially more avoidable than some other bycatch such as non-commercial finfish species. By and large, most fishers aim to avoid the bycatch of these species, although there is evidence that different groups within a fishery adopt bycatch reducing technologies at different rates (Jenkins and Garrison, 2013). Lower insurance costs for the use of more environmentally friendly fishing gear provide added incentive for their earlier adoption and development. ...
Article
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Internationally, marine biodiversity conservation objectives are having an increasing influence on the management of commercial fisheries. While this is largely being implemented through marine protected areas other management measures, such as market based instruments (MBIs), have proved to be effective at managing target species catch in fisheries and reducing environmental impacts in industries such as mining and tourism. Market-based management measures aim to mitigate the impacts of activities by better aligning the incentives their participants face with the objectives of management, changing their behavior as a consequence. In this paper, we review the potential of MBIs as management tools to mitigate undesirable environmental impacts associated with commercial fishing. Where they exist, examples of previous applications are described and the factors that influence their applicability and effectiveness are discussed. Several fishing methods and impacts are considered and suggest that whilst no single approach is most appropriate in all circumstances either replacing or complementing existing management arrangements with MBIs has the potential to improve environmental performance. This has a number of implications. From the environmental perspective they should enable levels of undesirable impacts such as damage to sensitive habitat or the bycatch of protected species of turtles, marine mammals and seabirds to be reduced. The increased flexibility MBIs allow industry when developing solutions also has the potential to reduce costs to both the industry and managers, improving the cost-effectiveness of regulation as a result. Further, in the increasingly relevant case of MPAs the need for publicly funded compensation often paid to industry when vessels are excluded from grounds, may also be significantly reduced if improved environmental performance makes it possible for some industry members to continue operating.
... Another area of discussion among PERC staff and supporters is fishing gear choices. Many feel that compared to trawls and gillnets, hook gear is more selective by size and species, less damaging to benthic habitat, and can release nontarget fish alive [37]. Hook fishermen establish a more tactile, or intimate, relationship with the marine environment; they are more acutely reliant on weather and local fish migrations, and observe and handle each fish caught. ...
Article
Environmental change heightens the need for governance structures that enable transformative social learning across socio-ecological scales. Questions arise concerning the ability of audit-based accountability to deliver such adaptive outcomes, particularly if implementation is hampered by communicative divides between insider and outsider groups. In the New England region of the United States, groundfish policy and its catch share system present an illustrative case. Despite severe depletion of cod and other species, governance insiders prevent consideration of regulatory alternatives. An insider-outsider activist strategy based in the state of Maine aims to regain fishery access, intensify grassroots community organizing to support owner-operators attentive to conservation ethics, broaden participation within conventional science and management venues, and improve prospects for community-based area management through strategic policy networks. Adaptive, polycentric accountability therefore seems more feasible, but requires further development.
... With this feedback, there can be iterative testing of proposed systems or gear modifications until some are found effective in achieving conservation goals, while still maintaining industry profitability Jenkins and Garrison 2013). Beginning in 1986, the IATTC pioneered skipper seminars centered on bycatch issues (Hall et al. 2003) which lead to the reduction in dolphin mortality, and interactions among fishers, scientists, and managers that resulted in more intelligent management. ...
Article
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Monitoring and managing fisheries bycatch is increasingly recognized as a critical component of robust fisheries management frameworks. This review, addressing this subject, begins by defining bycatch and analyzing the reasons it happens, from accidental to intentional discarding. It identifies the most common species composing bycatch of the main tuna fisheries using purse seine and longline gear. Considerations of options available to estimate bycatch, their potential biases and uncertainties, and ways to address these issues are discussed. The formulas used to estimate bycatch also point to the options to reduce them, lowering bycatch per unit of effort or lowering effort itself. It shows that a mean can be reduced by reducing all its component figures, or by eliminating the high values at the extreme of the distribution (i.e., where a small proportion of events causes a large proportion of the problem), a common issue in bycatch. A generic strategy is described that can be applied to all gears and fisheries, and it is then described for the fisheries of interest, showing examples of its application. These cover many mitigation actions based on gear and operational changes. Management options aiming at reducing bycatch are also mentioned. A detailed description of the ways the strategy has been implemented for purse seiners and longliners is provided. Finally, market strategies, education and awareness of stakeholders, mainly fishers, and some potential future developments are briefly described.
... Gear switching and has been identified in literature from around the world as a way to enable fishing while reducing or eliminating bycatch of endangered species (ICES 2016;HELCOM 2016;Jenkins and Garrison 2013). Analysis of protected species bycatch data from the Northland and Hauraki Gulf area where fishing overlaps with multiple dolphin and small cetacean species shows that longlining is a relatively safe fishing method. ...
Working Paper
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The survival of Māui dolphins is dependent on the removal of human induced mortality from set net and trawl fishing, yet about 70 percent of Māui habitat remains unprotected from these threats. Concerns about the socio-economic impacts of extending protections for Māui dolphins have been a key barrier to further government action to prevent the extinction of Māui dolphins. Gear switching to dolphin safe fishing methods is a potential way to address the Māui dolphin conservation emergency, and overcome the socio-economic barriers to effective conservation. New economic research shows that a shift to long lining is potentially economically viable; and with government assistance, impacts on fishers and wider communities can be substantially minimised. New Zealand is in a favorable position to develop and implement a lasting solution for Māui dolphins, with both widespread public support for a government assisted transition to dolphin-safe fishing within Māui habitat, and leadership and proactive movement towards this goal from within the fishing industry. However, government commitment is also essential.
... However, the loss of pots due to bad weather or interactions with other fisheries can lead to 'ghost fishing' and additional mortality for some species (Jennings & Kaiser, 1998;Bullimore et al., 2001;Kaiser & Jennings, 2002;Kaiser, 2014). Additionally, pots and traps can damage some sessile organisms such as corals, sponges and other benthos (Jenkins & Garrison, 2013). ...
Article
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Baited trap or pot fisheries are considered to have relatively few wider ecosystem effects on the marine environment, particularly when compared with towed mobile fishing gear. However, this assumption is rarely tested in the field. This study aimed to determine the composition of non-target species that occur in crustacean pots and to assess spatial and temporal differences in catches in the waters around the Isle of Man, Irish Sea. The data were collected using fishery independent surveys and a questionnaire study. Based on fishery independent surveys, a total of five taxonomic groups and 43 species occurred as by-catch. The dominant by-catch species was velvet crab Necora puber . The by-catch per unit effort (BPUE) for all of the non-target species was low particularly in comparison to towed bottom gear fisheries around the Isle of Man. BPUE of species composition varied considerably between different locations around the Isle of Man. The results of both the fishery independent and questionnaire data suggested that the by-catch rates varied with season with peak BPUE occurring in spring which then declined into autumn and winter. By-catch composition did not decrease significantly with an increasing target species catch. Overall, by-catch was low relative to target species catch which may be partially attributable to the use of escape panels in pot fisheries in the Isle of Man.
... Naturally, public engagement will not resolve all conflicts and the inclusion of local stakeholders may in fact result in a longer and more costly decision making process (Burningham et al., 2006;Echeverria, 2000;Irvin and Stansbury, 2004;Lawrence and Deagen, 2001;Rourke, 1984). However, this additional cost may prove a worthwhile investment if local knowledge allows developers to identify concerns and potential conflicts early in the planning stage when it is easier to implement changes or consider alternatives (Haggett, 2008;Irvin and Stansbury, 2004;Jenkins and Garrison, 2013;Jones and Eiser, 2010;Portman, 2008;Walker, 1995;Yearley et al., 2003). ...
Thesis
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In recent years, much research has focused on the possibility of using arrays of turbines to generate clean and predictable power from tidal currents. The first such array is now in development but a number of important questions remain unanswered. Among these, how should turbines be arranged within a tidal stream to maximise their collective performance? And what impacts will such devices have on the marine environment? In beginning to address these questions, this thesis takes two important steps toward establishing best practice in the design of tidal turbine arrays. In the first part of the thesis, the social and ecological impacts of marine energy development are reviewed. This review highlights the importance of communication and public engagement in securing support for a marine energy project and identifies the effects of increasing noise and collision risk on marine life as the most pressing ecological issues to be addressed. In the second part, theoretical models of tidal turbines are examined and a simple numerical model is used to extend existing theories on optimal turbine arrangement. The shallow water equations are used to simulate flow through an idealised channel and an actuator disc model is used to represent a single row of tidal turbines as a line sink of momentum. Optimal turbine arrangements are then sought for different and increasingly realistic flow conditions. Results provide new and important insights into the dynamics of flow through partial-width arrays and suggest that arranging turbines unevenly within the flow cross-section can increase considerably their collective power output.
... The characteristics of the trap, the biology and behaviour of captured species, environmental conditions and fisher behaviour all influence the potential outcome for discarded fish. Compared to active fishing methods, traps discard less biomass and cause less habitat disturbance, and are therefore thought to be more environmentallybenign (Chuenpagdee, Morgan, Maxwell, Norse, & Pauly, 2003;Jenkins & Garrison, 2013;Meintzer, Walsh, & Favaro, 2017). ...
Article
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Discarding non‐target fish from commercial fisheries is controversial and has been a persistent concern for fisheries managers globally. Discard management strategies typically begin by understanding mortality rates among discarded fish, a challenging task given the dynamic, highly context‐specific nature of fisheries. An alternative is to develop our knowledge of how stressors operate by first understanding the causes of mortality that drive this context dependence. Particularly relevant to mitigation efforts is an understanding of how fish respond to the physical factors of fishing, such as the gear itself and methods of fishing and handling the gear. We provide a synthesis of how commercial fishing methods may influence discard mortality and outline means by which capture‐induced stress and injury can be mitigated for common commercial gear types, emphasizing method variants or alternatives during capture, handling, and release that could improve survival. This synthesis identifies exhaustion and injury as the most detrimental and ubiquitous stressors experienced by discarded fish, with few options for mitigating their effects. Trawls and hanging net fisheries are identified as the most harmful gears for by‐catch, characterized by high stress regardless of method variants and limited options for mitigation. Irrespective of gear type and type of stressor, minimizing durations of capture and handling and encouragement of good handling behaviour (e.g., during landing and sorting) will reduce the magnitude of stress and injury in fish, and ultimately increase survival.
... A number of fishers would potentially modify their gear as long as it did not affect their catch, was not too much work, and did not cost them money. This is a common hurdle for fisheries management to overcome as marine fishers have voiced similar opinions when presented with different BRDs or gear substitutions (Tucker et al. 1997, Broadhurst 2000, Jenkins & Garrison 2013). In the case of the eastern Ontario commercial fishery, target fish catch reductions have not occurred when BRDs were experimentally implemented (Larocque et al. 2012b); providing this information to fishers may make them more amenable to using such devices. ...
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We compiled information on the perspectives of fishers on turtle bycatch, turtle conservation, and turtle bycatch reduction strategies (BRSs). Our research efforts focused on a smallscale inland fyke net commercial fishery in Ontario, Canada, where turtle bycatch has been identified as a potential conservation concern. We conducted 18 complete and 3 partial telephone interviews with fishers (41% participation rate). Rates of turtle encounters varied between fishing behaviours (e.g. preferred depth of sets, habitat), and between water bodies, regions, and fishing seasons, resulting in varying perspectives with respect to turtle bycatch. There was a general lack of understanding as to the reasons why turtles are protected. None of the respondents recognized turtle bycatch as a conservation issue. They felt that threats to turtle populations were external to the fishery, resulting in negative feedback regarding various BRSs. Other barriers to adopting BRSs were costs (e.g. of reduced fishing opportunities, changes to gear, time and effort) and apprehension of potential changes to the fishery. Few fishers would voluntarily modify their gear; therefore, incentives (e.g. compensation, increased quota) may be needed to convince fishers to adopt mitigation strategies. Some fishers had already adopted their own BRS for turtles (e.g. moving nets upon encounter of turtles, using air spaces to improve turtle survival). Therefore, sharing fisher-driven, grass roots success stories with other fishers could promote support for changes in fishing practices. Greater awareness about the impacts of turtle mortalities may help build understanding and support for turtle conservation initiatives.
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Climate Change and Ocean Governance - edited by Paul G. Harris February 2019
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Catch share management was implemented in the bottom trawl sector of the West Coast Groundfish fishery in 2011 to address a range of issues including high bycatch and discard rates. The catch share program was designed to remove the incentives to discard through full catch accounting, tradeable quotas, increased flexibility in fishing, and penalties for catch overages. We assess the effectiveness of the program in meeting its environmental objectives by comparing discard weights, proportions, and variability from 2004–2010 with 2011–2016. We analyzed these metrics for species managed using quota, including historically overfished stocks, as well as for non-quota species caught in the fishery. Discard amounts decreased over time for all species and declined to historic lows after the implementation of the program, remaining low through 2016 with much less inter-annual variability. Mean annual discards of two highly-targeted quota species, sablefish and Dover sole, showed the greatest decreases, falling by 97 and 86%, respectively. The discard proportion of overfished quota species fell by 50% on average. The unanticipated decline in discards of non-quota species as well as the decreased variability in discard amounts for all species indicate that the incentives produced by catch share management provided additional ecosystem benefits.
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The sustainability of regional development can be usefully explored through several different lenses. In situations in which uncertainties and change are key features of the ecological landscape and social organization, critical factors for sustainability are resilience, the capacity to cope and adapt, and the conservation of sources of innovation and renewal. However, interventions in social-ecological systems with the aim of altering resilience immediately confront issues of governance. Who decides what should be made resilient to what? For whom is resilience to be managed, and for what purpose? In this paper we draw on the insights from a diverse set of case studies from around the world in which members of the Resilience Alliance have observed or engaged with sustainability problems at regional scales. Our central question is: How do certain attributes of governance function in society to enhance the capacity to manage resilience? Three specific propositions were explored: (1) participation builds trust, and deliberation leads to the shared understanding needed to mobilize and self-organize; (2) polycentric and multilayered institutions improve the fit between knowledge, action, and social-ecological contexts in ways that allow societies to respond more adaptively at appropriate levels; and (3) accountable authorities that also pursue just distributions of benefits and involuntary risks enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable groups and society as a whole. Some support was found for parts of all three propositions. In exploring the sustainability of regional social-ecological systems, we are usually faced with a set of ecosystem goods and services that interact with a collection of users with different technologies, interests, and levels of power. In this situation in our roles as analysts, facilitators, change agents, or stakeholders, we not only need to ask: The resilience of what, to what? We must also ask: For whom?
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As populations of many fish species worldwide have de-clined, the price of fuel has increased, and coastal development has mushroomed, fishing communities have suffered economic and social vulnerability. Since its 1996 re-autho-rization, the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (which governs U.S. marine fisheries) has included a definition of "fishing community" as "substan-tially dependent on or substantially engaged in the harvest or processing of fishery resources to meet social and economic needs" and a requirement (National Standard 8) to minimize economic impacts and sustain participation in fisheries in these communities. These initiatives are being implemented in conjunction with a worldwide move towards ecosystem-based management. These legal and policy requirements add a new layer to theoretical discussions of "community" and "vulnerability." We review key themes and issues from the lit-erature on ecological anthropology, vulnerability, disasters, ecosystem-based management and fishing communities in the context of applied anthropological work in the U.S. Critical factors for understanding vulnerability in fishing communities are discussed and put in the context of more inclusive and holistic forms of management.
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Assessing cumulative impacts of multiple pressures on the marine environment can help inform management response. This requires understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of human pressures and their impacts. Quantifying seabed recovery rates from 2 significant pressures in European waters, benthic fishing and aggregate extraction, is a significant step towards assessing sensitivity and cumulative impacts. Vessel monitoring system data were used to estimate the distribution and intensity of benthic fishing in UK (England and Wales) marine waters (2006 to 2007). Data were separated by towed bottom-fishing gears (scallop dredges, beam and otter trawls) and linked to habitat in a geographic information system. Recovery periods of seabed habitats were estimated by literature review, for gear types and fishing intensity. Recovery rates generally increased with sediment hardness, and habitats required longer periods of recovery from scallop dredging than from otter or beam trawling. Fishing pressure across the habitat-gear combinations was such that 80% of the bottom-fished area was estimated to be able to recover completely before repeat trawling, based on mean annual trawl frequencies. However, in 19% of the UK's bottom-fished seabed, scallop dredging in sand and gravel and otter trawling in muddy sand and reef habitats occurred at frequencies that prevented full habitat recovery. In 2007, benthic fishing and aggregate extraction occurred together in an estimated 40 km(2) (<0.02%) of the UK seabed. Cumulative impacts were estimated as total recovery time under 4 scenarios: greatest, additive, antagonistic and synergistic impacts. Recovery from aggregate extraction required much greater periods than from benthic fishing, and gravel was identified as a more sensitive habitat than sand.
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Bahamon, N., Sardà, F., and Suuronen, P. 2007. Potential benefits from improved selectivity in the northwest Mediterranean multispecies trawl fishery. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64: 757–760. The management scheme in the northwest Mediterranean multispecies demersal fishery is based largely on technical measures such as minimum mesh and landing sizes. However, selectivity of the trawls used is poor, and large numbers of juvenile fish are caught. We assess the consequences of improved gear selectivity for European hake, Norway lobster, poor cod, and greater forkbeard by assuming that the whole fleet would switch from the current 40 mm diamond-mesh to a 40 mm square-mesh (SM40) codend. The results suggest that, immediately after implementation, the yield-per-recruit (Y/R) would be reduced by up to 20% for the three fish species but that, within five years, the Y/R of European hake would increase by > 50 %, provided fishing effort did not change markedly. For poor cod and greater forkbeard, the comparable increases would be more moderate, whereas for Norway lobster, the gains would only be small. Overall, marked long-term benefits might be obtained by changing to SM40 codends.
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1Some effects of fisheries on the associated biological systems are reviewed and management options and their inherent risks are considered.2In addition to the effects on target species, other sensitive groups impacted by fishing are considered including marine mammals, turtles, sea birds, elasmobranchs and some invertebrates with low reproductive rates.3Other impacts discussed include the destruction of benthic habitat, the provision of unnatural sources of food and the generation of debris.4Management options are considered including the designation of marine protected areas, risk aversion, and the burden of proof.5A balanced consideration of the risks and consequences of ‚Type 1’ and ‚Type II’ errors is advocated.
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Adaptive management has the potential to make environmental management more democratic through the involvement of different stakeholders. In this article, we examine three case studies at different scales that followed adaptive management processes, critically reflecting upon the role of stakeholder participation in each case. Specifically, we examine at which stages different types of stakeholders can play key roles and the ways that each might be involved. We show that a range of participatory mechanisms can be employed at different stages of the adaptive cycle, and can work together to create conditions for social learning and favorable outcomes for diverse stakeholders. This analysis highlights the need for greater reflection on case study research in order to further refine participatory processes within adaptive management. This should not only address the shortcomings and successes of adaptive management as a form of democratic environmental governance, but should also unpack the links between science, institutions, knowledge, and power.
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Problems with fisheries are usually associated with overfishing; in other words, with the deployment of "too many" fishing gears. However, overfishing is not the only problem. Collateral impacts of fishing methods on incidental take (bycatch) and on habitats are also cause for concern. Assessing collateral impacts, through integrating the knowledge of a wide range of fisheries stakeholders, is an important element of ecosystem management, especially when consensual results are obtained. This can be demonstrated using the "damage schedule approach" to elicit judgments from fishers, scientists, and managers on the severity of fishing gear impacts on marine ecosystems. The consistent ranking of fishing gears obtained from various respondents can serve as a basis for formulating fisheries policies that will minimize ecosystem impacts. Such policies include a shift to less damaging gears and establishing closed areas to limit collateral impacts.
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The recovery of benthic communities inside the western Gulf of Maine fishing closure area was evaluated by comparing invertebrate assemblages at sites inside and outside of the closure four to six years after the closure was established. The major restriction imposed by the closure was a year-round prohibition of bottom gillnets and otter trawls. A total of 163 seafloor sites (similar to half inside and half outside the closure) within a 515-km(2) study area were sampled with some combination of Shipek grab, Wildco box corer, or underwater video. Bottom types ranged from mud (silt and clay) to boulders, and the effects of the closure on univariate measures (total density, biomass, taxonomic richness) of benthos varied widely among sediment types. For sites with predominantly mud sediments, there were mixed effects on inside and outside infauna and no effect on epifauna. For sites with mainly sand sediments, there were higher density, biomass, and taxonomic richness for infauna inside the closure, but no significant effects on epifauna. For sites dominated by gravel (which included boulders in some areas), there were no effects on infauna but strong effects on epifaunal density and taxonomic richness. For fishing gear, the data indicated that infauna recovered in sand from the impacts of otter trawls operated inside the closure but that they did not recover in mud, and that epifauna recovered on gravel bottoms from the impact of gillnets used inside the closure. The magnitudes of impact and recovery, however, cannot be inferred directly from our data because of a confounding factor of different fishing intensities outside the closure for a direct comparison of preclosure and postclosure data. The overall negative impact of trawls is likely underestimated by our data, whereas the negative impact of gillnets is likely overestimated.
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This book addresses ecological and environmental issues associated with responsible and sustainable marine fisheries. It includes 22 chapters and has been developed from the Conference on Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem held in Iceland in October 2001. Contents include: a global overview of marine capture fisheries; legal protection for marine ecosystems; dynamics of marine ecosystems; the role of man in marine ecosystems; and incorporating ecosystem considerations in fisheries management. The book has a subject index.
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We explore the social dimension that enables adaptive ecosystem-based management. The review concentrates on experiences of adaptive governance of social-ecological systems during periods of abrupt change (crisis) and investigates social sources of renewal and reorganization. Such governance connects individuals, organi-zations, agencies, and institutions at multiple organizational levels. Key persons provide leadership, trust, vision, meaning, and they help transform management organizations toward a learning environment. Adaptive governance systems often self-organize as social networks with teams and actor groups that draw on various knowledge systems and experiences for the development of a common understanding and policies. The emergence of "bridging organizations" seem to lower the costs of collaboration and conflict resolution, and enabling legislation and governmental policies can support self-organization while framing creativity for adaptive comanagement efforts. A re-silient social-ecological system may make use of crisis as an opportunity to transform into a more desired state.
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P. 2007. Potential benefits from improved selectivity in the northwest Mediterranean multispecies trawl fishery. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 64: 757 –760. The management scheme in the northwest Mediterranean multispecies demersal fishery is based largely on technical measures such as minimum mesh and landing sizes. However, selectivity of the trawls used is poor, and large numbers of juvenile fish are caught. We assess the consequences of improved gear selectivity for European hake, Norway lobster, poor cod, and greater forkbeard by assuming that the whole fleet would switch from the current 40 mm diamond-mesh to a 40 mm square-mesh (SM40) codend. The results suggest that, immediately after implementation, the yield-per-recruit (Y/R) would be reduced by up to 20% for the three fish species but that, within five years, the Y/R of European hake would increase by .50%, provided fishing effort did not change mark-edly. For poor cod and greater forkbeard, the comparable increases would be more moderate, whereas for Norway lobster, the gains would only be small. Overall, marked long-term benefits might be obtained by changing to SM40 codends.
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The current global fisheries crises have immense implications for the health and viability of animal populations, as well as the ecosystems and habitats that support this biodiversity. These crises have provoked a wide variety of management solutions and alternatives that are closely aligned with other small-scale resource extraction conservation approaches, but have been analyzed separately from the common-pool resource management literature. We summarize findings from an analysis of progressive small-scale fisheries worldwide and find that solutions arise from a historical trial and error management process as problems become dire. We find high success in the social organization and regulation of resources among these progressive fisheries but poor evidence for improved ecosystems. Based on evidence provided by the most progressive fisheries, we suggest a change in policy towards the management of small-scale fisheries. This change includes four major avenues of problem solving that focus on facilitating socio-ecological processes rather than primarily promoting a high level of quantitative science and implementing findings, technological concepts, or tools. Adoption is often culturally and context specific and, therefore, the above often have poor success when not socially integrated. We encourage facilitating and catalyzing local-level adoption of rules that create limits to appropriation and technology, since it is increasingly recognized that such limits are key solutions to the threats. This will be achieved if policy and actions (1) encourage professionalism (formation of “societies”, setting standards, certification, self-policing, appropriate technology, etc.), (2) create forums where all opinions about solutions, the status of targeted species, and environmental requirements are represented, (3) promote social rules that consider the realities and limits of the households and local social economy, and (4) craft solutions tailored to the specific and agreed upon diagnoses. We predict that as this socio-ecological process matures, it will also increase the inclusiveness of resource management goals to include non-use factors, such as biodiversity and other ecosystem services, which are still poorly evaluated and managed in even the most progressive small-scale fisheries.
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This paper attempts to provide a synthesis of several issues relevant to the study and management of bycatches. It includes a proposed set of definitions for the different fractions of the harvest (catch, bycatch, release) and for other impacts of the fishing process, either at sea or in port. It also provides a system for the classification of bycatches that shows some basic similarities and differences among fisheries. The classifications are based on different criteria, including the degree of spatial or temporal ‘aggregation’ of bycatches, the degree of control that the fishers have, the frequency of occurrence, its predictability, its ecological or random origin, the level of impact of bycatches, and whether bycatches are the result of market conditions or regulations. One of the main issues to address in plans to deal with bycatches is defining the objectives to be pursued. These objectives can include ecological or socio-economic goals, and some of the possible goals are briefly discussed. Once the targets are set, it is necessary to find the strategies to achieve them. The bycatch process is quite simple because it has only two controls: the average impact per unit of effort and the total level of effort. The definition of effort used is not always equivalent to the one used in fisheries models. If a decision is made to reduce the ecological impacts of a fishery, three sets of tools are available to achieve it, acting over the two controls mentioned above: technology, training of fishers, and management measures. Five possible lines of defence are available to reduce bycatches: (1) increasing the selectivity of the fishery by choices of gear, areas, or seasons; (2) modifying deployment conditions; (3) increasing the fraction released alive either from the gear, or (4) later, from the deck; or (5) increasing the utilization to make catches out of the incidental captures. One of the options more commonly used to manage fisheries problems is the development of incentive/disincentive programmes, with both positive and negative responses applied to the fishers in accordance to their level of performance. Some examples are mentioned. Some of the challenges facing scientists, managers, the fishing industry and the environmental community to tackle the bycatch problems in coming years are also presented.
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Coral reef conservation strategies such as marine protected areas have met limited success in many developing countries. Some researchers attribute part of these shortcomings to inadequate attention to the social context of conserving marine resources. To gain insights into applying Western conservation theory more successfully in the socioeconomic context of developing countries, this study examines how long-enduring, customary reef closures appear to reflect local socioeconomic conditions in two Papua New Guinean communities. Attributes of the customary management (including size, shape, permanence, and gear restrictions) are examined in relation to prevailing socioeconomic conditions (including resource users’ ability to switch gears, fishing grounds, and occupations). Customary closures in the two communities appear to reflect local socioeconomic circumstances in three ways. First, in situations where people can readily switch between occupations, full closures are acceptable with periodic harvests to benefit from the closure. In comparison, communities with high dependence on the marine resources are more conducive to employing strategies that restrict certain gear types while still allowing others. Second, where there is multiple clan and family spatial ownership of resources, the communities have one closure per clan/family; one large no-take area would have disproportionate affect on those compared to the rest of the community. In contrast, communities that have joint ownership can establish one large closure as long as there are other areas available to harvest. Third, historical and trade relationships with neighboring communities can influence regulations by creating the need for occasional harvests to provide fish for feasts. This study further demonstrates the importance of understanding the socioeconomic context of factors such as community governance and levels of dependence for the conservation of marine resources.
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This paper reviews the available information (observer programs, estimates, statutes, regulations) for bycatch of marine mammals, sea turtles, and seabirds in fisheries of the United States. Goals of the review were to evaluate the state of knowledge of bycatch and the role of existing protective legislation in shaping bycatch management for different taxa. Pressing issues are identified, as well as knowledge gaps and policy limitations that hinder multi-species bycatch reduction. The USA has made important progress toward reducing bycatch in its fisheries, but the efficacy of its management has been limited somewhat by a focus on taxon- and fishery-specific regulation and the lack of consistent mandate across taxa for taking a cumulative perspective on bycatch. Applying consistent criteria across taxa for setting bycatch limits (e.g., extending the approach used for marine mammals to sea turtles and seabirds) would be the first step in a multi-species approach to bycatch reduction. A population-based multi-species multi-gear approach to bycatch would help identify priority areas where resources are needed most and can be used most effectively.
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To address problem such as bycatch, policy-makers are increasingly employing conservation technology (a management method that uses a device to protect organisms and/or habitat). Despite the increasing use of conservation technologies (CTs), the process of their invention and development remains poorly understood and problematic. Also, historically there have been problems with ensuring widespread, long-term, and proper use of CT. Thus, I sought to answer the question of how best to successfully invent CT and secure their widespread, long-term adoption by examining two case studies: (1) the use of turtle excluder devices (TEDs) to reduce the mortality of sea turtles in shrimp trawls in the U.S. Shrimp fishery and (2) the use of various CTs to reduce the mortality of dolphins in the U.S. Eastern Tropical Pacific tuna purse-seine fishery. I conducted on-site, semi-structured interviews with key informants selected with purposive and snowball sampling of representatives from federal agencies, state agencies, and industry and conservation groups. I collected documents that I analyzed with Grounded Theory, a set of techniques that allows the identification of concepts that emerge from text and the linkage of these into theory. I concluded that: (1) development of CTs occurs in and ought not be divorced from a social context, (2) the most widely adopted CTs have been conceived, invented, or modified by fishers, and (3) participants in the invention network often fail to recognize the expertise of fishers, and thus fishers are marginalized in the invention network. (4) both Sea Grant and NMFS used technology transfer methods that promoted CT awareness but not wide-spread adoption (5) some policy-makers and managers erroneously believed that a mandate negates the need for individual adoption decisions (6) enforcement is not a substitute for nor can it assure true adoption (7) diffusion theory would be a more appropriate model to encourage wide-spread adoption, and (5) adoption of CT is most likely when a commercially practical CT is promoted with persuasive and informative extension activities and regulations are enforced. The end product of my research is a framework detailing the best management practices for inventing and fostering the adoption of marine conservation technologies. I also proposed theories of invention and diffusion specific to conservation technologies.
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The sustainability of regional development can be usefully explored through several different lenses. In situations in which uncertainties and change are key features of the ecological landscape and social organization, critical factors for sustainability are resilience, the capacity to cope and adapt, and the conservation of sources of innovation and renewal. However, interventions in social-ecological systems with the aim of altering resilience immediately confront issues of governance. Who decides what should be made resilient to what? For whom is resilience to be managed, and for what purpose? In this paper we draw on the insights from a diverse set of case studies from around the world in which members of the Resilience Alliance have observed or engaged with sustainability problems at regional scales. Our central question is: How do certain attributes of governance function in society to enhance the capacity to manage resilience? Three specific propositions were explored: (1) participation builds trust, and deliberation leads to the shared understanding needed to mobilize and self-organize; (2) polycentric and multilayered institutions improve the fit between knowledge, action, and social-ecological contexts in ways that allow societies to respond more adaptively at appropriate levels; and (3) accountable authorities that also pursue just distributions of benefits and involuntary risks enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable groups and society as a whole. Some support was found for parts of all three propositions. In exploring the sustainability of regional social-ecological systems, we are usually faced with a set of ecosystem goods and services that interact with a collection of users with different technologies, interests, and levels of power. In this situation in our roles as analysts, facilitators, change agents, or stakeholders, we not only need to ask: The resilience of what, to what? We must also ask: For whom?
Article
Small-scale fisheries provide over half the world’s wild-caught seafood, employ over 99% of its fishers, and are frequently promoted as a sustainable alternative to large-scale industrial fisheries. However, few studies have quantitatively examined how possible habitat impacts and non-target species composition vary across gears used in small-scale fisheries, as data are sparse and conservation efforts are largely focused on more iconic species. Here, we quantify and compare the ecosystem impacts of four fishing gears (lobster traps, fish traps, set gillnets, drift gillnets) used in small-scale fisheries of Baja California, Mexico, using at-sea observations and field experiments. Set gillnets had the highest overall impact on both non-target species and habitat, with discard rates higher than most industrial fisheries (34.3% by weight), and an estimated 19.2% of Eisenia arborea kelp and 16.8% of gorgonian corals damaged or removed within 1m of the net path. Fish traps had the lowest discard rates (0.11%) while lobster traps and drift gillnets had intermediate discard rates (15.1% and 18.5% respectively). In contrast with gillnets, traps caused minimal immediate damage to gorgonian corals and rarely interacted with kelp. Results indicate that ecological impacts depend more on fishing gear type and habitat characteristics than the size of fishing vessels, calling into question broad generalizations that small-scale fisheries are inherently more sustainable than industrial fisheries. Our findings highlight the ecological impacts of artisanal gillnet fisheries as priorities for research, management, and conservation efforts in Baja California and other coastal areas.
Article
Problems with fisheries are usually associated with overfishing; in other words, with the deployment of “too many” fishing gears. However, overfishing is not the only problem. Collateral impacts of fishing methods on incidental take (bycatch) and on habitats are also cause for concern. Assessing collateral impacts, through integrating the knowledge of a wide range of fisheries stakeholders, is an important element of ecosystem management, especially when consensual results are obtained. This can be demonstrated using the “damage schedule approach” to elicit judgments from fishers, scientists, and managers on the severity of fishing gear impacts on marine ecosystems. The consistent ranking of fishing gears obtained from various respondents can serve as a basis for formulating fisheries policies that will minimize ecosystem impacts. Such policies include a shift to less damaging gears and establishing closed areas to limit collateral impacts.
Article
A major cause of the steep declines of American oyster (Crassos- trea virginica) fisheries is the loss of oyster habitat through the use of dredges that have mined the reef substrata during a century of intense harvest. Experiments comparing the efficiency and habitat impacts of three alternative gears for harvesting oys- ters revealed differences among gear types that might be used to help im- prove the sustainability of commercial oyster fisheries. Hand harvesting by divers produced 25−32% more oysters per unit of time of fishing than tradi- tional dredging and tonging, although the dive operation required two fish- ermen, rather than one. Per capita returns for dive operations may none- theless be competitive with returns for other gears even in the short term if one person culling on deck can serve two or three divers. Dredging reduced the height of reef habitat by 34%, sig- nificantly more than the 23% reduction caused by tonging, both of which were greater than the 6% reduction induced by diver hand-harvesting. Thus, con- servation of the essential habitat and sustainability of the subtidal oyster fishery can be enhanced by switch- ing to diver hand-harvesting. Man- agement schemes must intervene to drive the change in harvest methods because fishermen will face relatively high costs in making the switch and will not necessarily realize the long- term ecological benefits.
Article
Fishing affects the seabed habitat worldwide on the continental shelf. These impacts are patchily distributed according to the spatial and temporal variation in fishing effort that results from fishers' behaviour. As a consequence, the frequency and intensity of fishing disturbance varies among different habitat types. Different fishing methodologies vary in the degree to which they affect the seabed. Structurally complex habitats (e.g. seagrass meadows, biogenic reefs) and those that are relatively undisturbed by natural perturbations (e.g. deep-water mud substrata) are more adversely affected by fishing than unconsolidated sediment habitats that occur in shallow coastal waters. These habitats also have the longest recovery trajectories in terms of the recolonization of the habitat by the associated fauna. Comparative studies of areas of the seabed that have experienced different levels of fishing activity demonstrate that chronic fishing disturbance leads to the removal of high-biomass species that are composed mostly of emergent seabed organisms. Contrary to the belief of fishers that fishing enhances seabed production and generates food for target fish species, productivity is actually lowered as fishing intensity increases and high-biomass species are removed from the benthic habitat. These organisms also increase the topographic complexity of the seabed which has been shown to provide shelter for juvenile fishes, reducing their vulnerability to predation. Conversely, scavengers and small-bodied organisms, such as polychaete worms, dominate heavily fished areas. Major changes in habitat can lead to changes in the composition of the resident fish fauna. Fishing has indirect effects on habitat through the removal of predators that control bio-engineering organisms such as algal-grazing urchins. Fishing gear resuspend the upper layers of sedimentary seabed habitats and hence remobilize contaminants and fine particulate matter into the water column. The ecological significance of these fishing effects has not yet been determined but could have implications for eutrophication and biogeochemical cycling. Simulation results suggest that the effects of low levels of trawling disturbance will be similar to those of natural bioturbators. In contrast, high levels of trawling disturbance cause sediment systems to become unstable due to large carbon fluxes between oxic and anoxic carbon compartments. In low energy habitats, intensive trawling disturbance may destabilize benthic system chemical fluxes, which has the potential to propagate more widely through the marine ecosystem. Management regimes that aim to incorporate both fisheries and habitat conservation objectives can be achieved through the appropriate use of a number of approaches, including total and partial exclusion of towed bottom fishing gears, and seasonal and rotational closure techniques. However, the inappropriate use of closed areas may displace fishing activities into habitats that are more vulnerable to disturbance than those currently trawled by fishers. In many cases, the behaviour of fishers constrains the extent of the impact of their fishing activities. Management actions that force them to redistribute their effort may be more damaging in the longer term.
Article
1. The effects of towed bottom-fishing gear on benthic communities is the subject of heated debate, but the generality of trawl effects with respect to gear and habitat types is poorly understood. To address this deficiency we undertook a meta-analysis of 39 published fishing impact studies. 2. Our analysis shows that inter-tidal dredging and scallop dredging have the greatest initial effects on benthic biota, while trawling has less effect. Fauna in stable gravel, mud and biogenic habitats are more adversely affected than those in less consolidated coarse sediments. 3. Recovery rate appears most rapid in these less physically stable habitats, which are generally inhabited by more opportunistic species. However, defined areas that are fished in excess of three times per year (as occurs in parts of the North Sea and Georges Bank) are likely to be maintained in a permanently altered state. 4. We conclude that intuition about how fishing ought to affect benthic communities is generally supported, but that there are substantial gaps in the available data, which urgently need to be filled. In particular, data on impacts and recovery of epifaunal structure-forming benthic communities are badly needed.
Article
Bottom trawling and use of other mobile fishing gear have effects on the seabed that resemble forest clearcutting, a terrestrial disturbance recognized as a major threat to biological diversity and economic sustainability. Structures in marine benthic communities are generally much smaller than those in forests, but structural complexity is no less important to their biodiversity. Use of mobile fishing gear crushes, buries, and exposes marine animals and structures on and in the substratum, sharply reducing structural diversity. Its severity is roughly comparable to other natural and anthropogenic marine disturbances. It also alters biogeochemical cycles, perhaps even globally. Recovery after disturbance is often slow because recruitment is patchy and growth to maturity takes years, decades, or more for some structure-forming species. Trawling and dredging are especially problematic where the return interval—the time from one dredging or trawling event to the next—is shorter than the time it takes for the ecosystem to recover; extensive areas can be trawled 100–700% per year or more. The effects of mobile fishing gear on biodiversity are most severe where natural disturbance is least prevalent, particularly on the outer continental shelf and slope, where storm-wave damage is negligible and biological processes, including growth, tend to be slow. Recent advances in fishing technology (e.g., rockhopper gear, global positioning systems, fish finders) have all but eliminated what were de facto refuges from trawling. The frequency of trawling (in percentage of the continental shelf trawled per year) is orders of magnitude higher than other severe seabed disturbances, annually covering an area equivalent to perhaps half of the world’s continental shelf, or 150 times the land area that is clearcut yearly. Mobile fishing gear can have large and long-lasting effects on benthic communities, including young stages of commercially important fishes, although some species benefit when structural complexity is reduced. These findings are crucial for implementation of “Essential Fish Habitat” provisions of the U.S. Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act which aim to protect nursery and feeding habitat for commercial fishes. Using a precautionary approach to management, modifying fishing methods, and creating refuges free of mobile fishing gear are ways to reduce effects on biological diversity and commercial fish habitat. Perturbaciones del Lecho Marino por Artes de Pesca Móbiles: Una Comparación con la Tala Forestals Los arrastres de fondo y el uso de otras artes de pesca móviles tienen efectos en el lecho marino que se asemejan a la tala total de bosques, que es a su vez una pertubación terrestre reconocida como una de las mayores amenazas a la diversidad biológica y la sustentabilidad económica. Las estructuras en comunidades marinas bénticas son generalmente mucho más pequeñas que aquellas en los bosques, pero la complejidad estructural no es menos importante que la biodiversidad. El uso de artes de pesca móviles quiebra, sepulta y expone animales marinos y estructuras sobre y en el substrato, reduciendo marcadamente la diversidad estructural. Su severidad es burdamente comparable con otras perturbaciones marinas de orden natural o antropogénico. Tambien altera los ciclos biogeoquímicos, de hecho a nivel mundial. La recuperación después de una pertubación es frecuentemente lenta debido a que el reclutamiento es por parches y el crecimiento para alcanzar la madurez toma años, décadas o aún más para algunas especies que forman estructuras. Los arrastres de fondo y dragados son especialmente problemáticos donde el intervalo de retorno (tiempo entre un evento de dragado o arrastre y otro) es más corto que el tiempo que toma a un ecosistema recuperarse;árears extensas son arrastradas entre un 100 y 700% por año o mas. Los efectos de las artes de pesca móviles en la biodiversidad son más severos cuando las perturbaciones naturales son menos prevalentes, particularmente en las afueras de la plataforma continental y la pendiente, donde el daño del oleaje por tormentas es negligible y los procesos biológicos (incluyendo crecimiento) tienden a ser lentos. Recientes avances en tecnología pesquera (e.g., sistemas de posicionamiento global, detectores de peces) aparentemente tienen todo, pero eliminan lo que de facto fueran refugios contra arrastres. La frecuencia de los arrastres (en porcentaje de la plataforma continental arrastrada por año) es órdenes de magnitud mayor que otras perturbaciones severas al lecho marino, anualmente la cobertura de área es equivalente quizá a la mitad de la plataforma continental marina, o 150 veces el área de tierra que es talada anualmente. Las artes de pesca móviles pueden tener impactos grandes y de larga duración en las comunidades bentónicas, incluyendo estadios jóvenes de peces de importancia comercial, aunque algunas especies se benefician cuando la complejidad estructural es reducida. Estos descubrimientos son cruciales para la implementación de el “hábitat esencial para peces” del Acta de Conservación y Manejo de Pesquerias Magnuson-Stevens de los Estados Unidos y que pretende establecer hábitats de reproducción y alimentación para peces comerciales. El uso de una aproximación precautoria de manejo, la modificación de métodos de pesca y la creación de refugios libres de artes de pesca móviles son formas para reducir los efectos en la diversidad biológica y el hábitat para peces comerciales.
Chapter
Trawling or dragging was introduced into Atlantic Canadian fisheries in the 1950’s and soon became the dominant method of fishing for groundfish in the region. Since its introduction, fishermen warned about its negative impacts on habitat and the productivity of the fishery. In the last decade considerable research has been conducted on the impacts of bottom tending mobile gear on habitat, including major reviews by large scientific agencies. The International Council for the Exploration of the Seas and the U.S. National Research Council both formulated similar conclusions on how to minimize impacts: 1) reduce fishing effort; 2) close areas; and 3) modify and substitute gear. Following the stock collapses and closures of many fisheries in the early 1990’s the Canadian government took steps to reduce fishing effort. In recent years, partly in response to growing concern about the impacts of dragging, the government has embarked on a program to identify and establish marine protected areas. However, the Canadian government has taken no steps to implement the third recommendation: gear substitution or modification. Public and scientific interest in deep-water corals has been a major factor in advancing efforts to investigate and conserve benthic habitat in Atlantic Canada, including the establishment of three marine protected areas (MPAs). Alongside effort reduction and MPAs, gear measures should be an equal and concurrent component of efforts to conserve benthic biodiversity and restore fisheries as the conservation benefits extend to all areas where fishing occurs.
Article
The foundation for the creation of eco-efficiency metrics for industrial impacts on biodiversity is considered. Because biodiversity is the essence of life itself, these metrics are essential for effectiveness in the theory and practice of eco-efficiency, particularly in the case of primary natural resource extraction industries such as fishing and forestry. The case of fishing is examined, with particular attention to by-catch, lost nets, and habitat damage caused by mobile fishing gears. It is appropriate to examine fishing because industrial era impacts on marine biodiversity have been severe and are driving large and deleterious changes in marine ecosystems. For discarded by-catch, it is proposed that an eco-efficient metric for the value per unit mass of discarded fish can be set to be equivalent to that of the market value of the utilized catch. In estimating the eco-efficient value of the catch, the value of the discarded fish is then subtracted from the market value of the catch. Fish killed in lost nets can be treated similarly. It is more difficult to address marine habitat damage by mobile fishing gear, which has the highest potential for ecological injury.By using the approach proposed, negative eco-efficiencies are obtained under circumstances in which the collateral damage to biodiversity exceeds the economic benefit obtained. This is a logical outcome given the long-term effects of biodiversity decline. A metric is also proposed for assessing whether avoidance of harm to biodiversity, in the form of switching fishing gear, is required. Lastly it is proposed that metrics might be developed to provide eco-efficiency credit for companies taking effective actions to improve, or actively participate in, ecosystem-based fisheries management.
Article
Scenarios and scenario analysis have become popular approaches in organizational planning and participatory exercises in pursuit of sustainable development. However, they are little used, at least in any formal way, in environmental impact assessment (EIA). This is puzzling because EIA is a process specifically dedicated to exploring options for more-sustainable (i.e., less environmentally damaging) futures. In this paper, we review the state of the art associated with scenarios and scenario analysis, and describe two areas where scenario analysis could be particularly helpful in EIA: (a) in defining future developments for cumulative effects assessment; and (b) in considering the influence of contextual change – e.g. climate change – on impact forecasts for specific projects. We conclude by encouraging EIA practitioners to learn about the promise of scenario-based analysis and implement scenario-based methods so that EIA can become more effective in fostering sustainable development.
Article
Scenarios are claimed to support strategic decision makers. They are especially effective in dealing with uncertainties. This paper addresses some drawbacks of the conventional scenario method, which is especially directed at handling these uncertainties, and indicates possible avenues for methodological adaptations. We take the approach, which rests in the Shell tradition, as exemplary for our discussion on the mainstream scenario methodology. This approach has some limitations when it comes to dealing with simultaneous trends and countertrends, and trends or clusters of trends that are not thought of beforehand, especially the methodological requirements of causality and consistency, which might be limiting factors in this respect. This paper indicates alternative ways for scenario construction. It discusses the use of either recombinant scenarios, context scenarios, or inconsistent scenarios and/or combinations of these scenarios. These options explicitly incorporate the notion of ‘paradoxical trend’ as the codriver of future developments into the methodology.
Article
We review the effects of fishing on benthic fauna, habitat, diversity, community structure and trophic interactions in tropical, temperate and polar marine environments and consider whether it is possible to predict or manage fishing-induced changes in marine ecosystems. Such considerations are timely given the disillusionment with some fishery management strategies and that policy makers need a scientific basis for deciding whether they should respond to social, economic and political demands for instituting or preventing ecosystem-based management.
Article
{textlessptextgreatertextless}br/textgreaterUnsustainable tendencies in the co-evolution of human and natural systems have stimulated a search for new approaches to understanding complex problems of environment and development. Recently, attention has been drawn to the emergence of a new "sustainability science", and core questions and research strategies have been proposed. A key challenge of sustainability is to examine the range of plausible future pathways of combined social and environmental systems under conditions of uncertainty, surprise, human choice and complexity. This requires charting new scientific territory and expanding the current global change research agenda. Scenario analysis--including new participatory and problem-oriented approaches--provides a powerful tool for integrating knowledge, scanning the future in an organized way and internalizing human choice into sustainability science.textless/ptextgreater
Article
The mobilisation of sediment by towed demersal fishing gears has been related to the release of nutrients, benthic infaunal mortality and the resuspension of phytoplankton cysts and copepod eggs. Hence, to understand the broader environmental and ecological implications of demersal fishing, it is important to be able to estimate accurately the amount of sediment put into the water column by towed gears. Experimental trials were carried out in the Moray Firth, Scotland, to measure the quantity of sediment remobilised by trawl gear components. It is demonstrated, for a given sediment type, that there is a relationship between the hydrodynamic drag of the gear element and the mass of sediment entrained behind it. A better understanding of this relationship and the hydrodynamic processes involved will lead to the development of accurate predictive models and aid the design of fishing gears of reduced impact.
Article
Summary 1. The impacts of trawls and dredges on marine benthic habitats and communities have been studied extensively, but mostly at small scales and over short time periods. To investigate the large-scale chronic impacts of towed fishing gears, zoned commercial fishery management systems allow comparison of habitats and communities between areas of seabed subjected to varying levels of towed-gear use. 2. The Inshore Potting Agreement (IPA) was implemented in 1978 to restrict the use of towed gears in inshore areas that had traditionally been used by static-gear (pot and net) fishers. We used scallop dredges to sample benthic communities at sites within and adjacent to the IPA area that had been subjected to four different commercial fishing regimes since the inception of the system. These were: (i) towed gears only, (ii) annual, seasonal towed-gear use, (iii) temporary towed-gear use but reverting to static-gear use 18-24 months prior to sampling, and (iv) static gears only. 3. There were no significant differences in the total species richness or biomass of benthic communities between sites under regimes (i) and (ii). There was significantly greater total species richness and biomass of benthic communities at sites under regimes (iii) and (iv) than at sites under regimes (i) and (ii). The benthic community biomass under regime (iv) was significantly greater than under all other regimes. 4. The IPA has maintained benthic species that are important for the settlement and survival of others. The cessation of towed-gear fishing for a period of greater than 2 years would be necessary for benthic communities in areas adjacent to the IPA to recover such that they were indistinguishable from areas where towed gears had not been used. 5. Synthesis and applications. Members of the fishing industry may object to the creation of permanent closed areas because harvestable stocks can move in space and time. This study indicates that zoned fishery management can allow some sectors of the fishing industry to retain access to fishery resources while protecting benthic species and habitats.
Article
Policies that predict and direct innovative research might seem to be a practical impossibility, says David H. Guston, but social sciences point to a solution.
Observations of a scientist/diver on fishing technology and fisheries biology
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Primnoa) impacted by fishing gear in the Gulf of Alaska
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Krieger KJ Coral (Primnoa) impacted by fishing gear in the Gulf of Alaska. In: Willison JHM, Hall J, Gass SE, Kenchington ELR, Butler M, Doherty P, editors. Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Deep-Sea Corals. Halifax, Nova Scotia2001. p. 106-16.