Article

Thematic Proto-Roles and Argument Selction

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

As a novel attack on the perennially vexing questions of the theoretical status of thematic roles and the inventory of possible roles, this paper defends a strategy of basing accounts of roles on more unified domains of linguistic data than have been used in the past to motivate roles, addressing in particular the problem of ARGUMENT SELECTION (principles determining which roles are associated with which grammatical relations). It is concluded that the best theory for describing this domain is not a traditional system of discrete roles (Agent, Patient, Source, etc.) but a theory in which the only roles are two cluster-concepts called PROTO-AGENT and PROTO-PATIENT, each characterized by a set of verbal entailments: an argument of a verb may bear either of the two proto-roles (or both) to varying degrees, according to the number of entailments of each kind the verb gives it. Both fine-grained and coarse-grained classes of verbal arguments (corresponding to traditional thematic roles and other classes as well) follow automatically, as do desired 'role hierarchies'. By examining occurrences of the 'same' verb with different argument configurations—e.g. two forms of psych predicates and object-oblique alternations as in the familiar spray/load class—it can also be argued that proto-roles act as defaults in the learning of lexical meanings. Are proto-role categories manifested elsewhere in language or as cognitive categories? If so, they might be a means of making grammar acquisition easier for the child, they might explain certain other typological and acquisitional observations, and they may lead to an account of contrasts between unaccusative and unergative intransitive verbs that does not rely on deriving unaccusatives from underlying direct objects.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Un dels models nanosintàctics més coneguts és el que proposa Ramchand (2008 Un exemple paradigmàtic d'una relació homomòrfica és el cas dels verbs de creació i de consum, en què la composició aspectual del predicat està determinada pel SD objecte, tradicionalment conegut com a tema incremental (Dowty 1991). Ramchand (2008: 29) ho il·lustra amb el verb menjar de l'anglès. ...
... Una prova que demostra que aquesta construcció denota un esdeveniment és que es pot construir en temps progressiu (Vendler 1967;Dowty 1979;Marín 2000). ...
... (Gehrke i Grillo 2009: 236) Els autors representen l'estat consecutiu com el SV estructuralment més baix de l'estructura, que introdueix l'argument intern (SV2). (2007), relacionen aquest estat consecutiu amb l'operador "become" de Dowty (1979). En tot cas, la proposta general és la mateixa a tots dos treballs. ...
... We jointly learn semantic role labelling (SRL) and semantic proto-role labelling (SPRL), demonstrating that multi-task learning benefits both tasks in English. Current work on SRL does not make use of proto-roles (Dowty, 1991) at all, while existing work on SPRL (Teichert et al., 2017;Rudinger et al., 2018;Opitz and Frank, 2019) focuses on predicting proto-role properties themselves, and views SRL merely as an external task for pre-training or additional input. ...
... Traditionally, SRL systems are trained either on PropBank or FrameNet annotations ( §2). Proto-roles (Dowty, 1991;Reisinger et al., 2015) break down these more traditional semantic roles to sub-components (proto-role properties), such as animacy, sentience, change of state, etc. This has potential to improve model learnability (featuresharing, less sparse features). ...
... Each frame has its own specific inventory of semantic roles. Dowty (1991), in contrast, suggests that a discrete set of semantic roles is unnecessary to explain how semantic arguments are realized syntactically. Instead, he characterizes arguments by bundles of properties they may have. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
We put forward an end-to-end multi-step machine learning model which jointly labels semantic roles and the proto-roles of Dowty (1991), given a sentence and the predicates therein. Our best architecture first learns argument spans followed by learning the argument's syntactic heads. This information is shared with the next steps for predicting the semantic roles and proto-roles. We also experiment with transfer learning from argument and head prediction to role and proto-role labeling. We compare using static and contextual embeddings for words, arguments, and sentences. Unlike previous work, our model does not require pre-training or fine-tuning on additional tasks, beyond using off-the-shelf (static or contextual) embeddings and supervision. It also does not require argument spans, their semantic roles, and/or their gold syntactic heads as additional input, because it learns to predict all these during training. Our multi-task learning model raises the state-of-the-art predictions for most proto-roles.
... Agentivity clines are predicted by the proto-role approach to semantic roles (Dowty 1991;Primus 1999Primus , 2012, which assumes that verbs differ with regard to which rolesemantic features 2 such as volition, sentience and motion they entail for their arguments. The different acceptability ratings of different verb classes in a particular syntactic construction, which are usually mirrored by significant frequency differences in corpora, can then be explained with reference to the fact that verbs like beobachten are more agentive than hassen because they entail volition, sentience and motion, while hassen only entails sentience (and aufweisen does not entail any of these agentivity features). ...
... For transitive verbs, intervening patient effects were minimized as far as possible by testing verbs with a uniform low number of patient entailments for the object argument, which was always definite and inanimate (see Kretzschmar et al. 2019 for more details). On the prominence of DO-clefts in German Dowty (1991) postulates two superordinate proto-roles: proto-agent and protopatient. The roles are composed of bundles of features entailed by the verb's meaning and apply to one of the verb's arguments. ...
... Before reporting the results, a brief note on our method of analyzing verb meanings is in order. In Dowty's (1991) approach, an agentivity feature is treated as an entailment of a verb with respect to one of its arguments. Strictly speaking, however, semantic role feature entailments depend on the whole construction of which a verb lexeme forms a part. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article investigates the hypothesis that prominence phenomena on different levels of linguistic structure are systematically related to each other. More specifically, it is hypothesized that prominence relations in morphosyntax reflect, and contribute to, prominence management in discourse. This hypothesis is empirically based on the phenomenon of agentivity clines, i.e. the observation that the relevance of agentivity features such as volition or sentience is variable across different constructions. While some constructions, including German DO-clefts, show a strong preference for highly agentive verbs, other constructions, including German basic active constructions, have no particular requirements regarding the agentivity of the verb, except that at least one agentivity feature should be present. Our hypothesis predicts that this variable relevance of agentivity features is related to the discourse constraints on the felicitous use of a given construction, which in turn, of course, requires an explicit statement of such constraints. We propose an original account of the discourse constraints on DO-clefts in German using the ‘Question Under Discussion’ framework. Here, we hypothesize that DO-clefts render prominent one implicit question from a set of alternative questions available at a particular point in the developing discourse. This then yields a prominent question-answer pair that changes the thematic structure of the discourse. We conclude with some observations on the possibility of relating morphosyntactic prominence (high agentivity) to discourse prominence (making a Question Under Discussion prominent by way of clefting).
... Verbal semantics is an area of great interest in theoretical linguistics, and many different approaches to a verb meaning representation have been put forth (Croft 1991, Dowty 1991, Davis and Koenig 2000, Van Valin 1993, Van Valin andLaPolla 1997, Rappaport Hovav andLevin 1998). There are different uses for verb meaning representations. ...
... Croft et al. build on Croft's (2012) causal chain model by specifying a limited set of force-dynamic relations between participants in the physical domain. The decompositional analysis and its formalization proposed in Croft et al. is based on semantic analyses of physical domain verbs presented by Dowty (1991), Tenny (1994), Hay et al. (1999), Verhoeven (2007), and others. ...
... In this study, the agent is considered as volitional and sentient, that is, capable of acting with intention (Dowty 1991). Thus, it is apparent that nouns denoting human beings are suitable actors or agents in this simplified definition. ...
... The antipassive has an imperfective correlation with other aspectual meanings specifically the inchoative, inceptive, durative, progressive and iterative. However, these properties are not common in all languages (see Tchekoff 1987, Cooreman 1994, Dixon 1994Dowty 1991, Tsunoda 1981, Spreng 2010 and Polinsky in press). ...
... Subjects are often treated as diffuse concepts consisting of a set of multiple properties rather than as discrete concepts (see e.g. Dowty 1991;Langacker [ ] 2006. A study worth mentioning in this context is that by Keenan (1976) who laid the foundation for a prototypical multi-factor-treatment of subjects. ...
... In (28a), 'snow' is perceived as a moving entity whose movement happens autonomously and independently of any other participant. In this respect, its role resembles some of the features of a prototypical agent (see Dowty 1991). In (28b), in turn, the role of 'snow' comes closer to an effected object whose referent comes into existence. ...
... Semantic roles have a long history, originating in linguistics as thematic roles (e.g., Dowty, 1991;Fillmore, 1968) and widely adopted in computational linguistics for semantic representations (e.g., Palmer, 1983) because of their compatibility with frame-based and graph-based (i.e., semantic networks) representations of meaning. Very roughly, computational approaches tend to be divided into two classes based on whether one believes there is a universal set of roles (e.g., LiRICS (Bunt & Romary, 2002;Petukhova & Bunt, 2008), VerbNet (Bonial et al., 2011;Kipper et al., 2008)), or whether one believes each type may identify its own unique roles (e.g., FrameNet (Baker et al., 1998)). ...
Article
Full-text available
Progress on deep language understanding is inhibited by the lack of a broad coverage lexicon that connects linguistic behavior to ontological concepts and axioms. We have developed COLLIE-V, a deep lexical resource for verbs, with the coverage of WordNet and syntactic and semantic details that meet or exceed existing resources. Bootstrapping from a hand-built lexicon and ontology, new ontological concepts and lexical entries, together with semantic role preferences and entailment axioms, are automatically derived by combining multiple constraints from parsing dictionary definitions and examples. We evaluated the accuracy of the technique along a number of different dimensions and were able to obtain high accuracy in deriving new concepts and lexical entries. COLLIE-V is publicly available.
... Handlungen werden zumeist durch Lebewesen initiiert, da inanimate Referenten sich weder selbstständig fortbewegen noch den Zustand anderer Entitäten willentlich verändern können (Vihman & Nelson, 2019). Animaten Entitäten werden als Eigenschaften hingegen sowohl die Fähigkeit zum Fühlen (Dowty, 1991;Primus, 2012;Weisman et al., 2015) und Volition (Primus, 2012;Weisman et al., 2015) als auch die Fähigkeit zur eigenständigen Fortbewegung (Hurford, 2007;Opfer, 2002;Premack & Premack, 1995) zugeschrieben. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Aim of this dissertation was to gain new and extensive insights about younger and older adults‘ language production by clarifying in how far particular visual and conceptual factors affect the choice of a grammatical structure and utterance planning. More specifically, it was investigated in what way a visual attention orienting towards the patient as well as patient animacy and the position of the patient affect the description of a transitive event scenario. The value of the doctoral thesis is that, as far as these research questions are concerned, younger and older adults‘ language production have never been contrasted so far, neither in German-speaking regions nor internationally. Due to demographic changes, obtaining new knowledge about younger and older adults` sentence production and sentence planning mechanisms is increasingly gaining importance. For this purpose, five picture description experiments were conducted with younger and older German-speaking adults. In summary, the analysis revealed similarities and differences between younger and older adults‘ utterance production and utterance planning mechanisms. Besides the augmentation of scientific knowledge, this study provides diverse implications regarding the design of future psycholinguistic picture description experiments and typical psycholinguistic fields of application such as speech therapy and language teaching as well as marketing.
... A number of alternatives including those for examples such as "What did he go and do" (Lakoff 1986 and others) are discussed in Steedman (2004Steedman ( , 2012. 47 This is suggested as a proxy representation for working with a gradient system for events and telicity, rather than a discrete system with or without decomposition, as proposed by Dowty (1991), details of which remain to be worked out; see Levin and Rappaport-Hovav (1995) for extensive discussion. extension to be interpreted from transparent surface structure, but carrying covert reference from grammar to surface structure presents difficulties. ...
Article
Full-text available
Two positions of Bolinger, about synonymy and meaningfulness of words, point to significance of controlling the referentiality of word forms, from representing them in grammar to their projection onto surface structure, i.e. configurationality. In particular, it becomes critical to control the range of surface substitution for surface syntactic categories of words to maintain referential properties of idiosyncrasy. Categorial grammars as reference systems suggest ways to keep the two aspects in grammar. The first dividend of adopting a categorial perspective is systematically distinguishing metaphorical sense extensions from idioms. The second dividend is procedural. Some tokens can be seen to be types themselves, with distinct referential import. Furthermore, some idiomatic meanings which require a unique phonological word for specific reference to events and participants can be types too. Together they can be thought of as the idiotype. The idiotype as idiosyncrasy’s foot through the door of grammar reveals controllable range of possibilities for referentiality and configurationality of idiosyncrasy. Phrasal and idiomatic meanings can then be treated compositionally, given the proposed added role of paracompositionality arising from event versus predicate distinction at the level of predicate-argument structure, in multiword expression cum idiom and phrasal verb treatment, which we show for English, Mandarin Chinese and Turkish.
... where the syntactic subject is a stimulus (or cause), and the object is an experiencer (see among others Belletti and Rizzi 1988, Grimshaw 1990, Dowty 1991, Pesetsky 1995, Arad 1998, McGinnis 2000, Landau 2010 Alexiadou (2011Alexiadou ( , 2019, and classify them as unaccusative as well. ...
Thesis
Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit den morphosyntaktischen und derivationellen Eigenschaften von Nominalisierungen im modernen Hebräisch und ihrer strukturelle Repräsentation. Eine zentrale Fragestellung im Rahmen von ‚hybriden‘ Wortbildungen wie Nominalisierungen ist die Ähnlichkeit bzw. die Unähnlichkeit zu den ihr zugrundeliegenden Verben. Unter Heranziehung des Hebräischen, einer Sprache mit reicher morphologischer Markierung, sowohl bei Verben als auch bei Nominalisierungen, werden mehrere Divergenzen zwischen Verben und entsprechenden Nominalisierungen im Bereich der Argument- und Ereignisstruktur eliminiert. Ausgehend von der einflussreichen These der Gleichsetzung von Nominalisierung und Passivierung untersucht diese Studie die syntaktische Struktur und deren Interaktion mit dem Wortbildungsprozess der Nominalisierung und zeigt, dass Eigenschaften, die für Passivformen typisch sind, in Nominalisierungen fehlen. Dabei präsentiert diese Studie mit der Untersuchung morphosyntaktischer Faktoren und deren Beziehungen zu Nominalisierungen, der Inkonsistenzen aufzeigt. Durch einen Vergleich von etwa 3000 Verben auf Basis der Verbklassenmorphologie ergibt sich eine signifikante Asymmetrie zwischen Nominalisierungen, die eine mediale/intransitive Markierung tragen, und Nominalisierungen, die als aktiv markiert sind, wobei sich die mediale Form in zwei klar definierten syntaktischen Kontexten als weniger produktiv erweist. Dies zeigt sich auch dadurch, dass alternierende Wurzeln, also Wurzeln die sowohl aktive als auch mediale Verbformen ausbilden können, bilden ihre Nominalisierungen auf Basis ihrer aktiven Form. Auf Basis der Konzepte von Konkurrenz und Markiertheit werden diese paradigmatischen Lücken nicht als grammatisch bedingte Inkompatibilitäten analysiert, sondern als eine generelle Präferenz für weniger markierte Formen (aktiv-markierte Nominalisierungen) gegenüber komplexeren (medial-markierte Nominalisierungen), wie in der Performanz häufig zu beobachten.
... The distinction between Agent-selecting and Patient-selecting lexical items is also relevant to entries that describe a relation between participants when just one of the members of that relation is animate, as the lexical item then behaves like an entry with a single semantic argument. Which semantically dyadic lexical items select Agent or Patient prefixes is most often predictable from the meaning of the verb and which of its arguments is (in)animatethe proto-agent or proto-patient (Dowty 1991). But the selection of Agent or Patient prefixes must sometimes be stipulated, as shown in (18), where the root -aty-/-uty-/-ati-/-uti-'drop in, add, leave, throw' exceptionally takes a Patient prefix despite the fact that what is referenced on the prefix is the lexical item's proto-agent argument, the thrower. ...
Article
Full-text available
North American languages have figured prominently in discussions about parts of speech. This paper examines more closely the evidence for morphological parts of speech in one Northern Iroquoian language, Oneida, and asks what semantic properties underlie its parts of speech. We make two claims. First, inflected parts of speech in Oneida are semantically transparent in that a part of speech can be determined solely on the basis of well-established semantic distinctions. Oneida parts of speech are, in this respect, canonical, in Canonical Typology’s sense. Second, Oneida morphological parts of speech are organized along two orthogonal dimensions, an ontological dimension, i.e., the sort of entity that members of the category describe, and a semantic type dimension, i.e., the kind of semantic relation conveyed by members of the category. We show that Oneida inflection is sometimes sensitive to distinctions along the ontological semantic dimension, sometimes to distinctions along the semantic type dimension, and sometimes a single inflectional process is sensitive to distinctions along both dimensions at the same time. We then show that our bi-dimensional semantic classification of stems accounts for the mixed properties of kinship terms, i.e., which “noun”-like and which “verb”-like properties they have.
... Table 1 lists the thematic and grammatical roles of the two referents across conditions (a-d). Note that the authors followed the proto-role account of Dowty (1991). In the experiment, participants saw sentences as in (2) and performed a two-alternative forced choice task where they indicated which of the two referents in the previous sentence they preferred as the antecedent of the pronoun. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
We propose an ACT-R model of processing German personal and demonstrative pronouns. The model extends existing cue-based retrieval models of sentence processing (Lewis & Va-sishth, 2005; Lewis et al. 2006) and pronoun resolution (Parker & Phillips, 2017; Patil & Lago, 2021) by adding prominence constraints as weighted retrieval cues. We model data from an antecedent selection task reported in Schumacher et al. (2016). The experiment varied word orders (canonical vs. non-canonical) and verb types (active accusative vs. dative experiencer) to test the effect of varying referential prominence on antecedent preferences for personal and demonstrative pronouns. The model with weighted prominence cues captures key effects across two word orders and verb types, and demonstrates that the contrastive antecedent preferences of personal and demonstrative pronouns can be captured using weighted retrieval cues reflecting prominence constraints.
... For example, researchers have examined the effects of linguistic agency assignment, which refers to the ascription of action or change to different entities in an event (McGlone et al., 2013). Its theoretical basis stems from the implicit hierarchy of thematic roles which implies that prototypical agents communicate a stronger volitional involvement, causality, and sentience than prototypical patients (Dowty, 1991). For example, while people contract HPV emphasizes humans' active experience of HPV infection, HPV infects people highlights the severity of the virus by metaphorically treating it as a sentient being that seeks to prey on humans. ...
Article
Full-text available
Applied linguists and Communication scholars have shared interests in exploring language use (e.g., patient-centered messages, metaphoric framing) in health communicative contexts such as medical consultations about various illnesses (Jenkins et al., 2021; Pino et al., 2022; Pounds, 2018) and warning messages about extreme weathers (Ma et al., 2021; Tang, 2022) and viral infections (Ma & Miller, 2021; McGlone et al., 2013). Researchers in these two disciplines mainly adopt different yet complementary approaches to health issues. Using discourse-analytic (DA) approaches such as conversation analysis and corpus analysis, applied linguists tend to focus on describing and explicating health messaging techniques in naturally occurring interactions. In contrast, communication scholars favor message design (MD) approaches that compare the effects of different message features on participants' perceptions, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. In this paper, I demonstrate that an integration of these two paradigms is beneficial for creating a holistic understanding of research on language and health communication.
... The large bulk and focus of this paper is empirical and philological. It is nevertheless meant to be a contribution to the synchronic and diachronic typology of crosslinguistic patterns of multiple constructions and the typology of lability and its diachrony in general (Barðdal 2006(Barðdal , 2008Bauer 2001;Beavers 2006;Croft 2001;Dowty 1991;Goldberg 1995;Härtl 1999;Jacobs 1994Jacobs , 2009 Kutscher 2009;Rappaport & Levin 2005). The main body of this article will thus be a synchronic description of the semantic and syntactic behavior of the psych verb juṣ-in Early Vedic. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the Early Vedic language, we encounter two different systems of active vs. middle voice and valency oppositions. The emergence of many thematic Vedic transitive active forms (e.g. īráya-ti ‘to raise sth. or so.’) is obviously innovative and secondary when compared to labile, and formally more archaic athematic active forms (e.g. íyar-ti ~ iyár-ti ‘to rise, to raise sth. or so.’). On this basis, it has been claimed that the original voice distinction was mainly driven by agency (i.e., volition, control, responsibility and animacy), whereas the secondary voice opposition was driven by transitivity distinctions and direct and indirect reflexive middle semantics (Pooth 2012, 2014). In this article, another verb in question, namely the psych verb juṣ- ‘to enjoy, to please’, will be examined as a parallel case to further discuss the general developments in the Vedic verb system, which are part of the general decline of lability and the increase of verb forms specified for transitive vs. intransitive behavior within Vedic (Kulikov 2014, 2012, 2006). This article will show that the Sanskrit psych verb juṣ- ‘to enjoy’ and ‘to please’ exhibits converse lability in Early Vedic Sanskrit, whereas it does not behave like this in Epic Sanskrit. The syntactic and semantic behavior of forms of juṣ- in both periods of Sanskrit will thus be compared.
... This is not true in the case of the Finnish kuluu and the Hungarian múlik or telik. In these metaphors time is not a metaphorical agent, it is an incremental theme (more on this: Dowty 1991). The Hungarian verbs telik and múlik belong to a group of verbs with an -ik ending in the third person; in a number of cases the subject of such verbs usually undergoes an action rather than carrying out an action. ...
... Perhaps PropBank roles are too coarse-grained to allow for an analysis of how a role-prediction task relates to a thematic fit task, which involves the fine-grained ranking (via Spearman's ρ) of event plausiblities derived from the underlying semantic characteristics of the nouns and verbs involved. If so, understanding how performance on a role-prediction task relates to thematic fit judgements may not be possible without a finer-grained inventory of semantic characteristics, such as Dowtyan proto-roles (Dowty, 1991). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Observing that for certain NLP tasks, such as semantic role prediction or thematic fit estimation, random embeddings perform as well as pretrained embeddings, we explore what settings allow for this and examine where most of the learning is encoded: the word embeddings, the semantic role embeddings, or ``the network''. We find nuanced answers, depending on the task and its relation to the training objective. We examine these representation learning aspects in multi-task learning, where role prediction and role-filling are supervised tasks, while several thematic fit tasks are outside the models' direct supervision. We observe a non-monotonous relation between some tasks' quality score and the training data size. In order to better understand this observation, we analyze these results using easier, per-verb versions of these tasks.
... (39) *the receipt of the package by John (40) i paralavi tu paketu apo to Jani the receipt the package-gen by the John This contrast is expected if Greek nominalizations have a Voice projection introducing external theta roles that are sentient in Dowty's (1991) terms (besides the causer). English nominalizations do not contain Voice, and, as we saw, the English by-phrase is semantically restricted. ...
... She rolled the ball down the hill), which describe the path of motion, Application events describe the co-location, including attachment, of two entities. Application events proceed incrementally part by part -mereologically (Dowty, 1991) -while Motion events proceed incrementally along the path of motion (Dowty's "holistic theme"). ...
... Affectedness refers to the change an argument undergoes through the event, and is a linguistic notion that figures centrally in determining transitivity and defining direct objecthood (Dowty 1991;Hopper and Thompson 1980;Tenny 1994). For Naess (2004), it is the central notion behind DOM. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article explores the relationship between affectedness and Differential Object Marking (DOM) of indefinite direct objects in Turkish and Uzbek. We argue that the distribution of DOM in the two Turkic languages is determined by the direct objects’ specificity and animacy as nominal semantic properties, and affectedness as a verbal semantic property associated with the direct object. We provide original empirical evidence from two forced-choice studies that investigate DOM along the parameters of animacy, affectedness, and telicity, and their interaction with each other. Our findings indicate that affectedness shapes the distribution of DOM in both Turkish and Uzbek, with an interesting variation in how it is instantiated and interacts with animacy. The findings do not confirm an impact of telicity as an independent factor driving overt case marking in the languages investigated. Rather, its influence on DOM stems from interaction with affectedness.
... Some linguists claim that the argument structure should include very little information, while others argue that the argument structure is rich in semantic information. We can find different information and different presentations in a framework such as LFG, as shown in Jackendoff (1983), Jackendoff (1990), Dowty (1991), Ackerman (1992), Zaenen (1993), Alsina (1996), Butt (1996), Broadwell et al. (1998), and Ackerman and Moore (2001)). ...
... As an intrinsic feature in language, linguistic agency assignment is defined as the ascription of action or change to one or more entities involved in an event (McGlone et al., 2013;McGlone & Pfiester, 2009). The agent is determined by the relationship to the action expressed by the verb in a sentence (Dowty, 1991;Jackendoff, 1972). Prior studies on agentic language have demonstrated its effectiveness across different languages (McGlone et al., 2017;Zhang & McGlone, 2019), and dealing with various health issues (Chen et al., 2015;McGlone et al., 2013; as well as interpersonal issues (McGlone & Pfiester, 2009;Wang & McGlone, 2020). ...
Article
Antibiotic resistance is a serious health threat that healthcare providers must communicate to the public to decelerate its development. Prior studies have shown that linguistic agency assignment is a viable strategy to frame health threats in a way that both conveys their severity and preserves audience members’ sense of self-efficacy. In the current study, we examined this messaging strategy in the context of antibiotic resistance. Individuals’ perceptions of the threat and efficacy, behavioral intentions, fear appeals, and evaluations of the educational fact sheet were explored. Participants (N = 449) were randomly assigned to one of the eight conditions crossing threat agency (bacteria/human), temporal agency (antibiotic resistance/human) and imagery agency (taking antibiotics/antibiotics). The results revealed that individuals’ perceived severity, susceptibility, response efficacy, and self-efficacy were positively associated with their intentions to use antibiotics judiciously. The interaction effects between perceived threat and efficacy predicted behavioral intentions and the persuasiveness of the fact sheet. Relative to bacteria threat agency, human agency assignment led to significantly higher behavioral intentions. Also, readers of the human temporal agency condition reported higher persuasiveness toward the fact sheet than readers of the resistance condition. The implications, limitations, and future research directions of the study are discussed.
... Grammarians and linguists in different time periods and endorsing a variety of theoretical perspectives adopt a distinction between arguments and adjuncts (see Barbu and Toivonen 2016a for a cross-theoretical overview). The intuition of argumenthood builds on centuries of work on language: the notion of direct dependents of the verb is implicitly assumed already in the works of Pānini (Dowty, 1991;Barbu, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
... Because this project was concerned with child language acquisition and identification of agents and patients in child speech, this was a welcome result. The agent and patient roles, defined in Propbank guidelines, based on a prototype view of semantic roles (Dowty, 1991), are the most common semantic roles associated with verbs in Propbank. Seeing that annotators consistently agreed on how to assign them in a corpus with high ambiguity attests to the specification development in this area and the feasibility of labeling semantic roles in child speech. ...
... Because this project was concerned with child language acquisition and identification of agents and patients in child speech, this was a welcome result. The agent and patient roles, defined in Propbank guidelines, based on a prototype view of semantic roles (Dowty, 1991), are the most common semantic roles associated with verbs in Propbank. Seeing that annotators consistently agreed on how to assign them in a corpus with high ambiguity attests to the specification development in this area and the feasibility of labeling semantic roles in child speech. ...
Conference Paper
This paper describes the augmentation of an existing corpus of child-directed speech. The resulting corpus is a gold-standard labeled corpus for supervised learning of semantic role labels in adult-child dialogues. Semantic role labeling (SRL) models assign semantic roles to sentence constituents, thus indicating who has done what to whom (and in what way). The current corpus is derived from the Adam files in the Brown corpus (Brown, 1973) of the CHILDES corpora, and augments the partial annotation described in Connor et al. (2010). It provides labels for both semantic arguments of verbs and semantic arguments of prepositions. The semantic role labels and senses of verbs follow Propbank guidelines (Kingsbury and Palmer, 2002; Gildea and Palmer, 2002; Palmer et al., 2005) and those for prepositions follow Srikumar and Roth (2011). The corpus was annotated by two annotators. Inter-annotator agreement is given separately for prepositions and verbs, and for adult speech and child speech. Overall, across child and adult samples, including verbs and prepositions, the κ score for sense is 72.6, for the number of semantic-role-bearing arguments, the κ score is 77.4, for identical semantic role labels on a given argument, the κ score is 91.1, for the span of semantic role labels, and the κ for agreement is 93.9. The sense and number of arguments was often open to multiple interpretations in child speech, due to the rapidly changing discourse and omission of constituents in production. Anno-tators used a discourse context window of ten sentences before and ten sentences after the target utterance to determine the annotation labels. The derived corpus is available for use in CHAT (MacWhinney, 2000) and XML format.
Article
As a subclass of mental verbs, emotion verbs are verbs expressing the activity of the mind to be under the influence of an emotion or emotions such as sadness, fear, disgust, pleasure, love, surprise, shame, anger in other words, the processes of being "emotional". In today's linguistics studies, it can be stated that since the verbs are in the executive position in the sentence, it is seen as a prerequisite to determine the members that the verbs can coexist with due to their meanings and the semantic relationship of these members with the verbs in question so that they can be understood more accurately within the semantic verb category they belong to. The aim of this study is to present the semantic structure aspects of emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish. For this reason, first of all, the conceptual framework of emotion verbs in linguistics studies in Turkey and in the world was evaluated, and then the semantic roles of emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish were determined in the light of case grammar. Experiential, content and stimulus have been adopted as the basic semantic roles in the semantic structure of emotion verbs. It has been determined that emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish exhibit five different semantic structures consisting of these semantic roles. This study, which describes the semantic features of emotion verbs, is also a new classification for emotion verbs in Azerbaijan Turkish. It is thought that this research will contribute to fields such as lexicology, logology, syntax and teaching Azerbaijan Turkish, as well as verb classification studies.
Article
In English, sequences consisting of the verb have , a noun phrase and a past participle vary in meaning. This meaning variation has been discussed both in the context of grammatical description and language change, mostly based on a handful of examples. This study seeks to combine theoretical and methodological approaches from construction grammar and interactional linguistics in the description of this meaning variation. Theoretically, this implies distinguishing between abstracted meaning potential and situated meaning of linguistic elements. Methodologically, this means taking both a coarse-grained view by means of a quantitative corpus-based approach that abstracts over a number of instances and a fine-grained view by means of qualitative analysis of talk-in-interaction.
Article
The present article offers the first principled assessment of the argument structure of emotive interjections from a cognitive, constructional, and prototype-driven perspective. The evidence demonstrates that, in Polish, emotive interjections are tied to argument-structure patterns – they form constructions with (experiencer, causer, recipient, patient, theme, goal, locative, and addressee) complements which, from a categorial perspective, are most similar to arguments within the argument-adjunct continuum. Consequently, a radical view on the asyntagmatic, non-constructional, and syntax-external behavior of emotive interjections should be replaced by a more nuanced proposal: Emotive interjections – including their prototypical representative – exhibit syntactic properties that may approximate, to a greater or lesser extent, the syntax of other lexical classes traditionally viewed as syntagmatic and constructional.
Chapter
Emmon Bach’s short 1986 paper was a milestone in the study of aspect, exploring the parallels between aspectual properties of verbs and verb phrases on the one hand, and the mass/count distinction on the other. As he himself points out, he was not the first to notice these parallels, but his paper played a crucial role in bringing the topic to the attention of semanticists and syntacticians. The paper identifies the issues which need to be explored, focusing attention on the nature of the relation between telicity and countability.
Chapter
David Dowty’s influential paper “Thematic Proto-roles and Argument Selection” (1991) delineates the problems inherent in the traditional notion of semantic role and then proposes that these challenges can be overcome by adopting a prototype conception of this notion. Dowty introduces two ‘proto-roles’, each associated with a set of lexical entailments chosen for their relevance to argument realization. He complements the proto-roles with an Argument Selection Principle, which determines how the arguments of a transitive verb map onto subject and object on the basis of their associated entailments. After summarizing the highlights of Dowty’s paper, this commentary critically reviews its contributions and limitations. First, the commentary addresses critiques and refinements of the sets of entailments that compose Dowty’s proto-roles. Then, it discusses the pluses and minuses of the Argument Selection Principle since Dowty claims that the proto-roles are valuable precisely because they allow a range of argument realization phenomena to be captured. Finally, the commentary considers the broader impact of Dowty’s paper and reviews work that develops its ideas further.KeywordsArgument realizationProto-rolesSemantic rolesSubject and object
Chapter
Krifka, in his paper “Nominal reference, temporal constitution and quantification in event semantics”, provides the first formal mereological (algebraic) analysis of the relation between nominal reference and temporal constitution (also based on his 1986 PhD thesis). The focus is on two manifestations of this relation in the grammar of natural languages. First, as many observed, there are direct structural analogies between the following two sets of distinction: namely, mass/count and atelic/telic. They are clearly reflected in their parallel cooccurrence patterns with quantifiers, numerical and measure expressions. Second, nominal reference and temporal constitution interact and mutually constraint each other in the derivation of meaning of complex verbal predicates. One key example is aspectual composition(ality) e.g., eat soup (atelic) versus eat two apples (telic). In order to provide an adequate analysis of the relevant data Krifka’s principal innovation is to assume a single join semi-lattice structure, undetermined with respect to atomicity, relative to which he defines two higher-order, cross-categorial predicates for reference types of natural language predicates: namely, quantized and cumulative. Specifically in the case of aspectual composition, the interactions and mutual constraints between the structure of objects and eventualities stem from the systematic mappings (homomorphisms) whose source is the lexical semantics of verbs. Such mappings are also independently motivated by other phenomena exhibiting systematic interactions objects and eventualities.KeywordsMereologyGrammatical aspectlexical aspectNominal referenceAspectual compositionMeasure functionEvent semantics
Article
Decoding the implicitness of evaluative judgment in compliments (based on the cross-cultural analysis of conversations in male gender-homogeneneous groups). In this paper, the implicit (anti)compliments within male gender-homogeneneous groups are examined in a contrastive way. After reviewing some findings to the implicit compliments, the paper deals with a case study referring to decoding of implicit positive evaluative judgment, which constitutes a primary illocution of the compliment. The following study examines whether there are certain differences and similarities in the frequency, subject matter and phonological design of implicit (anti)compliments in [the] groups of males with different cultural backgrounds. The study also shows which contextualization cues can contribute to the decoding of the negative evaluative statement in implicit anticompliments.
Article
Full-text available
The paper proposes a usage-based account of a largely productive pattern of dative experiential sentences in Modern Hebrew that stand in contra- distinction to their parallels in Indo-European languages. In the pattern under consideration, the dative-Experiencer is non-topical, following an invariable predicate in masculine singular form. The paper seeks to prove that the construction in Hebrew is essentially a subjectless construction. Its origin is traced back to Biblical Hebrew, but its proliferation in present-day language is assumed to be contact-facilitated by a parallel subject-like dative-Experiencer construction widespread in Slavic and Yiddish languages.
Thesis
This thesis is about linguistic variation in swearing and its consequences for how speakers are socially evaluated. Abundant research has established that, beyond its perception as rude or impolite, swearing is hugely socially meaningful in a variety of ways (Stapleton, 2010; Beers Fägersten, 2012). Swearing has been shown to index solidarity (Daly et al., 2004), intimacy (Stapleton, 2003), differing forms of masculinity (De Klerk, 1997) and femininity (S. E. Hughes, 1992), honesty (Feldman et al., 2017), believability (Rassin & Heijden, 2005) and lack of intelligence (DeFrank & Kahlbaugh, 2019), among other traits. The activation of these social meanings also depends on language-external factors such as speaker gender (Howell & Giuliano, 2011), ethnicity (Jacobi, 2014) and social status (T. Jay & Janschewitz, 2008). What has not been established is whether this also depends on language-internal factors such as pronunciation, word formation or sentence structure. This thesis investigates the effect of variation from three different domains of language - phonetics, morphology and semantics/pragmatics - on social evaluation of a speaker. To do so, the thesis takes an experimental approach using the variationist sociolinguistic framework. For variation in each domain, two experiments were used to test for different levels of awareness, following Squires’s (2016) approach for grammatical variation (see also Schmidt, 1990). One experiment tested whether people perceived the variation, while a second tested whether people noticed the variation in the process of social evaluation; the concepts of perceiving and noticing roughly map to the Labovian concepts of the sociolinguistic indicator and marker respectively (Labov, 1972). At the level of phonetics, variation in the realisation of variable (ING) in swearwords (e.g., fucking vs fuckin) was first tested using a variant categorization task, revealing that listeners have an implicit bias towards the velar [IN] variant when hearing swearwords, compared to neutral words and non-words. An auditory matched-guise task then revealed that this same bias affects how listeners extract social information from (ING) tokens attached to swearwords in relation to social meanings typically associated with the variable (Schleef et al., 2017). This result suggests that, rather than pronunciation affecting how swearwords are socially evaluated, swearwords can affect how other phonetic sources of social meaning are evaluated.
Article
Within linguistics, the formal and functional approaches each offer insight into what language might be and how it operates, but so far, there have been hardly any systematic attempts to integrate them into a single theory. This book explores the relationship between universal grammar - the theory that we have an innate mechanism for generating sentences - and iconicity - the resemblance between form and meaning in language. It offers a new theory of their interactions, 'UG-iconicity interface' (UG-I), which shows that not only do universal grammar and iconicity coexist, but in fact collaborate in intricate and predictable ways. The theory explains various recalcitrant cross-linguistic facts surrounding the serial verb constructions, coordination, semantically and categorically obscure 'linkers', the multiple grammatical aspects of the external argument, and non-canonical arguments. This groundbreaking work is essential reading for researchers and postgraduate students in linguistics, as well as scholars in psychology and cognitive science.
Article
Our work aimed to study the influence of cholecalciferol on neurogenesis, neurotrophins and their receptors pathway-focused genes expression in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. The pathway-specific PCR array (Neurotrophins and Receptors RT2 Profiler PCR Array, “QIAGEN”, Germany) was used to identify and validate the neurogenesis regulatory genes expression in patients with thyroid pathology and control group. The results showed that in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis-caused primary hypothyroidism, the expression of BDNF, FAS, FGF2, HSPB1, IL10, NGF, NGFR, NRG1, NTF3, NTF4, TGFB1, and TP53 were increased after treatment with cholecalciferol and L-thyroxine. The mRNA levels of BAX, GDNF, CD40, FOS, GDNF, GFRA1, IL1B, and STAT3 were significantly decreased in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis-caused primary hypothyroidism after treatment with cholecalciferol and Lthyroxine compared to the patients who received only L-thyroxine. Therefore, the addition of vitamin D to standard therapy alters the transcriptional profile of blood cells in patients with primary hypothyroidism.
Chapter
Full-text available
While Chinese as a second/foreign language acquisition is a relatively young discipline, little is the research on the acquisition of syntactic aspects conducted on Italian L1 learners. This article offers an overview of the studies in this area: after outlining the field of investigation and some among the main theoretical and methodological approaches, it presents some core tools, goals, and notions of the discipline. Then, it offers a brief review of some of the main studies conducted on Italian L1 learners of Chinese, with a focus on syntactic and discourse aspects that Italian and Chinese share or differ for. / Se di per sé la ricerca sull'acquisizione del cinese come lingua seconda/straniera è una disciplina relativamente giovane, ciò è ancor più vero per gli studi acquisizionali su aspetti di natura sintattica condotti su apprendenti di madrelingua italiana. Questo articolo si propone di tracciare una panoramica della ricerca in quest'ambito: dopo aver delineato il campo di indagine e i principali approcci teorico-metodologici della disciplina, ne presenta alcuni tra i principali strumenti, obiettivi e nozioni; offre poi una breve rassegna di alcuni studi condotti su apprendenti italofoni, soffermandosi nello specifico su caratteristiche sintattiche e del discorso che accomunano o differenziano l'italiano e il cinese.
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the interpretation assigned by Romanian-speaking children to three telic predicate types: semantically telic and pragmatically telic incremental theme VPs, and change of state VPs. The data came from two experiments and two longitudinal corpora. In Romanian, telicity is not overtly marked, and the verb form used to describe event culmination (the perfect compus) has a strong perfective interpretation. The results indicated that knowledge of telicity develops gradually, as the child accumulates linguistic experience; moreover, the semantic properties of the verb are crucial. The first experiment showed that the telicity of change of state predicates was detected early, while there was a delay for incremental theme predicates, especially for the pragmatically telic subtype. The analysis of the longitudinal data indicated that pragmatically telic incremental theme verbs were mainly used in atelic predications, both in child speech and child-directed speech, which may explain the high rates of atelic interpretations in comprehension. The second experiment demonstrated that event culmination was regarded as a cancellable implicature for object creation predicates in a scenario where the temporal integration of two events was required. The study provides support for the impact of verbal semantics and of input factors on the acquisition of telicity.
Chapter
Since their inception, the Perspectives in Logic and Lecture Notes in Logic series have published seminal works by leading logicians. Many of the original books in the series have been unavailable for years, but they are now in print once again. This volume, the twenty-second publication in the Lecture Notes in Logic series, will launch a discussion about the concept of intensionality in philosophy, logic, linguistics and mathematics. These articles grew out of a workshop held at the University of Munich in October, 2000. Some articles address philosophical issues raised by the possible worlds approach to intensionality; others are devoted to technical aspects of modal logic. The volume highlights the particular interdisciplinary nature of intensionality with articles spanning philosophy, linguistics, mathematics and computer science.
Article
Poco se ha escrito sobre el papel que la Estructura Léxico-Conceptual juega en la semántica del español. El presente trabajo analiza la entrada léxica del clítico se, englobando sus funciones media y reflexiva, y los verbos con los cuales se asocia (por ejemplo, quebrarse). Dentro del marco de la gramática generativa, el artículo propone un modelo de representación léxica donde tanto la Estructura Léxico-Conceptual como el mecanismo de percolación juegan un papel crítico en la derivación e interpretación de verbos en español formados con se. Se exploran además las ventajas que el modelo propuesto tiene en relación con otros modelos de representación léxica. Finalmente, se propone un método que facilita la enseñanza y aprendizaje de este clítico en las clases de español de cualquier nivel.
Chapter
This chapter surveys the forms of case marking across the dialects of Kurdish, as represented in the MDKD. Structural and non-structural (semantic) cases are expressed through a range of different exponents: adpositions (pre-, post- and circumpositions), morphological case, and word-order properties. Structural cases are invariably non-adpositional across all dialects, with the major isogloss separating those dialects that make use of the Oblique case, which include all of Northern Kurdish and a few dialects of Central Kurdish, from those that have lost it. The marking of semantic cases is subject to considerable areal variation, following an approximate north/south cline with prepositional marking increasingly dominant in the south. The findings are illustrated with data from the MDKD, supplemented with reference to other major sources.
Article
Résumé Introduction Davantage objectif que les approches séméiologiques et psychométriques actuelles, la psycholinguistique ouvre un renouveau épistémologique de la conception du trauma. Méthodes Un récit traumatique et un récit non traumatique ont fait l’objet d’un codage linguistique et d’une cotation à l’échelle SPLIT-10 chez 19 femmes âgées de 20 à 60 ans ayant souffert de violences conjugales et présentant un trouble de stress post-traumatique à l’entretien structuré. Résultats Les récits traumatiques contiennent significativement davantage de pronoms de 1re personne du singulier. Les récits non traumatiques des témoins contiennent significativement moins de pronoms de 1re personne du singulier que les récits non traumatiques des personnes blessées psychiques. Les récits traumatiques contiennent significativement plus de pronoms « me » COD ainsi que de pronoms COI. Discussion Il existe un gradient d’utilisation du pronom de 1re personne du singulier inversement corrélé au degré de valence traumatique des récits. Même dans les récits dits « non-traumatiques » élaborés par les sujets souffrant de trouble de stress post-traumatique, le trauma s’inscrit malgré tout, en creux dans leurs discours. Dire « je » traduit une symptomatologie moindre que dire « me », mais c’est lorsque le sujet dit « nous » ou « on » qu’il apparaît être redevenu à un discours normal, ne souffrant plus des affres des reviviscences ou de la dissociation pathologique. Ainsi, l’identification de linguo-marqueurs mérite d’être poursuivie afin de mieux décrire objectivement les troubles psychiques post-traumatiques, de mieux les repérer en pratique clinique de terrain et d’y suivre l’efficacité des psychothérapies recommandées. Plus généralement, nous pouvons avancer l’hypothèse que la modification directe du langage du patient passant d’un discours marqué de linguo-marqueurs témoignant du trauma vers un discours normalisé, pourrait aider à traiter les symptômes post-traumatiques.
Book
Full-text available
This monograph investigates semantic change and semantic extension of verbs in Tamil. The semantic change and semantic extensions of meaning of verbs are studied from the perspectives of cognitive semantics and generative lexicon. The monograph is organized into six chapters. They are briefly described below. There are a few earlier researches in Tamil on lexical semantics and semantic change. By chance they are the research works undertaken by Rajendran. “Syntax and semantics of Tamil verbs” is the PhD research work of Rajendran (1978). This work followed the principles of Nida (1975a) expounded in his book entitled “Componential analysis of meaning: an introduction to semantic structures”. This work has great relevance to the present research work as Rajendran has classified verbs into certain semantic domains and subdomains based on the principles of componential analysis propounded by Nida (1975a). He has also classified verbs into certain number of semantic domains based on the number and types of arguments taken by the verbs. He has identified the semantic features of verbs to distinguish one verb from the other and also identified common semantic features which can be ascribed to the verbs which belong to a particular semantic domain. The polysemy of each verb is identified and classified based on the semantic parameters. Another important work on lexical semantics by Rajendran is his post-doctoral work on “Semantics of Tamil vocabulary”. These works have been culminated into two books entitled “taRkaalat tamiz coRkaLanjciyam (Thesaurus for modern Tamil)” which has been written in Tamil and published by Tamil university in 2001 (Rajendran 2001) and ‘tamiz min coRkaLanjciyam (Tamil electronic thesaurus)” written in collaboration with Baskaran and published by Tamil University in 2006 (Rajendran 2006). He has published a book on lexical semantics entitled “coRkaL: vaazvum varalaaRum (Words: Life and History)" written in collaboration with Sakthivel. His research papers entitled “Verbs of ‘seeing’ in Tamil’ (Rajendran 1982), “Coming and Going in Tamil” (Rajendran 1983), “Semantic Structure of Directional verbs of movement in Tamil”, (Rajendran 2002), “Syntax and semantics of Verbs of Transfer in Tamil” (Rajendran 2002), “Creating generative lexicon from dictionaries” (Rajendran 2003), “Building generative lexicon from MRDs in Tamil” (Rajendran 2010), “Grammaticalization verbs in Tamil” (Rajendran 2018) and “Cognitive extensions of meaning in verbs of movement in Tamil” (Rajendran 2019), (Ontology of Tamil Vocabulary" (Rajendran and Anitha 2019), "WordNet and its dimesions" (Rajendran 2021) have direct or indirect bearing on the present research work. Some of unpublished research manuals uploaded in the websites academia.edu and Research Gate which can be said to be directly or indirectly concerned with the present research work are “tamiz peyarc coRkaLin aakkamuRai akaraati” (Generative lexicon for Tamil nouns)” and “tamiz vinaicoRkaLin aakkamuRai akaraati (Generative lexicon for Tamil)”. The present work has its starting point in “Syntax and semantics of Tamil verbs (Rajendran 1978). The verbs of Tamil have been collected and classified based on the principles of componential analysis meaning propounded by Nida (1975). Also the polysemy of the verbs is explained based on the principles explained by Nida in the same book. Attempts have been made to classify the meanings that can be given under particular verbs. The synonymy is explained based on the senses rather than by words. Such classification explained the semantic extension of verbs which can be attributed to various principles such as metaphorical extension, metonymical extension, and analogical extension and so on. The aim of this research is to find out the magnitude and dimension semantic change and semantic extension of meanings of verbs and to find out the general principles on these processes of dynamics of meaning. The units of meaning can include words, phrases and grammatical units. For example, the verbs in Tamil such as vaa ‘come’, poo ‘go’ have been grammaticalized to function as auxiliary verbs denoting some aspectual meaning (Rajendran 2019). Two theories have been going to be explored to explain the sematic change and sematic extension of verbs: one is cognitive theory of meaning and another is the theory propounded by Pushtejovsky (1995) in his generative lexicon. Explaining the semantic extension or semantic change of meaning of verbs is undertaken in two ways: one is to classify the verbs into certain semantic domains based on their distinctive semantic features and then explain the polysemy in the members of each domain (Rajendran 1979, 2020); and another is to explain how verbs belonging to a domain move to another domain by cognitive principles of semantic extension. Dictionaries list words as entries and give different meanings based on their usage and thus function as word information resources. Dictionaries list different meanings of a verb under an entry and try to convince the users that each is a separate meaning by explanation and giving the examples to support their conviction. Thesaurus on the other hand, classifies the words into semantic domains and subdomains and gives word under each domain or subheading. WordNet is a combination of thesaurus and dictionaries. In WordNet, words are grouped into synsets (synonymous sets) and the synonyms are linked by semantic and lexical relations, thus forming a network of words or concepts (each meaning denoted by a word is a concept). The problem with a dictionary is that in its efforts to account for the different uses of a lexical item or word, it goes on increasing the list of meaning under each word entry. This will cause not only the increase in the size of the dictionary but also the increase in number of volumes of the dictionary. A verb expands its usage quite wider than a noun. The expansion of numbers of senses under each nouns is comparatively less when compared to verbs. The polysemy found in verbs leads to ambiguity which is a serious issue in machine translation. The polysemy found in verbs and the expansion of dictionaries disproportionately due to polysemy needs to be accounted by different means. The expansion of meaning in terms of different senses can be assumed or predicted or expected to some extent. This predictable expansion of meaning can be explained or put into rules. But the senses assigned to a verb undergo unpredictable mutations which cannot be easily explained. In order to account for the dynamic process of polysemy mainly due to semantic change or meaning expansion, especially in verbs, it is felt that the polysemy needs to be addressed seriously. The endless list of meanings found in the entries of verbs in a dictionary led to the present study. It is felt that the semantic change or meaning extension need to be explained properly for the verbs to lessen the burden in lexicon. Practically speaking, there is no principal difference between semantic extension and sematic change. Tamil verbs expand its range of application of meaning or usage of meaning in predictable terms as well as unpredictable terms. For the native speakers of Tamil such expansion of range of application of meaning may not appear strange. But a non-native speaker such extension of change of meaning may appear strange and it may be difficult for them to understand the meaning of a lexical item in unaccustomed contexts. The expansion or change of meaning of a lexical item will be explicitly revealed if we compare the early dictionaries of Tamil (Tamil Lexicon of Madras University) with the present one (Creas’s Modern Tamil Dictionary). It is presumed here in this research that the meaning expansion or change are somewhat predicable and can be explained by cognitive principles or principles of generative lexicon. It is a well-known fact that meaning of a lexical item expands or changes metaphorically, metonymically and analogically. This leads the moving of lexical items belonging to a domain into another domain. This movement is due to the acquiring of new semantic features which are shared with the entity’s new place of existence. It is hoped that this can be explained by general principles of semantic expansion or change.
Article
Full-text available
Book
Full-text available
Preface. Part A. Set Theory. 1. Basic Concepts of Set Theory. 2. Relations and Functions. 3. Properties of Relations. 4. Infinities. Appendix A1. Part B. Logic and Formal Systems. 5. Basic Concepts of Logic. 6.Statement Logic. 7. Predicate Logic. 8. Formal Systems, Axiomatization, and Model Theory. Appendix B1. Appendix BII. Part C. Algebra. 9. Basic Concepts of Algebra. 10. Operational Structures. 11. Lattices. 12. Boolean and Heyting Algebras. Part D. English as a Formal Language. 13. Basic Concepts of Formal Languages. 14. Generalized Quantifiers. 15. Intensionality. Part E. Languages, Grammars, and Automata. 16. Basic Concepts of Languages, Grammars, and Automata. 17. Finite Automata, Regular Languages and Type 3 Grammars. 18. Pushdown Automata, Context-Free Grammars and Languages. 19. Turing Machines, Recursively Enumberable Languages, and Type 0 Grammars. 20. Linear Bounded Automata, Context-Sensitive Languages and Type 1 Grammars. 21. Languages Between Context-Free and Context-Sensitive. 22. Transformational Grammars. Appendix EI. Appendix EII. Review Problems. Index.
Article
Full-text available
The idea of cause and effect is often assumed to originate in prolonged learning. However, the present findings suggest that 27-week-old infants may already perceive a cause-effect relationship. Reversal of an apparently causal event (direct launching) produced more recovery of attention following habituation than the reversal of a similar but apparently non-causal event (delayed reaction). In both cases the changes in the spatiotemporal properties of the stimuli were identical. Hence the infant's percept of direct launching may involve more than an encoding of its spatiotemporal properties. Since the same kind of stimulus gives rise to a causal illusion in adults, it may be that the additional factor at work is the perception of a causal relationship. This finding may be significant in terms of the modularity of the infant visual system and the later development of causal understanding.RésuméOn admet souvent que les idées de cause et d'effet résultent d'un apprentissage prolongé. Les résultats présentés dans cet article suggèrent qu'un bébé de 27 semaines est déjà capable de percevoir des relations de cause à effet. Le renversement d'un événément d'apparence causale (lancement direct) a produit une plus grande récupération d'attention après habituation que le renversement d'un événément semblable mais d'apparence non-causale (réaction retardée). Dans les deux cas, les changements des propriétés spatio-temporelles des stimuli étaient identiques. La perception par le bébé du lancement direct n'implique donc pas qu'un simple codage de ses propriétés spatio-temporelles. Puisque ce même stimulus donne lieu à une illusion de causalité chez les adultes, il se peut que le facteur additionnel en jeu soit la perception d'une relation causale.
Article
I: Verb Classes.- I: Intransitive Verbs and Auxiliaries.- 1.0. Introduction.- 1.1. Free Inversion.- 1.2. The Distribution of ne.- 1.3. Ergative Verbs.- 1.4. On the Syntax of ne.- 1.5. Reflexive, Ergative and Inherent-reflexive si.- 1.6. Impersonal si.- 1.6.0. Introduction.- 1.6.1. SI as a Subject Argument.- 1.6.2. Object Preposing.- 1.7. Auxiliary Assignment.- 1.8. Linear Order.- 1.9. Conclusion.- Notes.- 2: The Syntax of Inversion.- 2.0. Introduction.- 2.1. Null Subjects and Cliticization.- 2.2. Null Subjects and Free Inversion.- 2.3. Inversion Relations and Emphatic Pronouns.- 2.4. Residual Questions.- 2.5. Piedmontese ye.- 2.5.0. Introduction.- 2.5.1. Inflectional Clitics.- 2.5.2. Inversion.- 2.5.3. Italian ci.- 2.5.4. Verb Agreement.- 2.5.5. Conclusion.- 2.6. French il.- 2.6.1. Subject Pronouns.- 2.6.2. Il-inversion and Auxiliary Assignment.- 2.6.3. Se moyen.- 2.7. English there.- 2.7.0. Introduction.- 2.7.1. 'Be' as a Raising Verb.- 2.7.2. Inversion with 'be'.- 2.7.3. Presentational there.- 2.8. Conclusion.- Notes.- 3: on Reconstruction and Other Matters.- 3.0. Introduction.- 3.1. Subject ?-role and Case.- 3.1.1. Minus Accusative.- 3.1.2. Double Objects.- 3.1.3. By-phrases.- 3.2. Past Participial Clauses.- 3.2.0. Introduction.- 3.2.1. English.- 3.2.2. Impersonal Passives.- 3.2.3. Italian sc Relatives.- 3.3. Reconstruction.- 3.3.0. Introduction.- 3.3.1. Each Interpretation.- 3.3.2. Quantifier Scope.- 3.3.3. Reconstruction and the Projection Principle.- Notes.- II: Complex Predicates.- 4: Causative Constructions.- 4.0. Introduction.- 4.1. Faire-Infinitive.- 4.1.0. Introduction.- 4.1.1. Syntactic Derivation.- 4.1.2. Sentential Complement.- 4.1.3. Exceptional Case Marking.- 4.1.4. Cliticization.- 4.1.5. VP-movement.- 4.2. Faire-par.- 4.2.0. Introduction.- 4.2.1. Base-generation.- 4.2.2. Thematic Subject.- 4.2.3. On the 'Transformational' Approach.- 4.3. Similarities between FI and FP.- 4.4. Syntactic Subject.- 4.5. Ergative Complements of fare.- 4.5.0. Introduction.- 4.5.1. Dative and Reflexive Objects.- 4.5.2. Dativized Subjects.- 4.5.3. Further Remarks and Conclusions.- 4.6. FI versus Reconstruction.- 4.7. On Perception Verbs.- 4.8. Conclusion.- Notes.- 5: Restructuring Constructions.- 5.0. Introduction.- 5.1. Syntactic Derivation.- 5.2. Restructuring with andare, venire.- 5.3. Embedded Subject.- 5.4. Similarities between Restructuring and Causative Constructions.- 5.5 Auxiliaries and Past Participle Agreement.- 5.6. Subject Substitution.- 5.7. Auxiliaries in Some Special Cases.- 5.8. More on the Differences between Causative and Restructuring Constructions.- 5.8.0. Introduction.- 5.8.1. Subject Substitution versus VP-Complements.- 5.8.2. Matrix Passives.- 5.8.3. Prepositional Infinitives.- 5.8.4. Summary.- 5.9. Conclusion.- Notes.- 6: Reflexives.- 6.0. Introduction.- 6.1. Reflexives and Auxiliary Assignment.- 6.2. Reflexives in Complex Predicates.- 6.3. Reflexives as Lexical Affixes.- 6.3.0. Introduction.- 6.3.1. Ergative and Inherent-reflexive si.- 6.3.2. Inversion and sc Relatives.- 6.3.3. Reflexives under faire.- 6.4. Conclusion 427 Notes.- Closing Remarks.- Index of Names.- Analytical Index.
Article
La marque du cas grammatical en Batsi, en general, a travers la litterature. Analyse du probleme des verbes intransitifs, et de la marque des cas en Batsi dans le cadre de la theorie de la grammaire de role et de reference
Article
This paper argues that control relations are primarily characterized in terms of thematic relations. The notion Primary Location, defined on the basis of thematic structures, is shown to be crucially necessary for thematically determined cases of control. It is also shown that thematically determined control has a set of properties which are not possessed by cases of control which cannot be determined thematically, and that most of them are derived from the properties of thematic relations. Further, a locality principle of control is proposed here, based on the notion Thematic Domain; and it is shown that thematic control requires the presence of a Primary Location within this local domain.
Chapter
This paper will discuss the concept of thematic roles and their possible role in sentence comprehension. Thematic roles (Gruber, 1976; Fillmore, 1969; Jackendoff, 1972; Chomsky, 1981, 1982) relate arguments of a word, such as the object of a verb, to the meaning of that word. For instance, the object of put is a theme, or affected object; it is the entity that is moved when an act of putting takes place. Within the context of examining the role played in syntactic comprehension by thematic roles, several other issues about the structures of language comprehension will be considered.
Book
The term ‘categorial grammar’ was introduced by Bar-Hillel (1964, page 99) as a handy way of grouping together some of his own earlier work (1953) and the work of the Polish logicians and philosophers Leśniewski (1929) and Ajdukiewicz (1935), in contrast to approaches to linguistic analysis based on phrase structure grammars. The most accessible of these earlier works was the paper of Ajdukiewicz, who, under the influence of Husserl’s Bedeutungskategorien and the type theory that Russell had introduced to fend off foundational problems in set theory, proposed a mode of grammatical analysis in which every element of the vocabulary of a language belongs to one or more categories, and each category is either basic or defined in terms of simpler categories in a way which fixes the combinatorial properties of complex categories.
Book
The editor of this volume, who is also author or coauthor of five of the contributions, has provided an introduction that not only affords an overview of the separate articles but also interrelates the basic issues in linguistics, psycholinguistics and cognitive studies that are addressed in this volume. The twelve articles are grouped into three sections, as follows: "I. Lexical Representation: " The Passive in Lexical Theory (J. Bresnan); On the Lexical Representation of Romance Reflexive Clitics (J. Grimshaw); and Polyadicity (J. Bresnan)."II. Syntactic Representation: " Lexical-Functional Grammar: A Formal Theory for Grammatical Representation (R. Kaplan and J. Bresnan); Control and Complementation (J. Bresnan); Case Agreement in Russian (C. Neidle); The Representation of Case in Icelandic (A. Andrews); Grammatical Relations and Clause Structure in Malayalam (K. P. Monahan); and Sluicing: A Lexical Interpretation Procedure (L. Levin)."III. Cognitive Processing of Grammatical Representations: " A Theory of the Acquisition of Lexical Interpretive Grammars (S. Pinker); Toward a Theory of Lexico-Syntactic Interactions in Sentence Perception (M. Ford, J. Bresnan, and R. Kaplan); and Sentence Planning Units: Implications for the Speaker's Representation of Meaningful Relations Underlying Sentences (M. Ford).
Chapter
others, there has been a flurry of more recent activity from a variety of
Article
The paper proposes a formal account of Aristotle's trichotomy of verbs, in terms of properties of their continuous tensings, into S(state)-verbs, K(kinesis)-verbs, and E-(energeia)-verbs. Within a Fregean tense framework in which predicates are relativized to times, an account of the continuous tenses is presented and a preliminary account of the trichotomy devised, which permits an illuminating analogy to be drawn between the temporal properties of E- and K-verbs and the spatial properties of stuffs and substances. This analogy is drawn upon in constructing a sophisticated version of the preliminary theory accommodating more of the linguistic data.
Article
Six experiments explored the hypothesis that the members of categories which are considered most prototypical are those with most attributes in common with other members of the category and least attributes in common with other categories. In probabilistic terms, the hypothesis is that prototypicality is a function of the total cue validity of the attributes of items. In Experiments 1 and 3, subjects listed attributes for members of semantic categories which had been previously rated for degree of prototypicality. High positive correlations were obtained between those ratings and the extent of distribution of an item's attributes among the other items of the category. In Experiments 2 and 4, subjects listed superordinates of category members and listed attributes of members of contrasting categories. Negative correlations were obtained between prototypicality and superordinates other than the category in question and between prototypicality and an item's possession of attributes possessed by members of contrasting categories. Experiments 5 and 6 used artificial categories and showed that family resemblance within categories and lack of overlap of elements with contrasting categories were correlated with ease of learning, reaction time in identifying an item after learning, and rating of prototypicality of an item. It is argued that family resemblance offers an alternative to criterial features in defining categories.
Article
The key argument of this book, originally published in 1984, is that when human beings communicate with each other by means of a natural language they typically do not do so in simple sentences but rather in connected discourse - complex expressions made up of a number of clauses linked together in various ways. A necessary precondition for intelligible discourse is the speaker’s ability to signal the temporal relations between the events that are being discussed and to refer to the participants in those events in such a way that it is clear who is being talked about. A great deal of the grammatical machinery in a language is devoted to this task, and Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar explores how different grammatical systems accomplish it. This book is an important attempt to integrate the study of linguistic form with the study of language use and meaning. It will be of particular interest to field linguists and those concerned with typology and language universals, and also to anthropologists involved in the study of language function.
Article
In this influential study, Steven Pinker develops a new approach to the problem of language learning. Now reprinted with new commentary by the author, this classic work continues to be an indispensable resource in developmental psycholinguistics. Reviews of this book: "The contribution of [Pinker's] book lies not just in its carefully argued section on learnability theory and acquisition, but in its detailed analysis of the empirical consequences of his assumptions." --Paul Fletcher, Times Higher Education Supplement "One of those rare books which every serious worker in the field should read, both for its stock of particular hypotheses and analyses, and for the way it forces one to re-examine basic assumptions as to how one's work should be done. Its criticisms of other approaches to language acquisition...often go to the heart of the difficulties." --Michael Maratsos, Language "[A] new edition, with a new preface from the author, of the influential monograph originally published in 1984 in which Pinker proposed one of the most detailed (and according to some, best) theories of language development based upon the sequential activation of different language-acquisition algorithms. In his new preface, the author reaches the not very modest conclusion that, despite the time elapsed, his continues to be the most complete theory of language development ever developed. A classic of the study of language acquisition, in any case." -- Infancia y Aprendizaje [Italy]
Article
Thesis (Ph. D.)--Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1965. Vita. Bibliography: leaves [94]-[95].
Adjectives in English: Attribution and predication
BOLINGER, DWIGHT. 1967. Adjectives in English: Attribution and predication. Lingua 18.1-34.