Complement-Targeted Therapeutics in Periodontitis

Department of Microbiology, School of Dental Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA, .
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 1.96). 02/2013; 734:197-206. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-4614-4118-2_13
Source: PubMed


Periodontitis is a prevalent oral chronic inflammatory disease which, in severe forms, may exert a major impact on systemic health. Clinical and histological observations, as well as experimental animal studies, suggest involvement of the complement system in periodontitis. However, the precise roles of the various complement components and pathways in periodontitis have only recently started to be elucidated. In this chapter, we review recent progress in the field and discuss the potential of complement-targeted therapeutics in the treatment of periodontitis.

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    • "A number of strategies that focus on exploiting host responses for the treatment of periodontitis are currently being explored. These include, but are not limited to, vaccine strategies to block P. gingivalis colonization [24] and targeted therapeutics modulating inflammatory cascades regulated by complement [25], glycogen synthase kinase 3β signaling [26] and T regulatory cells [27]. Bacterial S-layer proteins self-assemble in vitro to form nanoaggregates [28], which have been proposed as vehicles for vaccine antigen or therapeutic delivery. "
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    ABSTRACT: Alveolar bone (tooth-supporting bone) erosion is a hallmark of periodontitis, an inflammatory disease that often leads to tooth loss. Periodontitis is caused by a select group of pathogens that form biofilms in subgingival crevices between the gums and teeth. It is well-recognized that the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis in these biofilms is responsible for modeling a microbial dysbiotic state, which then initiates an inflammatory response destructive to the periodontal tissues and bone. Eradication of this pathogen is thus critical for the treatment of periodontitis. Previous studies have shown that oral inoculation in mice with an attenuated strain of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia altered in O-glycan surface composition induces a Th17-linked mobilization of neutrophils to the gingival tissues. In this study, we sought to determine if immune priming with such a Th17-biasing strain would elicit a productive neutrophil response against P. gingivalis. Our data show that inoculation with a Th17-biasing T. forsythia strain is effective in blocking P. gingivalis-persistence and associated alveolar bone loss in mice. This work demonstrates the potential of O-glycan modified Tannerella strains or their O-glycan components for harnessing Th17-mediated immunity against periodontal and other mucosal pathogens.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    ABSTRACT: Recent reports focusing on virulence factors of periodontal pathogens implicated proteinases as major determinants of remarkable pathogenicity of these species, with special emphasis on their capacity to modulate complement activity. In particular, bacteria-mediated cleavage of C5 and subsequent release of C5a seems to be an important phenomenon in the manipulation of the local inflammatory response in periodontitis. In this study, we present mirolysin, a novel metalloproteinase secreted by Tannerella forsythia, a well-recognized pathogen strongly associated with periodontitis. Mirolysin exhibited a strong effect on all complement pathways. It inhibited the classical and lectin complement pathways due to efficient degradation of mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-2, ficolin-3, and C4, whereas inhibition of the alternative pathway was caused by degradation of C5. This specificity toward complement largely resembled the activity of a previously characterized metalloproteinase of T. forsythia, karilysin. Interestingly, mirolysin released the biologically active C5a peptide in human plasma and induced migration of neutrophils. Importantly, we demonstrated that combination of mirolysin with karilysin, as well as a cysteine proteinase of another periodontal pathogen, Prevotella intermedia, resulted in a strong synergistic effect on complement. Furthermore, mutant strains of T. forsythia, devoid of either mirolysin or karilysin, showed diminished survival in human serum, providing further evidence for the synergistic inactivation of complement by these metalloproteinases. Taken together, our findings on interactions of mirolysin with complement significantly add to the understanding of immune evasion strategies of T. forsythia and expand the knowledge on molecular mechanisms driving pathogenic events in the infected periodontium. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
    No preview · Article · Dec 2013 · Molecular Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic periodontitis is induced by a dysbiotic microbiota and leads to inflammatory destruction of tooth-supporting connective tissue and bone. The third component of complement, C3, is a point of convergence of distinct complement activation mechanisms, but its involvement in periodontitis was not previously addressed. We investigated this question using two animal species models, namely, C3-deficient or wild-type mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs) locally treated with a potent C3 inhibitor (the compstatin analog Cp40) or an inactive peptide control. In mice, C3 was required for maximal periodontal inflammation and bone loss, and for the sustenance of the dysbiotic microbiota. The effect of C3 on the microbiota was therefore different from that reported for the C5a receptor, which is required for the initial induction of dysbiosis. C3-dependent bone loss was demonstrated in distinct models, including Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced periodontitis, ligature-induced periodontitis, and aging-associated periodontitis. Importantly, local treatment of NHPs with Cp40 inhibited ligature-induced periodontal inflammation and bone loss, which correlated with lower gingival crevicular fluid levels of proinflammatory mediators (e.g., IL-17 and RANKL) and decreased osteoclastogenesis in bone biopsy specimens, as compared with control treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first time, for any disease, that complement inhibition in NHPs was shown to inhibit inflammatory processes that lead to osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. These data strongly support the feasibility of C3-targeted intervention for the treatment of human periodontitis.
    No preview · Article · May 2014 · The Journal of Immunology
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