Extended-release naltrexone plus medical management alcohol treatment in primary care: Findings at 15 months
New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address: .Journal of substance abuse treatment (Impact Factor: 2.9). 09/2012; 43(4). DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2012.08.012
The feasibility of long-term extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) alcohol treatment is unknown. Following an initial 12-week, single-arm, observational trial of XR-NTX plus medical management (MM) in primary care, we offered 48 additional weeks of XR-NTX treatment (12 additional monthly injections) in two public primary care clinics as a naturalistic extension study. Of 65 alcohol dependent adults initiating XR-NTX treatment, 40 (62%) completed the initial 12-week XR-NTX observational trial, and 19 (29%) continued treatment for a median of 38weeks total (range, 16-72weeks; median 8 total XR-NTX injections). Among active extension phase participants, self-reported rates of drinking days (vs. last 30 days pre-treatment baseline) were low: median 0.2 vs. 6.0drinks per day; 82 vs. 38% days abstinent; 11 vs. 61% heavy drinking days. Long-term XR-NTX treatment in a primary care MM model was feasible and may promote lasting drinking reductions or alcohol abstinence (clinical trial: NCT00620750).
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ABSTRACT: This paper is the thirty-fifth consecutive installment of the annual review of research concerning the endogenous opioid system. It summarizes papers published during 2012 that studied the behavioral effects of molecular, pharmacological and genetic manipulation of opioid peptides, opioid receptors, opioid agonists and opioid antagonists. The particular topics that continue to be covered include the molecular-biochemical effects and neurochemical localization studies of endogenous opioids and their receptors related to behavior (Section 2), and the roles of these opioid peptides and receptors in pain and analgesia (Section 3); stress and social status (Section 4); tolerance and dependence (Section 5); learning and memory (Section 6); eating and drinking (Section 7); alcohol and drugs of abuse (Section 8); sexual activity and hormones, pregnancy, development and endocrinology (Section 9); mental illness and mood (Section 10); seizures and neurologic disorders (Section 11); electrical-related activity and neurophysiology (Section 12); general activity and locomotion (Section 13); gastrointestinal, renal and hepatic functions (Section 14); cardiovascular responses (Section 15); respiration and thermoregulation (Section 16); and immunological responses (Section 17).
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of routine alcohol screening is to identify patients who may benefit from brief intervention, but patients who also have alcohol and other substance use disorders (AUD/SUD) likely require more intensive interventions. This study sought to determine the prevalence of clinically documented AUD/SUD among VA outpatients with unhealthy alcohol use identified by routine screening. VA patients 18-90 years who screened positive for unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT-C ≥3 women; ≥4 men) and were randomly selected for quality improvement standardized medical record review (6/06-6/10) were included. Gender-stratified prevalences of clinically documented AUD/SUD (diagnosis of AUD, SUD, or alcohol-specific medical conditions, or VA specialty addictions treatment on the date of or 365 days prior to screening) were estimated and compared across AUDIT-C risk groups, and then repeated across groups further stratified by age. Among 63,397 eligible patients with unhealthy alcohol use, 25% (n=2109) women and 28% (n=15,199) men had documented AUD/SUD (p<0.001). The prevalence of AUD/SUD increased with increasing AUDIT-C risk, ranging from 13% (95% CI 13-14%) to 82% (79-85%) for women and 12% (11-12%) to 69% (68-71%) for men in the lowest and highest AUDIT-C risk groups, respectively. Patterns were similar across age groups. One-quarter of all patients with unhealthy alcohol use, and a majority of those with the highest alcohol screening scores, had clinically recognized AUD/SUD. Healthcare systems implementing evidence-based alcohol-related care should be prepared to offer more intensive interventions and/or effective pharmacotherapies for these patients.
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