Stomatal development: A plant's perspective on cell polarity, cell fate transitions and intercellular communication

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5020, USA.
Development (Impact Factor: 6.46). 10/2012; 139(20):3683-92. DOI: 10.1242/dev.080523
Source: PubMed


The plant stomatal lineage manifests features common to many developmental contexts: precursor cells are chosen from an initially equivalent field of cells, undergo asymmetric and self-renewing divisions, communicate among themselves and respond to information from a distance. As we review here, the experimental accessibility of these epidermal lineages, particularly in Arabidopsis, has made stomata a conceptual and technical framework for the study of cell fate, stem cells, and cell polarity in plants.

    • "The formation of stomata is continuous throughout leaf development enabling plants to respond to changing environments (Nadeau and Sack 2002). So far it is known that stomatal development is controlled by environmental conditions e.g. by CO 2 concentration, light intensity, temperature, nutrient availability and water supply, and also by gene expression, being itself controlled by the environment (Woodward 1987; Woodward and Bazzaz 1988; Nadeau and Sack 2002; Woodward et al. 2002; Qiang et al. 2003; Chaerle et al. 2005; Casson and Gray 2008; Lau and Bergmann 2012). Stomatal length remains rather constant within species but is highly species-specific unlike stomatal densities, which vary strongly within species depending on external conditions (Ashton and Berlyn 1994; Richardson et al. 2001). "
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    ABSTRACT: Stomata are mediators of gas exchange and thus important for photosynthesis and plant performance. The aim of this study was to analyze the ecological explanatory power of the stomatal pore area index (SPI) calculated via stomatal size and density. We studied the SPI on sun leaves of 22 herbaceous species on 22 study sites being distributed along two elevational gradients in the northern Alps ranging from 700 to 1800 m a.s.l.. We analyzed its correlation with other functional traits related to plant performance namely specific leaf area (SLA), area-based leaf nitrogen and carbon (N area and C area, respectively) as well as carbon discrimination Δ13C within as well as between species. On a subset of four species we also measured light-saturated net photosynthetic rate at ambient CO2 concentration (A sat) and stomatal conductance on all sites. We found that SPI was positively correlated with A sat, yet the relation was weaker than expected. The reaction of SPI along the elevational gradients was highly species-specific and related to variations in other investigated leaf traits. The relationship with functional traits, however, differed between the inter- and intraspecific level in strength and direction. SPI was positively related to N area and C area and negatively with SLA and Δ13C for most species. However, we found no significant relation considering species mean values for Δ13C and N area. The relation of SPI to SLA was the most consistent displaying no difference when comparing the relation between and within species. This research shows that different processes may act on different organizational levels leading to the detected differences in trait–trait correlations on the inter- and intraspecific levels. It may have important consequences also for macroecological and modelling studies.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2016 · Plant Ecology
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    • "These multiple constraints of water and nutrient availability, together with predicted climate instability pose a serious threat to food security (Poppy et al., 2014). Over the past decade the signaling pathway that controls the formation of stomata (the microscopic leaf pores that control E) has become better understood (Casson & Gray, 2008; Lau & Bergmann, 2012; Pillitteri & Torii, 2012). This knowledge allows us to study the physiological implications of altering stomatal density (D) within plants of the same genetic background. "
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    ABSTRACT: Manipulation of stomatal density was investigated as a potential tool for enhancing drought tolerance or nutrient uptake. Drought tolerance and soil water retention were assessed using Arabidopsis epidermal patterning factor mutants manipulated to have increased or decreased stomatal density. Root nutrient uptake via mass flow was monitored under differing plant watering regimes using nitrogen-15 ((15) N) isotope and mass spectrometry. Plants with less than half of their normal complement of stomata, and correspondingly reduced levels of transpiration, conserve soil moisture and are highly drought tolerant but show little or no reduction in shoot nitrogen concentrations especially when water availability is restricted. By contrast, plants with over twice the normal density of stomata have a greater capacity for nitrogen uptake, except when water availability is restricted. We demonstrate the possibility of producing plants with reduced transpiration which have increased drought tolerance, with little or no loss of nutrient uptake. We demonstrate that increasing transpiration can enhance nutrient uptake when water is plentiful. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · New Phytologist
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    • "We also touch briefly on environmental factors that can impact leaf development (see Box 2), and on recently developed quantitative approaches (see Box 3), which can serve to further characterize and understand leaf development. We chose not to discuss adaxial-abaxial, vascular, trichome or stomatal patterning, as several recent reviews have discussed these topics (Grebe, 2012; Kidner and Timmermans, 2010; Lau and Bergmann, 2012; Nakata and Okada, 2013; Sack and Scoffoni, 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of how plant hormones and transcriptional regulators modulate compound leaf development, yielding a substantial diversity of leaf forms, focusing on four model compound leaf organisms: cardamine (Cardamine hirsuta), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), medicago (Medicago truncatula) and pea (Pisum sativum).
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Current Opinion in Plant Biology
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