ArticleLiterature Review

The Role of Whole Grains in Body Weight Regulation

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Abstract

Whole grain (WG)-rich diets are purported to have a variety of health benefits, including a favorable role in body weight regulation. Current dietary recommendations advocate substituting WG for refined grains (RG), because many of the beneficial bioactive components intrinsic to WG are lost during the refining process. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that higher intakes of WG, but not RG, are associated with lower BMI and/or reduced risk of obesity. However, recent clinical trials have failed to support a role for WG in promoting weight loss or maintenance. Though the biochemical and structural characteristics of WG have been shown to modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, the capacity of WG foods to elicit these effects varies with the type and amount of grain consumed as well as the nature of its consumption. As such, WG foods differentially affect physiologic factors influencing body weight with the common practice of processing and reconstituting WG ingredients during food production likely mitigating the capacity for WG to benefit body weight regulation.

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... For example, the soluble fibers have been reported to increase satiety and modulate postprandial glucose and insulin responses. Magnesium has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, and polyphenols or other bioactive components have been reported to alter the composition of the gut microbiota (23,24). ...
... Evidence from many prospective observational studies has supported the inverse relation between WG intake and overall body weight or BMI (24,(61)(62)(63). However, few studies have included measures of abdominal adiposity, which may be a stronger risk factor for metabolic and CVD disorders (64)(65)(66), and consistent findings have not been reported in short-term intervention studies (47,67). ...
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Article
Background Greater whole grain (WG) consumption is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, few prospective studies have examined WG or refined grain (RG) intake and intermediate cardiometabolic risk factors. Objectives We examined the longitudinal association between WG and RG intake on changes in waist circumference (WC); fasting HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose concentrations; and blood pressure. Methods Subjects were participants in the Framingham Offspring cohort study [n = 3121; mean ± SD baseline age: 54.9 ± 0.2 y; BMI (kg/m2) 27.2 ± 0.1]. FFQ, health, and lifestyle data were collected approximately every 4 y over a median 18-y follow-up. Repeated measure mixed models were used to estimate adjusted mean changes per 4-y interval in risk factors across increasing categories of WG or RG intake. Results Greater WG intake was associated with smaller increases in WC (1.4 ± 0.2 compared with 3.0 ± 0.1 cm in the highest compared with the lowest category, respectively; P-trend < 0.001), fasting glucose concentration (0.7 ± 0.4 compared with 2.6 ± 0.2 mg/dL; P-trend < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (SBP; 0.2 ± 0.5 compared with 1.4 ± 0.3 mm Hg; P-trend < 0.001) per 4-y interval. When stratified by sex, a stronger association with WC was observed among females than males. Higher intake of WG was associated with greater increases in HDL cholesterol and declines in triglyceride concentrations; however, these differences did not remain significant after adjustment for change in WC. Conversely, greater RG intake was associated with greater increases in WC (2.7 ± 0.2 compared with 1.8 ± 0.1 cm, P-trend < 0.001) and less decline in triglyceride concentration (−0.3 ± 1.3 compared with −7.0 ± 0.7 mg/dL, P-trend < 0.001). Conclusions Among middle- to older-age adults, replacing RG with WG may be an effective dietary modification to attenuate abdominal adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia over time, thereby reducing the risk of cardiometabolic diseases.
... On the other hand, it has been shown that whole grains may modulate appetite, nutrient availability, and energy utilization, thus favouring body weight regulation [50]. Whole grain is richer in dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, phytoestrogens, phenolic compounds, and phytic acid than refined carbohydrates. ...
... Whole grain is richer in dietary fibre, vitamins, minerals, phytoestrogens, phenolic compounds, and phytic acid than refined carbohydrates. Although the processing and reconstituting of whole grain ingredients during food production leads to a reduced capacity of whole grains to regulate body weight [50], doing so results in reductions in BP and cholesterol levels [49]. Polydextrose, resistant starch, inulin, β-glucan and glucomannan are some of the polysaccharides used as ingredients in reformulation. ...
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Article
Obesity is increasing at an alarming rate and has been described as a global pandemic. This increase has several explanations, including an increase in caloric intake, low levels of physical activity and the nutritional composition of our diets. In addition to public health policies based on healthy dietary patterns and recommendations based on the Mediterranean and other healthy diets, food reformulation, especially of commonly consumed processed foods, such as bakery products and pastries, is needed in the fight against obesity. Among nutritional reformulation strategies, reductions in caloric density, salt, added sugar, saturated and trans-fats are important in order to reduce the associated risk of developing chronic diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and cancer.
... Another possible explanation for the differing relationships in the observational and RCT analyses is that the RCTs may not have been adequate to assess longer-term effects of WG intake on body weight and composition. There are several biologically plausible mechanisms through which higher WG intake could affect energy balance and body composition, including effects on appetite and energy expenditure [7,71]. For example, in a 3-week crossover, blind intervention study assessing the effect of daily breakfast intake of WG rye porridge versus refined flour wheat bread, increases in postprandial subjective ratings of satiety were observed with the rye porridge in healthy adults [71]. ...
... Lastly, although no significant effects of WGs were observed in RCTs on body composition, the analysis included relatively few studies within which there was marked heterogeneity of results, and results from some trials suggest that body composition and/or body fat distribution may be influenced by WG intake [7,45]. Thus, research with longer intervention periods is needed to assess parameters such as adiposity and waist circumference. ...
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Article
Objectives Results from observational studies indicate that whole grain intake is inversely associated with BMI and risk of weight gain. Whole grain intake may influence energy balance and body composition through effects on appetite and thus, energy intake. To evaluate the impact of whole grain food consumption on appetite, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing whole grain food intake and subjective measures of appetite in adults. Methods A search of PubMed, Scopus and Food Science and Technology abstracts yielded 34 RCTs measuring hunger ratings after consuming whole grain foods compared to refined grain controls. Seventeen of these studies (598 subjects), with a total of 33 unique whole grain treatments, reported areas under the curve (AUC) for subjective hunger and were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled estimates from meta-analyses are expressed as standardized mean differences (SMD). Results Intake of whole grain foods resulted in significantly lower subjective hunger AUC (range for AUC times ranged from 120 to 270 min) compared to refined grain foods [SMD −0.36, P < 0.001, 95% CI (−0.48, −0.24)]. Sensitivity analyses were also completed in which studies with AUC values for < and ≥ 180 min were evaluated separately, as well as hunger ratings at the 180 min timepoint alone, and the results were similar to those for the main analysis (SMDs −0.33 to −0.54, all P ≤ 0.03). Conclusions These results support the view that consumption of whole grain foods, compared to refined grain controls, significantly reduces subjective hunger, and this may provide at least part of the explanation for the inverse associations between whole grain food intake and risks for overweight, obesity and weight gain over time. Funding Sources This study was funded by the Bell Institute of Health and Nutrition, General Mills, Minneapolis, MN and registered with PROSPERO.
... Another possible explanation for the differing relationships in the observational and RCT analyses is that the RCTs may not have been adequate to assess longer-term effects of WG intake on body weight and composition. There are several biologically plausible mechanisms through which higher WG intake could affect energy balance and body composition, including effects on appetite and energy expenditure [7,71]. For example, in a 3-week crossover, blind intervention study assessing the effect of daily breakfast intake of WG rye porridge versus refined flour wheat bread, increases in postprandial subjective ratings of satiety were observed with the rye porridge in healthy adults [71]. ...
... Lastly, although no significant effects of WGs were observed in RCTs on body composition, the analysis included relatively few studies within which there was marked heterogeneity of results, and results from some trials suggest that body composition and/or body fat distribution may be influenced by WG intake [7,45]. Thus, research with longer intervention periods is needed to assess parameters such as adiposity and waist circumference. ...
Article
Objectives: To analyze data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting on the relationship between whole grain (WG) intake and weight status. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted, using Ovid/Medline, to identify observational studies and RCTs assessing WG food intake and weight status in adults. Meta-regression analysis was used to derive pooled estimates from cross-sectional studies, and a meta-analysis with random effects modeling was used to derive pooled estimates from RCTs. Prospective cohort results were assessed qualitatively since differences in methods and outcomes prevented completion of a pooled analysis. Results: Eleven publications (12 studies; 136,834 subjects) were included in the meta-regression analysis of cross-sectional data, 8 publications (9 studies; 973 subjects) were included in the meta-analysis of RCTs, and 6 publications were reviewed for qualitative assessment of prospective cohort data. RCT intervention lengths ranged from 12-16 weeks, and WG intake from foods ranged from 32-215 g/d in the WG intervention groups. Meta-regression of cross-sectional studies indicated a significant, inverse correlation between body mass index (BMI) and intake of WG from food: weighted slope -0.0141 kg/m2 per g/d [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0207, -0.0077; r = -0.526, P = 0.0001]. Meta-analysis of data from RCTs showed a non-significant pooled standardized effect size of -0.049 kg (95% CI -0.297, 0.199, P = 0.698) for the mean difference in weight change for the WG intervention groups compared with controls. No significant differences were observed for secondary variables, including waist circumference and % body fat. Prospective cohort results generally showed inverse associations between weight change and baseline WG intake and change in WG intake over follow-up periods of 5 to 20 years. Conclusions: Higher WG intake is significantly inversely associated with BMI in observational studies, but results from RCTs do not show an effect of WG intake on change in weight over periods of up to 16 weeks. RCTs with longer intervention periods are needed to further investigate the potential for WG intake to influence body weight and related anthropometrics. Funding sources: General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, MN.
... Another possible explanation for the differing relationships in the observational and RCT analyses is that the RCTs may not have been adequate to assess longer-term effects of WG intake on body weight and composition. There are several biologically plausible mechanisms through which higher WG intake could affect energy balance and body composition, including effects on appetite and energy expenditure [7,71]. For example, in a 3-week crossover, blind intervention study assessing the effect of daily breakfast intake of WG rye porridge versus refined flour wheat bread, increases in postprandial subjective ratings of satiety were observed with the rye porridge in healthy adults [71]. ...
... Lastly, although no significant effects of WGs were observed in RCTs on body composition, the analysis included relatively few studies within which there was marked heterogeneity of results, and results from some trials suggest that body composition and/or body fat distribution may be influenced by WG intake [7,45]. Thus, research with longer intervention periods is needed to assess parameters such as adiposity and waist circumference. ...
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Article
Results from some observational studies suggest that higher whole grain (WG) intake is associated with lower risk of weight gain. Ovid Medline was used to conduct a literature search for observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing WG food intake and weight status in adults. A meta-regression analysis of cross-sectional data from 12 observational studies (136,834 subjects) and a meta-analysis of nine RCTs (973 subjects) was conducted; six prospective cohort publications were qualitatively reviewed. Cross-sectional data meta-regression results indicate a significant, inverse correlation between WG intake and body mass index (BMI): weighted slope, −0.0141 kg/m2 per g/day of WG intake (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.0207, −0.0077; r = −0.526, p = 0.0001). Prospective cohort results generally showed inverse associations between WG intake and weight change with typical follow-up periods of five to 20 years. RCT meta-analysis results show a nonsignificant pooled standardized effect size of −0.049 kg (95% CI −0.297, 0.199, p = 0.698) for mean difference in weight change (WG versus control interventions). Higher WG intake is significantly inversely associated with BMI in observational studies but not RCTs up to 16 weeks in length; RCTs with longer intervention periods are warranted.
... Identifying beneficial ones [5,6] will help inform future intervention studies aiming to improve the overall diet quality in children, and promote healthy weight gain. Feeding practices that promote healthy eating habits in accordance to worldwide dietary guidelines [7] which recommend low fat and sugar consumption [8,9], and higher fruits, vegetables and wholegrains consumption are of primary interest [10,11]. ...
... Restricting access to foods, especially palatable foods has been shown to be associated with unintended outcomes of higher BMI [17,18,21,43]. In the case of our study, this feeding practice was only associated with higher fruit intakes, but not lower intakes of any discretionary foods [10,11]. Due to the bi-directional nature between this feeding practice and BMI [44], the current findings from our cohort showing the positive association between restriction with higher BMI suggest that mothers are merely reacting to their own perceptions of the child's weight (of the child being heavier than they actually are) [45], without an actual intention of altering specific dietary intakes of the child [44,46]. ...
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Article
Background In Asia, little is known about how maternal feeding practices are associated with dietary intakes and body mass index (BMI) in preschoolers. Objective To assess the relationships between maternal feeding practices with dietary intakes and BMI in preschoolers in Asia using cross-sectional analysis in the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) cohort. Participant settings Mothers (n = 511) who completed the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire (CFPQ) and a semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) when children were 5 years old. Statistical analysis Associations between 12 maternal feeding practices (mean scores divided into tertiles) and children’s dietary intakes of seven food groups and BMI z-scores were examined using the general linear regression model. Weight and height of the child were measured, and dietary intakes derived from the FFQ. Results Compared to those in the low tertile, mothers in the high tertile of modelling healthy food intakes had children with higher intakes of vegetables[+20.0g/day (95%CI:11.6,29.5)] and wholegrains[+ 20.9g/day (9.67,31.1)] but lower intakes of sweet snacks[-10.1g/day (-16.3,-4.94)] and fast-foods[-5.84g/day (-10.2,-1.48)]. Conversely, children of mothers in the high tertile for allowing child control (lack of parental control) had lower intake of vegetables[-15.2g/day (-26.6,-5.21)] and wholegrains[-13.6g/day (-22.9,-5.27)], but higher intakes of sweet snacks[+13.7g/day (7.7, 19.8)] and fast-foods[+6.63g/day (3.55,9.72)]. In relation to BMI at 5 years, food restrictions for weight was associated with higher BMI z-scores [0.86SD (0.61,1.21)], while use of pressure was associated with lower BMI z-scores[-0.49SD(-0.78,-0.21)]. Conclusions and implications Modelling healthy food intakes by mothers was the key feeding practice associated with higher intakes of healthy foods and lower intakes of discretionary foods. The converse was true for allowing child control. Only food restrictions for weight and use of pressure were associated with BMI z-scores.
... Diet composition is among many lifestyle factors contributing to the development of obesity and associated chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type II diabetes [30]. Major consequences of being overweight or obese include higher prevalence of hypertension and a cascade of associated cardiorenal and metabolic disorders. ...
... Elevated TG levels are commonly associated with concomitant changes in HDL, LDL and other lipoproteins [32]. Identifying dietary patterns, or individual foods and nutrients in the diet to prevent and treat obesity, is an important public health strategy [30]. Consuming the methanolic extract of parijoto (M. ...
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Conference Paper
Parijoto (Medinilla speciosa) is an endemic plant in Indonesia that was generally consumed by pregnant women and used as diarrhea and cholesterol drugs. The parijoto fruits are purplish red, where it is indicated that parijoto fruits contain anthocyanins i.e., water-soluble pigments in the plant, was found in most fruits, petals, and leaves. Anthocyanins belonging to the flavonoids compound family have been suggested to reduce certain cancers, coronary heart diseases, oxidative stress and other age-related diseases. This study was aimed to determine the effects of methanolic extract of parijoto (M. speciosa) on triglycerides level and obesity in hyperlipidemic rats. A pre-test and post-test randomized control group design were used in this study. Rats were divided into five groups: normal rats, hyperlipidemic rats, hyperlipidemic rats were given the methanolic extract of parijoto (M. speciosa) 500 mg · kg⁻¹, 1 000 mg · kg⁻¹, and 1 500 mg · kg⁻¹ body weight. Blood was collected when rats are suffering from hyperlipidemia and after the 30 d treatment of methanolic extract of parijoto (M. speciosa). Rats were sacrificed after the 30 d treatment. The serum level of triglycerides was determined and the increase in body weight was measured weekly. Results showed that giving of methanolic extract of parijoto (M. speciosa) in hyperlipidemic rats reduced the triglycerides levels significantly (p < 0.01), the increase of body weight until 34 % and the adipose tissue in the peritoneum of hyperlipidemic rats.
... Comparable with the healthy dietary pattern, the cereal-dairy dietary pattern was characterized as being rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrates, prebiotics, and probiotics. The previous study demonstrated that the whole cereal dietary pattern with high intake of whole grains and whole wheat provided abundant sources of dietary fiber and antioxidants, which was beneficial to health promotion [45]. Previous studies also showed that both whole grains and whole wheat as a prebiotic regulated body weight and insulin action [45][46][47]. ...
... The previous study demonstrated that the whole cereal dietary pattern with high intake of whole grains and whole wheat provided abundant sources of dietary fiber and antioxidants, which was beneficial to health promotion [45]. Previous studies also showed that both whole grains and whole wheat as a prebiotic regulated body weight and insulin action [45][46][47]. Overall, dietary pattern appears to more effectively mediate health problems than individual food items, although some food items had significant effects on health status. ...
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Article
This study examined the correlation of dietary patterns with components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS in Taiwan. This cross-sectional study used data from the Mei Jau International Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2004 and 2013. A total of 26,016 subjects aged 35 years and above were selected for analysis. MetS was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation. Three dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. High intake of a meat–instant food dietary pattern (rich in animal protein, saturated fat, sweets, sodium, and food additives) was positively associated with components of MetS and C-reactive protein (CRP), while high intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and unsaturated fat) or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern (rich in dietary fiber, antioxidants, phytochemicals, complex carbohydrate, prebiotics, and probiotics) was inversely associated with components of MetS and CRP. Our findings suggested that intake of a vege–seafood dietary pattern or a cereal–dairy dietary pattern decreased the risk of developing MetS and inflammation among middle-aged and older adults with MetS.
... Por tanto, deberá de modificar los niveles de insulina que, en última instancia, es la encargada de regular la glucemia sanguínea. Es conocido que un exceso de glucemia circulante puede producir un desarrollo hiperplásico de los adipocitos y favorecer la aparición de resistencia a la insulina (RI), una patología definida como una disminución de la acción dicha hormona (2,15,16). La RI tiene una estrecha relación con la obesidad ya que implica una mayor acumulación de tejido adiposo debido a que un alto nivel de insulina favorece la absorción de glucosa por los adipocitos(2). ...
... De la mima manera, al elevar los niveles de glucosa en sangre se elevarán los niveles de insulina. Entre las propiedades de estos últimos nos encontramos su gran poder saciante, disminución del apetito, alto contenido en fibra y alargamiento del proceso digestivo(16,17) muy relacionado a la relación existente entre estos alimentos y los niveles de glucemia. ...
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Thesis
El índice glucémico es una herramienta que clasifica a los alimentos según su capacidad de elevar la glicemia postprandial. Teóricamente, si controlamos este valor podremos controlar variables, como el apetito, que ayudarían a un mejor acercamiento para el tratamiento de la obesidad.Con esta revisión se pretende analizar el conocimiento actual sobre la aplicación de esta herramienta en el tratamiento de la obesidad y su efectividad. Los estudios epidemiológicos analizados tras la búsqueda bibliográfica y su cribado, muestran resultados variables pero, en la mayoría, nos encontramos un dato interesante: se disminuye la grasa intraabdominal, reduciéndose así el riesgo cardiometabólico. De esta manera, este acercamiento nutricional puede resultar eficaz para el tratamiento de determinados pacientes.
... O trigo (Triticum aestivum) é um cereal cultivado mundialmente e possui grande importância na dieta humana, contribuindo diretamente como fonte de energia, proteína, vitaminas, minerais e fibras (MCKEOWN et al., 2013;KARL;SALTZMAN, 2012). A maior parte dos grãos de trigo são destinadas para a produção de farinha, a qual é tradicionalmente usada na formulação de pães, massas e bolos. ...
... O trigo (Triticum aestivum) é um cereal cultivado mundialmente e possui grande importância na dieta humana, contribuindo diretamente como fonte de energia, proteína, vitaminas, minerais e fibras (MCKEOWN et al., 2013;KARL;SALTZMAN, 2012). A maior parte dos grãos de trigo são destinadas para a produção de farinha, a qual é tradicionalmente usada na formulação de pães, massas e bolos. ...
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Thesis
Micotoxinas são contaminantes naturais, produzidos por fungos filamentosos e, podem ocorrer em altos níveis nos alimentos. Nos grãos de trigo, a presença de tricotecenos, um grupo de micotoxinas produzidas por Fusarium spp. e, aflatoxinas, produzidas por Aspergillus spp., representam um importante problema de saúde pública por serem tóxicas ao homem e animais e muito estáveis aos processos no qual o trigo é submetido para obtenção de produtos industrializados. Uma forma de reduzir a contaminação dos alimentos por micotoxinas é através do uso do ozônio (O3) no processamento do alimento. Devido ao alto potencial oxidante do O3, esse pode degradar as moléculas das micotoxinas, tendo como consequência a eliminação ou redução de seus efeitos tóxicos. Essa pesquisa teve como objetivos principais avaliar os efeitos de diferentes condições de ozonização na i) redução de micotoxinas (desoxinivalenol e aflatoxinas) em grãos de trigo; ii) redução nos níveis de fungos filamentosos; iii) influência nos parâmetros químicos, perfil de minerais e parâmetros tecnológico dos grãos e da farinha obtida após o processamento e; iv) influência nas características sensoriais da farinha elaborada a partir dos grãos ozonizados. Em uma segunda etapa do projeto, um método para determinação de uma forma modificada do desoxinivalenol (DON), o desoxinivalenol-3-glicosídeo (D3G) foi otimizada e validada intralaboratorialmente, utilizando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detector de arranjo de diodos (CLAE-DAD). Os resultados obtidos dos ensaios de ozonização demonstraram que o O3, nas condições experimentais utilizadas, reduziu a contagem de fungos totais em cerca 3,0 logs UFC/g de grãos e a contaminação por desoxinivalenol e aflatoxinas totais em até 64,3 % e 48,0 %, respectivamente. O processo de ozonização não influenciou de modo negativo a qualidade química, tecnológica e sensorial dos grãos de trigo, podendo ser utilizado como um excelente método para remediação da contaminação dos grãos por fungos e micotoxinas. Resultados adequados também foram obtidos na validação do método de determinação de D3G por CLAE-DAD, demonstrando que o método é confiável para a determinação dessa forma mascarada do DON em grãos e trigo e, pode ser utilizado como um método alternativo a espectrometria de massas para tal análise.
... Multiple mechanisms have been proposed to support the favorable epidemiologic association between whole-grain consumption and BMI and adiposity. The superior nutritive value of whole grains relative to that of refined grains and, in particular, the higher fiber content, are thought to suppress appetite, improve glycemic control and insulin sensitivity, and beneficially modulate the gut-microbiota composition and activity (18)(19)(20). To test these mechanisms, clinical trials have commonly incorporated whole-grain or refinedgrain foods into participant's habitual diets, most often with the use of multiple whole-grain sources with wheat as the primary source. ...
... These factors may explain why favorable effects of whole grains on insulin sensitivity (27), fasting glucose (13), and appetite (16,27) have been reported in some but not all (13,16,27,28) trials. The heterogeneity also underlies the recognized need for additional well-controlled studies that use strict dietary control to more definitively elucidate the effects of the dietary substitution of whole grains for refined grains on mechanisms that influence BMI and adiposity (5,17,19). ...
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Article
Background: The effect of whole grains on the regulation of energy balance remains controversial. Objective: We aimed to determine the effects of substituting whole grains for refined grains, independent of body weight changes, on energy-metabolism metrics and glycemic control. Design: The study was a randomized, controlled, parallel-arm controlled-feeding trial that was conducted in 81 men and postmenopausal women [49 men and 32 women; age range: 40–65 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): <35.0]. After a 2-wk run-in period, participants were randomly assigned to consume 1 of 2 weight-maintenance diets for 6 wk. Diets differed in whole-grain and fiber contents [mean ± SDs: whole grain–rich diet: 207 ± 39 g whole grains plus 40 ± 5 g dietary fiber/d; refined grain–based diet: 0 g whole grains plus 21 ± 3 g dietary fiber/d] but were otherwise similar. Energy metabolism and body-composition metrics, appetite, markers of glycemic control, and gut microbiota were measured at 2 and 8 wk. Results: By design, body weight was maintained in both groups. Plasma alkylresorcinols, which are biomarkers of whole-grain intake, increased in the whole grain–rich diet group (WG) but not in the refined grain–based diet group (RG) (P-diet-by-time interaction < 0.0001). Beta ± SE changes (ΔWG compared with ΔRG) in the resting metabolic rate (RMR) (43 ± 25 kcal/d; P = 0.04), stool weight (76 ± 12 g/d; P < 0.0001), and stool energy content (57 ± 17 kcal/d; P = 0.003), but not in stool energy density, were higher in the WG. When combined, the favorable energetic effects in the WG translated into a 92-kcal/d (95% CI: 28, 156-kcal/d) higher net daily energy loss compared with that of the RG (P = 0.005). Prospective consumption (P = 0.07) and glycemia after an oral-glucose-tolerance test (P = 0.10) trended toward being lower in the WG than in the RG. When nonadherent participants were excluded, between-group differences in stool energy content and glucose tolerance increased, and between-group differences in the RMR and prospective consumption were not statistically significant. Conclusion: These findings suggest positive effects of whole grains on the RMR and stool energy excretion that favorably influence energy balance and may help explain epidemiologic associations between whole-grain consumption and reduced body weight and adiposity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01902394.
... Although foods made from whole grain milled to the same fineness as their refined counterparts elicited the same glycemic response, this is not case with foods made from coarsely ground or whole kernel whole grain, which produce a lower glycemic response. • Greater satiety compared with refined grains, contributing to weight loss and modulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism (Karl and Saltzman, 2012). ...
Article
Grains have historically represented a major component of human diets and were predominantly consumed in whole form until the first half of the 19th century, when a combination of technological innovations and market dynamics made refined grains, hitherto a premium product, affordable and available to the masses. Grains still account for more than half of the total caloric intake among vulnerable populations worldwide, and their dominant consumption in refined form turns a nutrient-dense, protective food into a nutrient-poor one contributing to growing rates of obesity and noncommunicable disease. Shifting a substantial portion of global grain consumption to whole grains is potentially one of the most significant and achievable improvements to diets and food systems worldwide. In countries with significant micronutrient deficiencies, a switch from refined to fortified whole grain foods can enable institutional channels such as school feeding programs to measurably improve diet quality in a budget-neutral way.
... For example, whereas the few whole grain cereal foods containing appreciable amounts of viscous fibers (e.g., oats that contain β-glucan) reduce glycemic response (8), it is not clear that other whole grain foods do so. Whole and refined grain-based foods vary substantially in composition and properties, starting from the botanical source and grain variety and ending in how they are prepared (9). Food form, food matrix and energy density of the final product (7), processing (10), and other physical properties such as particle size (10)(11)(12)(13) all add complexity to the health value of grain-based foods. ...
Article
Background: Epidemiological and some clinical studies support the view that whole grain foods have lower glycemic response compared to refined grain foods. However, from the perspective of food material properties, it is not clear why whole grain cereals containing mostly insoluble and non-viscous dietary fibers (e.g., wheat) would reduce postprandial glycemia. Objectives: We hypothesized that glycemic response for whole grain wheat milled products would not differ from that of refined wheat when potentially confounding variables (wheat source, food form, particle size, viscosity) are matched. Our objective was to study the effect of whole grain versus refined wheat milled products on postprandial glycemia, gastric emptying, and subjective appetite. Design: Using a randomized crossover design, healthy participants (n = 16) consumed six different medium-viscosity porridges made from whole grain or refined wheat milled products, all from the same grain source and mill: whole wheat flour, refined wheat flour, cracked wheat, semolina, reconstituted wheat flour with fine bran, and reconstituted wheat flour with coarse bran. Postprandial glycemia, gastric emptying, and appetitive response were measured using continuous glucose monitors, the 13C-octanoic acid breath test, and visual analog scale (VAS) ratings. Bayes factors were implemented to draw inferences about null effects. Results: Little-to-no differences were observed in glycemic responses, with lower incremental area under the curve (iAUC0-120 min) glycemic response only for semolina (mean difference [MD]: –966 mg min/dL; 95% CI: –1775, –156; P = 0.02) and cracked wheat (MD: –721 mg min/dL; 95% CI: –1426, –16; P = 0.04) compared to whole wheat flour porridge. Bayes factors suggested weak-to-strong evidence for a null effect (i.e., no effect of treatment type) in glycemic response, gastric emptying, and VAS ratings. Conclusions: While whole grain wheat foods provide other health benefits, they did not in their natural composition confer lower postprandial glycemia or gastric emptying compared to their refined wheat counterparts.
... However, recent clinical studies found a lack of evidence to support the beneficial effects of whole grains on weight loss, despite possible mechanisms by which the consumption of whole grains could promote weight loss, such as increasing chewing, reducing energy density and availability, reducing postprandial glycemic response, increasing fermentation, and promoting gut microbiota in the colon. 74 As a component of whole grains, the effect of consuming RB on weight management has been investigated in animal and human studies. 54,56,75,76 Justo et al 77 investigated the effects of RB enzymatic extract (1% and 5% supplemented diet) on metabolic, biochemical, and functional adipose tissue changes related to diet-induced obesity in mice. ...
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Rice bran (RB) is a nutrient-rich by-product of the rice milling process. It consists of pericarp, seed coat, nucellus, and aleurone layer. RB is a rich source of a protein, fat, dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals (mainly oryzanols and tocopherols), and is currently mostly used as animal feed. Various studies have revealed the beneficial health effects of RB, which result from its functional components including dietary fiber, rice bran protein, and gamma-oryzanol. The health effects of RB including antidiabetic, lipid-lowering, hypotensive, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects, while its consumption also improves bowel function. These health benefits have drawn increasing attention to RB in food applications and as a nutraceutical product to mitigate metabolic risk factors in humans. This review therefore focuses on RB and its health benefits.
... 10,[13][14][15] Additionally, dietary fibres have many health benefits such as improving intestinal peristalsis, eliminating intestinal toxins, helping weight control, and helping to prevent breast cancer, several chronic diseases, type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. [16][17][18][19][20] Starch and modified starch are also widely utilised in the food industry, among which pre-gelatinised starch (PGS) is made from cooked starch and dried using a drum dryer or prepared in an extruder. The degree of gelatinisation of PGS ranges from 44% to 100% with the degree of crystallinity ranging from 14% to 18% depending on the processing procedures and measuring methods. ...
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The production of gluten free crackers is challenging because the formation of a gluten network is required. This study investigated the effects of psyllium seed husk powder (PSY), methylcellulose (MC), pregelatinised starch (PGS), and cold water swelling starch (CWSS) on gluten free crackers made of rice flour. The evaluations of pasting properties, dough rheological properties, textural properties, acoustic emissions, and structures were included in this study. Gluten free cracker doughs were more solid-like compared to wheat doughs based on their frequency dependence shown in the mechanical spectra. However, PGS significantly increased the fluid-like property and shapeability. The addition of MC at a high level significantly modified the pasting profile and a secondary swelling and breakdown might occur. As for the crackers, PSY and PGS crackers had comparable textural properties and sound release to wheat crackers, while CWSS crackers were slightly weaker. However, MC did not improve the textural properties compared to rice crackers because the interaction between the MC molecules was limited at the low water addition level, which limited its functionality in cracker making.
... Costabile et al. (2008) showed that wholemeal pasta reduced the desire to eat, and increased satiety. This was due to the high-fiber content promoting satiety and by reducing the energy density of products (Costabile et al. 2008;Karl and Saltzman 2012). ...
Article
Pasta is a popular staple food around world. This makes pasta a great vehicle for delivering functional ingredients. This article reviews the popular functional ingredients – cereals, pseudocereal, legumes and vegetables, that are used to enrich pasta. The influence of these functional ingredients, additives and cooking process on pasta’s nutritional, technical and sensory properties is summarized. This article focusses on the effects of different forms of these ingredients on the quality of cereal foods. Such as carrot juice pasta has a superior technical quality than carrot flour pasta. As far as can be established there are very few articles examining the effects of different forms of ingredients on pasta. Puree or liquid form raw vegetable materials offfers a better option than conventional powder form to add to semolina to produce functional pasta with superior technical quality and improved nutritional value.
... 19 Similar to the healthy diet, dietary pattern 3 was described as rich in antioxidants, fiber, probiotics and prebiotics. 7,8,20 Whole grain and whole cereal patterns provided many sources of dietary fiber, antioxidants, and prebiotics which had a beneficial effect to body weight and insulin regulation. 21,22 Generally, dietary patterns emerge more convincing to intercede health issues rather than single food items, in spite of the fact that single food items such as macro or micronutrients had necessary impacts on health outcomes. ...
Article
Background: Obesity is a growing major health problem in some developing countries including Indonesia. Study examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity parameters using both body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) among healthy women in Indonesia was still rare. Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between dietary patterns and obesity parameters using BMI and WC among healthy women.Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design with consecutive sampling. Healthy women aged 20 and above were selected in this study. Dietary data were collected using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). For categorical data, chi-squared test was done to compare the differences in the characteristics of the subjects among tertiles of dietary patterns. For continuous variables, a general linear model test was used for comparison. To evaluate the association between dietary patterns and obesity parameters (BMI and WC), we used multiple linear regression analysis adjusting for multiple confounding variables (age, current smoking, current drinking, and physical activity). Results: Dietary pattern 1 consisted of 12 food items: snack cooked with oil, fish and seafood, processed food, organ meats, meat, poultry, rice- or flour-based products, staples cooked with oil, sugary drinks, refined dessert, and tea and coffee. Dietary pattern 2 consisted of 5 food items: eggs, light-colored vegetables, dark-colored vegetables, fruits, and soybeans. Dietary pattern 3 consisted of 7 food items: milk products, legumes, processed fruits, wholegrain, snacks cooked without oil, root crops, and jam/honey. Dietary pattern 1 was positively associated with obesity parameters including BMI and WC (P < 0.05); whereas, dietary pattern 2 and dietary pattern 3 were inversely correlated (P < 0.05).Conclusions: Our study find that dietary patterns were associated with BMI and WC among healthy women.
... subtype of the Bacteroides-driven enterotype (21), harboring, for example, a higher bacterial load and, potentially, more beneficial, fiber-degrading bacterial genes, compared to the low-P group; 2) a distinct phenotype [e.g., higher copy number of the AMY1 gene (MF Hjorth, L Christensen, A Astrup, unpublished data, 2019); (22)]; or 3) an artefact of the microbiota analysis. A WG-rich diet has long been suggested to lower body weight (23)(24)(25)(26), and this relationship was recently confirmed in a Danish 8-wk RCT (27). The weight loss may be driven by WG fiber affecting appetite regulation via microbialproduced SCFAs (8,28,29). ...
Article
Background: The key to effective weight loss may be to match diet and gut microbes, since recent studies have found that subjects with high Prevotella abundances in their gut microbiota lose more weight on diets rich in fiber than subjects with low Prevotella abundances. Objectives: We reanalyzed a 6-wk, parallel, randomized trial to investigate difference in body weight changes when participants, stratified by fecal microbiota composition, consumed ad libitum a whole-grain (WG) or a refined-wheat (RW) diet. Methods: We stratified 46 (19 men, 27 women; ages 30-65 y) healthy, overweight adults by baseline Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratios and Prevotella abundances. Subjects with no Prevotella were analyzed separately (n = 24). Compared with the RW diet (mean = 221 g/d), the WG diet (mean = 228 g/d) had a higher fiber content (33 g/d compared with 23 g/d). Linear mixed models and correlations were applied to link 6-wk changes in body weights and metabolic and microbiota markers, according to Prevotella groups and diets. Results: The Prevotella abundances correlated inversely with weight changes (r = -0.34; P = 0.043). Consequently, subjects with high Prevotella abundances (n = 15) spontaneously lost 1.80 kg (95% CI: -3.23, -0.37 kg; P = 0.013) more on the WG diet than on the RW diet, whereas those with low Prevotella abundances (n = 31) were weight stable (-0.22 kg; 95% CI: -1.40, 0.96 kg; P = 0.72). Thus, the mean difference between the Prevotella groups was 2.02 kg (95% CI: -3.87, -0.17 kg; P = 0.032). Subjects with no Prevotella lost 1.59 kg (95% CI: -2.65, -0.52 kg; P = 0.004) more on the WG diet than on the RW diet. No 6-wk changes in appetite sensations, glucose metabolisms, or fecal SCFAs were associated with the Prevotella groups. Conclusions: Healthy, overweight adults with high Prevotella abundances lost more weight than subjects with low Prevotella abundances when consuming a diet rich in WG and fiber ad libitum for 6 wk. This further supports enterotypes as a potential biomarker in personalized nutrition for obesity management. This t rial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02358122.
... Obesity, the prevalence of which is increasing globally (1) , is associated with an increased risk of developing chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (2; 3) . Diet, amongst other lifestyle factors, potentially contributes to the development of obesity (4) . ...
Article
Whole grain cereal breakfast consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism as well as satiety. Pearl millet is a popular ancient grain variety that can be grown in hot, dry regions. However, little is known about its health effects. This study investigated the effect of a pearl millet porridge (PMP) compared with a well-known Scottish oats porridge (SOP) on glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetitive responses. In a randomized, two way crossover trial, 26 healthy participants consumed two iso-energetic/volumetric PMP or SOP breakfast meals, served with a drink of water. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, GLP-1, GIP and PYY, gastric volumes and appetite ratings were collected for two hours postprandially, followed by an ad libitum meal and food intake records for the remainder of the day. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC2h) for blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (p ˃ 0.05). The iAUC2h gastric volume was larger for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.045). The iAUC2h GIP concentration was significantly lower for PMP compared with SOP (p = 0.001). Other hormones and appetite responses were similar between meals. In conclusion, this study reports, for the first time, data on glycaemic and physiological responses to a pearl millet breakfast, showing that this ancient grain could represent a sustainable, alternative, with health-promoting characteristics comparable to oats. GIP is an incretin hormone linked to triacylglycerol absorption in adipose tissue, therefore the lower GIP response for PMP may be an added health benefit.
... Do najpopularniejszych surowców stosowanych do produkcji preparatów wysokobłonnikowych należą otręby: pszenne, jęczmienne, owsiane, kukury-Jacek Anioła tom 73 l kwiecień 2019 wykorzystywane są z powodzeniem, jako suplementy diety wspomagające odchudzanie [20,38]. ...
... Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a cereal cultivated worldwide and has great importance in the human diet, contributing as a direct source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and fiber (Karl and Saltzman, 2012;Mckeown, 2013;El-Beltagi and Abdel-Rahim, 2017). Almost all wheat grains are intended for the production of flour, typically used in the preparation of breads, pastas and cakes. ...
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Biscuit is one of the most popular processed ready to eat snacks that have possesses several attractive features including wide consumer base, relatively less expensive, more convenient with long shelf-life and have ability to serve as vehicles for important nutrients. It's usually available in different sizes, tastes and shapes. It can also be enriched or fortified with other ingredients in order to meet specific nutritional or therapeutic needs of consumers. In recent years, numerous studies have shown the potential of utilizing natural plant such as green leafy vegetable in cookies and biscuit production; the potential of amaranthus leaves used as a source of iron and β-carotene inpakora, vada, namakpal, kurmure, biscuit and cake. The present research was carried out to throw the light on the effect of wheat flour and barley flour with natural and synthetic colors to improve chemical composition, the nutritional value and quality characteristics of producing biscuits. The results indicate that that treatment 100% barley flour 72% with turmeric and cocoa as a natural colors recorded a significant increase in the content of protein, ash, minerals such as iron, zinc, potassium, magnesium and some physical analysis like weight, volume, density as well as sensory evaluation. As compared with wheat flour 72% and synthetic color tartrazine ADI 7.5 mg/kg.bw and chocolate brown ADI 0.15 mg/kg.bw. In conclusion, results showed that barley flour improved nutritional quality, physical characteristics and sensory characteristics of produce biscuit with mixture natural and natural color.
... High consumption of refined grain products among the people of smaller agglomerations undoubtedly contributes to the occurrence of obesity. The stage of grains refinement shows a negative correlation with their content of B group vitamins and magnesium, iron, copper or zinc [15]. Additionally, it was proved that the consumption of refined grains is directly proportional to the accumulation of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue [24]. ...
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Background. Obesity is regarded as the most common disease of affluence, gradually getting an epidemic status. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency of consumption of selected food products among the patients qualified for bariatric surgery, together with the analysis of the potential effect of the diet on the development of obesity in examined group of people. Material and Methods. The study involved 57 patients qualified for bariatric treatment of obesity. A standardized food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used and anthropometric measurements were performed. Results. In examined group of people, along with increasing BMI, the frequency of cheeses consumption decreased, whereas the frequency of consumption of vegetable and fruit - vegetable juices increased. In addition to that, it was observed that with higher frequency of consumption of animal fat (lard, bacon) and beer, the value of WHR increased, whereas the frequency of consumption of dairy products was in direct proportion to body weight of examined people. It was also noted that people living in the country consumed fruits and potatoes significantly more often than people living in the city, and that people with higher education significantly more often ate coarse grits, high quality meats and fatty fish, as compared to people with vocational training. Conclusions. Inappropriate selection of food products and numerous dietary mistakes made by the patients directly contributed to the development of extreme obesity. The patients prepared for bariatric surgery should receive a dietician support during the preparation for the procedure and afterwards, later in life, in order to maintain a reduced body weight after the surgery.
... The fibre intake in both study groups, however, did not meet the minimum recommendation of 20 g / day or 50% of the requirements. The previous study has demonstrated an intake of whole grain as the indigestible fibre had an inverse relationship to BMI and reduced abdominal fat [40]. Compared with intervention group, insoluble fibre in the control group during the study was lower (Control: Baseline = 0.38 (0.63) g, 6-month = 0.48 (0.84) g; Intervention: Baseline 0.52 (1.11) g, 6-month =0.56 (0.98) g). ...
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Background: Diet compositions are likely to be one of the influential factors for body fat deposition. The aim of this paper was to determine the nutrient changes and its association to body fat loss among the overweight and obese housewives in the MyBFF@home study.
... In the small intestine, by creating a mechanical barrier and increasing intraluminal viscosity, soluble and insoluble fibre delay intestinal transit and reduce glucose and free fatty acid absorption with a consequent increment in fat oxidation and reduction in fat storage. Furthermore, the reduction in glucose absorption can also decrease insulin secretion, preventing the risk of reactive hypoglycemia during the post-absorption period and reducing hunger [34,35]. In the small intestine, the role of dietary fibre on gastrointestinal hormone secretion should be also considered. ...
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Obesity is a pandemic carrying the heavy burden of multiple and serious co-morbidities including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The pathophysiological processes leading to the accumulation of body fat slowly evolve to fat accumulation in other body compartments than subcutaneous tissue. This abnormal fat deposition determines insulin resistance which in turn causes blood glucose and lipid metabolism derangement, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hypertension, and metabolic syndrome. All these conditions contribute to increase the cardiovascular risk of obese people. Several randomized clinical trials demonstrated that moderate weight loss (5–10%) in obese patients improves obesity-related metabolic risk factors and coexisting disorders. Therefore, nutritional strategies able to facilitate weight management, and in the meantime positively influence obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors, should be implemented. To this aim, a suitable option could be dietary fibres that may also act independently of weight loss. The present narrative review summarizes the current evidence about the effects of dietary fibres on weight management in obese people. Moreover, all of the different cardiovascular risk factors are individually considered and evidence on cardiovascular outcomes is summarized. We also describe the plausible mechanisms by which different dietary fibres could modulate cardio-metabolic risk factors. Overall, despite both epidemiological and intervention studies on weight loss that show statistically significant but negligible clinical effects, dietary fibres seem to have a beneficial impact on main pathophysiological pathways involved in cardiovascular risk (i.e., insulin resistance, renin-angiotensin, and sympathetic nervous systems). Although the evidence is not conclusive, this suggests that fibre would be a suitable option to counteract obesity-related cardio-metabolic diseases also independently of weight loss. However, evidence is not consistent for the different risk factors, with clear beneficial effects shown on blood glucose metabolism and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol while there is fewer, and less consistent data shown on plasma triglyceride and blood pressure. Ascribing the beneficial effect of some foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables) solely to their fibre content requires more investigation on the pathophysiological role of other dietary components, such as polyphenols.
... The fibre intake in both study groups, however, did not meet the minimum recommendation of 20 g / day or 50% of the requirements. The previous study has demonstrated an intake of whole grain as the indigestible fibre had an inverse relationship to BMI and reduced abdominal fat [40]. Compared with intervention group, insoluble fibre in the control group during the study was lower (Control: Baseline = 0.38 (0.63) g, 6-month = 0.48 (0.84) g; Intervention: Baseline 0.52 (1.11) g, 6-month =0.56 (0.98) g). ...
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Background Diet compositions are likely to be one of the influential factors for body fat deposition. The aim of this paper was to determine the nutrient changes and its association to body fat loss among the overweight and obese housewives in the MyBFF@home study. Methods Data of participants in the MyBFF@home study (intervention and control groups) were analysed. Participants in the intervention group received personalised dietary counselling consisted of reduced calorie diet 1200–1500 kcal/day, while the control group was assigned to receive women’s health seminars. The dietary assessment was done during the intervention phase at baseline, 1 month (m), 2 m, 3 m and 6 m using a 3-day food diary. Body fat was measured using a bioelectrical impedance analyser (In-body 720) at baseline and at the end of the intervention phase. The mean differences of nutrient intake and body compositions during the intervention phase were measured with paired t-test. The changes in body fat and nutrients intake were calculated by subtracting baseline measurements from those taken at 6 months. Multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine the extent to which the changes in each gram of nutrients per 1000 kcal were predictive of changes in body fat mass. Results There were significant reductions in energy, all macronutrients, dietary fibre, calcium and iron intake in both study groups after the intervention phase (p < 0.05). In the intervention group, body fat loss increased with the reduction of each gram of carbohydrate, protein and fat per 1000 kcal, (p < 0.05), and decreased with the reduction of each gram of calcium and fibre intake per 1000 kcal (p < 0.05). In the control group, body fat loss increased with the reduction of each gram fat per 1000 kcal (p < 0.05) and decreased with the reduction of each gram iron per 1000 kcal. Conclusion Changes in the intake of various nutrients have different effects on body fat loss between the intervention and control group.
... Epidemiological evidence suggests that higher dietary fiber and whole grain intake is associated with improved body mass index (BMI), body weight and abdominal adiposity (Liu et al., 2003;McKeown et al., 2009) and with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (Buil-Cosiales et al., 2016;Chanson-Rolle et al., 2015). The main characteristics of whole grain products responsible for potentially beneficial effects on body weight include reduced energy density, a high volume of products and a high fiber content (Karl & Saltzman, 2012). ...
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Dietary fiber and whole grain foods may contribute to the regulation of appetite; however, evidence has produced inconclusive findings. The objective was to evaluate the effects of an experimental wholemeal pasta on appetite ratings, plasma concentrations of gastrointestinal hormones involved in appetite control, and postprandial glucose/insulin responses in healthy adults. Fourteen healthy adults (7M/7F), mean age 30 ± 2 yrs (mean ± SEM), participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Participants consumed on two different days, at one week interval, 117g of wholemeal pasta or 100g of refined wheat pasta (control pasta), similar in energy and macronutrient composition except for fiber amount, which was higher in wholemeal pasta (11 vs 3 g). Appetite ratings, glucose/insulin/lipid and gastrointestinal hormone responses were measured at fasting and for 4-h after the ingestion of the pasta tests, after which a self-reported energy intake for 8-h was evaluated. After the wholemeal pasta, the desire to eat and the sensation of hunger were lower (-16%, p = 0.04 and -23%, p = 0.004, respectively) and satiety was higher (+13%; p = 0.08) compared with the control pasta; no effect on self-reported energy intake at subsequent meal was observed. After wholemeal pasta, glucose, triglyceride increased and GLP-1 responses were not different compared to control pasta but insulin response at 30 min (p < 0.05) and ghrelin at 60 min (p = 0.03) were lower and PYY levels higher (AUC = +44%, p = 0.001). The appetite rating changes correlated with PYY plasma levels (p < 0.03). In conclusion, consumption of whole grain instead of refined wheat pasta contributed to appetite control but did not seem to influence acute energy balance. Appetite ratings were associated with modifications in PYY hormone concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02842606.
... Many are choosing to consume refined grains as opposed to whole grains, due to their taste and appearance [15,16]. However, the refining process removes bran, resulting in a loss of nutrients and leaving the refined grain with a higher relative starch concentration when compared to its whole grain form [17,18]. The positive effect of whole grain products on weight loss is supported by previous research [19,20]. ...
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Background: Obesity in Canadian adults is showing upward trends. Consumption of whole-grains is one recommendation for the prevention of obesity. Despite the apparent nutritional and energy content differences between whole and refined grains, knowledge relating refined grains to weight gain in Canadian adults is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of specific grain-based foods at the regional and national levels, and to evaluate the association between grain consumption with overweight or obesity in Canadian adults. Methods: We used the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey data. The association between type of grain product consumed and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adults aged ≥19y was evaluated by logistic regression. Results: The mean daily intake of whole grains (86 ± 1.9 g/day) was significantly less than refined grains (276.6 ± 3.8 g/day), which was different across provinces. After adjustment for caloric needs, male consumers showed significantly lower intake of whole grains than females. Accordingly, the incidence of overweight or obesity was higher in males than in females. Also, in comparison to whole grains, the consumption of refined grains was associated with a higher risk of overweight or obesity among adults. Conclusion: Canadians' preference was refined grain products consumption, based on 2004 Health Survey, which was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Hence, consumption of whole grains should be more effectively promoted rather than refined grain products to prevent obesity and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.
... Consistent with our results, epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate that high intakes of whole grains are associated with reduced risk of obesity. 41 However, the mechanism underlying the inverse association observed between the increased body weight and reduced obesity degree of HFD rats after WGQ intake should be further studied. The intake of whole grains, such as oat and wheat, decreases serum lipid concentrations. ...
Article
This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect of whole grain Qingke (WGQ) and its influence on intestinal microbiota. Changes in the serum lipid, intestinal environment, and microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diets supplemented with different doses of WGQ were determined. Results showed that high doses of WGQ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the Lee's index, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels whereas increased the body weight of the rats. Cecal weight and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration increased with increasing WGQ dose. An Illumina-based sequencing approach showed that the relative abundance of putative SCFA-producing bacteria Prevotella and Anaerovibrio increased in the rats fed the WGQ diet. Principal component analysis revealed a significant difference in intestinal microbiota composition after the administration of the WGQ diet. These findings provide insights into the contribution of the intestinal microbiota to the hypolipidemic effect of WGQ.
... Accumulating epidemiological evidence indicates that high intake of whole grains might decrease the risks of obesity/abdominal fatness [15], type 2 diabetes [16], hypertension [17], cardiovascular disease [16] and major cancers [18][19][20][21][22]. Extensive prospective cohort studies also evaluated the association between dietary whole grain intake and all-cause mortality in general population [23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32] and specific disease-related population [33,34]. The evidence from prospective cohort studies on dietary whole grain intake in relation to all-cause mortality has not yet been summarized, we therefore conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to quantify this association. ...
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Some observational studies have examined the association between dietary whole grain intake and all-cause mortality, but the results were inconclusive. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from cohort studies regarding the association between whole grain intake and all-cause mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Knowledge, up to February 28, 2016. Study-specific estimates were combined using random-effects models. Eleven prospective cohort studies involving 101,282 deaths and 843,749 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of all-cause mortality for the highest category of whole grain intake versus lowest category was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.87). There was a 7% reduction in risk associated with each 1 serving/day increase in whole grain intake (relative risk = 0.93; 95% confidence interval: 0.89, 0.97). No publication bias was found. This analysis indicates that higher intake of whole grain is associated with a reduced risk of all-cause mortality. The findings support current recommendations for increasing whole grain consumption to promote health and overall longevity.
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Background: The aim of this article (scoping review) is to elucidate the current knowledge for the potential role of body weight for setting and updating Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) and Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDGs). The following research questions were formulated:What is known about the association between intakes of specific nutrient and/or foods (exposure/intervention) and body weight (outcome) in the general population?What is known about the association between body weight (exposure) and intakes of specific nutrient and/or foods (outcomes)?Is there any evidence suggesting specific effects of foods or nutrients on body weight independent of caloric content? Methods: To identify potentially relevant articles, PubMed was searched from January 1, 2011 to June 9, 2021. The search strategy was drafted by the NNR2022 Committee. The final results were exported into EndNote. Systematic reviews (SRs), scoping reviews (ScRs), reviews, and meta-analyses (MAs) on the topic 'Body weight' published between January 1, 2011 and June 9, 2021, including human participants from the general population, in English or Scandinavian language (Norwegian, Swedish, or Danish), were considered eligible. Main findings: First, the overall body of evidence based on findings from SRs and MAs of observational and clinical studies indicates that changes in intakes of specific nutrients (sugar, fiber, and fat) and/or foods (sugar sweetened beverages, fiber rich food, and vegetables) are associated with modest or small short-term changes (0.3-1.3 kg) in body weight in the general population (with or without obesity/overweight), while long-term studies are generally lacking. Second, no study in our search assessed any association between body weight (exposure) and intakes of specific nutrients or foods (outcomes). Third, limited evidence suggests, but does not prove, that some foods or nutrients may have specific effects on body weight or body weight measures independent of caloric content (e.g. nuts and dairy). These findings may inform the setting and updating of DRVs and FBDGs in NNR2022.
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Today human race is suffering from host of diseases owing to behavioral changes and genetic predisposition. Health foods can play a crucial role in prevention and control of health disorders. Functional foods which are interchangeably termed as designer food, health food or nutraceuticals are in demand because of their efficacy in allaying the symptoms of ever-rising health disorders. Small millets which are natural, low-cost resource with tremendous nutritional and therapeutic properties can be explored as an ingredient in functional foods designed to manage diseased conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), cancer, obesity, and celiac disease. The special attributes such as good content of dietary fiber, micronutrients, phytochemicals, and non-gluten-forming protein content present in small millets impart them with the therapeutic characteristics to be an apt ingredient in development of functional foods. Many human and animal researches have proved the efficiency of small millets as a functional food ingredient; however more studies in this arena are required.
Article
Background Consuming different food groups and nutrients can have differential effects on body weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. Objective The aim was to identify how food group, nutrient intake, and diet quality change relative to usual-diet controls after 16 weeks on a low-fat vegan diet and what associations those changes have with changes in body weight, body composition, and measures of metabolic health. Design Secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted between October 2016 and December 2018 in four replications. Participants/setting Participants included in this analysis were 219 healthy, community-based adults in the Washington, DC, area, with a body mass index (BMI) between 28 and 40 kg/m², who were randomly assigned to follow either a low-fat vegan diet or make no diet changes. Intervention A low-fat, vegan diet deriving approximately 10% of energy from fat, with weekly classes including dietary instruction, group discussion, and education on the health effects of plant-based nutrition. Control group participants continued their usual diets. Main outcome measures Changes in food group intake, macro- and micronutrient intake, and dietary quality as measured by Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010), analyzed from 3-day diet records, and associations with changes in body weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Statistical analyses performed A repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) model that included the factors group, subject, and time, was used to test the between-group differences throughout the 16-week study. Interaction between group and time (Gxt) was calculated for each variable. Within each diet group, paired comparison t-tests were calculated to identify significant changes from baseline to 16 weeks. Spearman correlations were calculated for the relationship between changes in food group intake, nutrient intake, AHEI-2010 score, and changes in body weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity. The relative contribution of food groups and nutrients to weight loss was evaluated using linear regression. Results Fruit, vegetable, legume, meat alternative, and whole grain intake significantly increased in the vegan group. Intake of meat, fish and poultry; dairy products; eggs; nuts and seeds; and added fats decreased. Decreased weight was most associated with increased intake of legumes (r=-0.38; p<.0001) and decreased intake of total meat, fish, and poultry (r=+0.43; p<.0001). Those consuming a low-fat vegan diet also increased their intake of carbohydrates, fiber, and several micronutrients and decreased fat intake. Reduced fat intake was associated with reduced body weight (r=+0.15; p=0.02) and, after adjustment for changes in BMI and energy intake, with reduced fat mass (r=+0.14; p=0.04). The intervention group’s AHEI-2010 increased by 6.0 points on average in contrast to no significant change in the control group (treatment effect +7.2 [95% CI +3.7 to +10.7]; p<0.001). Increase in AHEI-2010 correlated with reduction in body weight (r=0.14; p=0.04), fat mass (r=-0.14; p=0.03), and insulin resistance as measured by HOMA-IR (r=-0.17; p=0.02), after adjustment for changes in energy intake. Conclusions When compared with participants’ usual diets, intake of plant foods increased, and consumption of animal foods, nuts and seeds, and added fats decreased on a low-fat vegan diet. Increased legume intake was the best single food group predictor of weight loss. Diet quality as measured by AHEI-2010 improved on the low-fat vegan diet, which was associated with improvements in weight and metabolic outcomes. These data suggest that increasing low-fat plant foods and minimizing high-fat and animal foods is associated with decreased body weight and fat loss, and that a low-fat vegan diet can improve measures of diet quality and metabolic health.
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Overweight and obesity are key features of the metabolic syndrome and closely linked to risk of developing chronic diseases. This chapter reviews evidence from both observational and dietary intervention studies to provide a comprehensive picture of the relationship between whole grains and body weight management. There is consensus among medical professionals that greater abdominal obesity predisposes individuals to greater cardiometabolic risk through a myriad of potential mechanisms, including dyslipidemia, increasing insulin resistance, greater inflammation and increasing blood pressure. Whole grains contribute considerably more dietary fibre than their refined-grain counterparts, which may contribute to suppression of hunger. This may ease adherence to a calorie-restricted diet. Evidence from randomized controlled intervention studies provide only limited evidence supporting a benefit of whole grain intake on body weight regulation. A relatively large number of randomized controlled whole grain intervention studies have been conducted to date, although only a few studies focus primarily on measures of body weight and composition.
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ABSTRAK Biji asam jawa (Tamarindus indica L) merupakan salah satu potensi lokal Indonesia khususnya daerah Nusa Tenggara. Ekstrak polisakarida larut air (PLA) biji asam berperan sebagai sumber serat yang dapat mengendalikan berat badan dan glukosa darah. Tujuan penelitian yaitu untuk mengoptimasi ekstraksi PLA biji asam yang memiliki rendemen dan tingkat kelarutan yang paling baik sebagai kontrol berat badan dan glukosa darah. Proses optimasi menggunakan metode Box Behnken Design (BBD) dengan bantuan software Design Expert 10.0. Hasil optimasi yang diperoleh diverifikasi dan dilakukan pengujian potensinya terhadap berat badan dan glukosa darah. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pemberian ekstrak PLA biji asam pada pakan tikus diet tinggi lemak selama 40 hari memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap kelompok kontrol negatif dan kontrol positif pada kadar glukosa darah tikus. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan pemberian ekstrak kasar PLA biji asam dapat mengendalikan kadar glukosa tikus diet tinggi lemak. Kata Kunci: Biji asam jawa, Ekstrak kasar, Polisakarida larut air ABSTRACT Tamarind seed (Tamarindus indica L) is one of Indonesian’s local potentials, especially in Nusa Tenggara. Water-soluble polysaccharides (PLA) of Tamarind seeds act as a source of fiber that controls weight and blood glucose level. The aim of this research is to optimize extraction of Water-soluble polysaccharides (PLA) from Tamarind seeds that have best yield and solubility as a control of weight and glucose levels. The optimized used Box Behnken Design (BBD) at Design Expert 10.0 software. The optimal result was verified and tested as a weight and blood glucose levels controller. The result shows that the intake of water-soluble polysaccharides from Tamarind seeds during 40 days was significant in glucose levels of rats. The conclusion of this research was water-soluble polysaccharides from the crude extract of tamarind seeds could reduce glucose levels of high-fat diet rats. Keywords: Crude extract, Tamarind seeds, Water-soluble polysaccharides
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Dietary fiber (DF) is often characterized by high nutritional quality, as it can cure many chronic diseases and improve texture, sensory characteristics, and the shelf life of food. This chapter presents the applications of DF in flour products. The quality characteristics of DF enriched in bread, biscuits, noodles, and cakes are presented and described. The partial mechanism of DF in flour products is discussed from several basic aspects, such as the effects of dough properties (mixing properties, pasting properties, and elastic properties) and the gluten network. DF-induced changes in water migration and protein structure in dough were also analyzed. The primary purpose of this chapter is to comprehensively evaluate potential applications of DF in flour products, addressing common problems, and reviewing potential solutions to promote further study and applications of DF. We anticipate the prospects for applying DF in flour products.
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Obesity and increased body adiposity have been alarmingly increasing over the past decades and have been linked to a rise in food intake. Many dietary restrictive approaches aiming at reducing weight have resulted in contradictory results. Additionally, some policies to reduce sugar or fat intake were not able to decrease the surge of obesity. This suggests that food intake is controlled by a physiological mechanism and that any behavioural change only leads to a short-term success. Several hypotheses have been postulated, and many of them have been rejected due to some limitations and exceptions. The present review aims at presenting a new theory behind the regulation of energy intake, therefore providing an eye-opening field for energy balance and a potential strategy for obesity management.
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The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased worldwide. Obesity is a well-known risk factor of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease and raises public health concerns. Many dietary guidelines encourage the replacement of refined grains with whole grains (WGs) to enhance body weight management. Current evidence regarding interrelationships among WGs, body weight, and gut microbiota is limited and inconclusive. In this editorial, we comment on the article by Roager et al published in the recent issue of the Gut 2019; 68(1): 83-93. In the study, obese patients (25 < body mass index < 35 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to receive two 8-wk dietary controlling periods with WGs and refined grain-rich diet. The results showed significantly decreased body weight in the WG group. Either the composition of gut microbiota or short-chain fatty acids, the leading end product of fermentation of non-digestible carbohydrate by gut microbiota, did not differ between the two groups. The study highly indicated that a WG-rich diet reduced body weight independent of gut microbiota. We then raised some plausible mechanisms of how WGs might influence body weight and demonstrated more literature in line with WGs enhance body weight control through a microbiota-independent pathway. Possible mechanisms include: (1) The abundant dietary fiber contents of WGs increase satiety, satiation, energy excretion from stool, and energy expenditure simultaneously decreasing energy absorption and fat storage; (2) The plentiful amount of polyphenols of WGs improve energy expenditure by hampering adipocyte maturation and function; (3) The sufficient magnesium and zinc of WGs guarantee lean body mass growth and decrease fat mass; (4) The effect of WGs on brown adipose tissue is a key component of non-shivering thermogenesis; and (5) The increase of adiponectin by WGs enhances glucose utilization, lipid oxidation, and energy expenditure.
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Grains are important raw materials for staple food products in the diet. Since they are not only a good source of carbohydrate content, provides for daily energy intake, but also protein, vitamins B-complex source for an adequate and balanced diet. Moreover, in recent times, it was elucidated that whole grains involve several bioactive compounds namely phytochemicals. Phytochemicals are non-nutritive dietary bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites generated by plants to protect themselves against environmental stress or threats. Whole grain phytochemicals comprise of dietary fiber as β-glucan, arabinoxylan, inulin, resistant starch; phenolic compounds as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, tocols (tocotrienols and tocopherols), lignans, alkylresorcinols, carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, etc.) and other phytochemicals as phytic acid, phytosterols, γ-oryzanol, avenanthramides, benzoxazinoids. Phytochemicals could improve health and/or hinder some chronic diseases by means of whose antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antimicrobial, antimutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Epidemiological studies support that consumption of whole grains and food products are related to decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, oxidative stress, and some cancer types. The phytochemicals are mainly present in outer layers of grains as germ and bran parts. For this reason, the content of whole grains phytochemical is higher than refined ones owing to the milling process. In some cases, the processing negatively affects the bioactive components but there are contradictory remarks and studies about the stability of phytochemicals during processing. This chapter will briefly discuss not only phytochemicals of whole grains and effects on health but also the effect of processing on whole grain phytochemicals.
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Wheat is the most widely grown cereal crop in the world. It is the main material of major staple food in many diets, providing a large proportion of daily energy intake [1]. The demand for wheat for human consumption is also increasing globally, including in countries which are climatically unsuited for wheat production, due to the adoption of Western-style diets. After grinding, wheat flour can be used for the preparation of bread, steamed bread, biscuits, noodles, and other foods; wheat flour also can be fermented into beer, alcohol, liquor (such as vodka), or biomass fuel.
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of whole oat, oat bran and refined oat incorporation in a high-fat diet (HFD) on cardio-metabolic risk biomarkers in rats with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Design/methodology/approach T2DM was induced by feeding male rats with an HFD for 10 weeks, followed by a low dose of streptozotocin. T2DM rats were then divided into four homogeneous groups. Three groups consumed an HFD containing 45 per cent (g/100 g diet) whole oat, oat bran or refined oat. The fourth untreated group (control) received the HFD. Findings The results showed that whole oat and oat bran, compared with refined oat and control, effectively reduced food intake (p < 0.007), arterial blood pressure (p = 0.0001), glycemia (p < 0.001), insulinemia (p < 0.01), glycosylated haemoglobin (p < 0.001) as well as homeostasis insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p < 0.001). They also improved blood lipid levels and reverse cholesterol transport by reducing serum total cholesterol (p = 0.0001), triacylglycerols (p < 0.05), very-low- (p = 0.0001) and low-density lipoproteins cholesterol contents (p < 0.02) increasing lipids (p < 0.002) and cholesterol excretion (p = 0.0001), and high-density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters (HDL2-CE) concentrations (p = 0.0001) and stimulating lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity (p = 0.0001). Moreover, they attenuated lipid peroxidation by increasing paraoxonase-1 (PON-1) atheroprotective activity (p < 0.05). Originality/value In T2DM rats, whole oat and particularly, its bran incorporated into an HFD improves arterial blood pressure, glycemic balance and lipid metabolic pathway by reducing hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia and increasing atheroprotective activities of LCAT and PON-1. In contrast, refined oat accentuates the risk factors associated with diabetes.
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Whole (and minimally processed) plant foods usually contain some mixture of blood pressure (BP) lowering bioactive nutrients and phytochemicals such as dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, carotenoids, polyphenols, unsaturated fat, and plant protein and are lower in sodium and sugar compared to highly processed plant foods. Whole plant foods are more effective at reducing BP in adults who are ≥45 years, hypertensive and obese than adults <45 years, normotensive, or lean. Prospective studies show that the consumption of healthy diet with ≥3 daily servings of whole grains, especially oats and barley rich in β-glucan, and ≥5 daily servings of fruits and vegetables, especially when including ≥4 weekly servings of broccoli, carrots, tofu or soybeans, raisins, grapes and apples, are associated with lower hypertension risk compared to Western diets. RCTs support the effectiveness of whole grains in lowering BP, especially at 50 g/1000 kcals or those rich in β-glucan; fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols or nitrates and their 100% juices have been found to lower systolic BP; and two daily servings of dietary pulses or 40 g soy protein are effective in lowering BP. Flaxseeds and sesame seeds tend to be more effective than nuts in lowering BP. Tea and coffee have different effects on BP. Both black and green tea (>2 cups/d) modestly lower BP in hypertensive individuals. Coffee (>3 cups/d) does not increase hypertension risk in normotensive people but hypertensive individuals may be more sensitive to acute increases in BP after coffee consumption. The potential mechanisms by which whole plant foods may reduce blood pressure and hypertension risk are; reducing the risk of weight gain, enhancing insulin sensitivity, improving vascular endothelial function, slowing the rate of arterial plaque build-up, maintaining electrolyte balance, and stimulating a healthier microbiota ecosystem.
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Foods commonly associated with weight gain are the high intake of French fries, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats, and the foods that tend to be inversely associated with weight gain are non-starchy vegetables, high fiber and flavonoid rich fruits, whole grains, nuts, and plain yogurt. Healthy lower energy dense dietary patterns rich in whole or minimally processed plant foods (whole plant foods) tend to be associated with a lower risk of weight gain and obesity compared to the more common Western diets high in processed foods. Prospective cohort studies show >3 daily whole-grain servings (especially with total cereal fiber at approximately 10 g/day), can reduce body weight and waist size compared to < one half serving/day. Randomized control trials (RCTs) indicate that whole-grains are more effective in reducing body fat and waist size than body weight or BMI. For fruit and vegetables, cohort studies find an association with a lower risk of weight, waist size or body fat gain and obesity, especially for healthier varieties. However, higher energy dense, lower fiber fruit and vegetables may promote weight gain. RCTs indicate that lower energy dense, higher fiber and flavonoid rich fruits and vegetables can support lower risk of weight gain or modest weight loss and promote additional weight loss in a hypocaloric diet or help to support weight maintenance after weight loss. RCTs show that the daily consumption of dietary pluses and nuts do not promote weight gain, and may support modest weight loss. Nuts consumed as a snack or legumes as a meal protein source in weight loss diets do not tend to interfere with weight loss or weight maintenance after weight loss.
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Prospective cohort studies consistently show that diets with higher intakes of whole and minimally processed plant foods (whole plant foods) including whole-grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts and seeds are associated with reduced coronary heart disease (CHD) risk compared to lower intake. Heart healthier versions of whole plant foods are higher in dietary fiber, phytosterols, healthy fatty acids (MUFAs and PUFAs), and nutrients (e.g., vitamins E and C, potassium and folate), phytochemicals (carotenoids, flavonoids and phytosterols) and lower in energy density, glycemic index and glycemic load. The risk of CHD incidence or mortality is significantly reduced with the intake of ≥3 servings/day of whole-grains (especially oats and barley), ≥5 servings (400 g)/day of fruits and vegetables, ≥4 weekly servings (130–150 g cooked) of legumes (both non-soy and/or soy products), and ≥5 servings/week of nuts and seeds. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) generally support the beneficial effects of healthy whole plant based foods on CHD risk biomarkers including lowering serum lipids and blood pressure, improving glucose and insulin metabolism, improving endothelial function, alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation and reducing risk of weight gain compared to their refined counterparts. Only a small fraction of the US population meets the recommended intake levels for whole-grains, fruits, vegetables, legumes, and nuts and 70% exceed recommended refined grain intake. Approximately 45% of CHD deaths in the US are associated with suboptimal low dietary intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds, whole-grains, and seafood omega-3 PUFAs, and higher intake of red and processed meats, sugar sweetened beverages, and sodium.
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The rate and quality of the aging processes can be modified by consuming healthy diets overall and specific types of uniquely healthy foods. Healthy dietary guidelines generally recommend eating: 2 1/2 cups of a variety of vegetables/day; 2 cups of fruits, especially whole fruits/day; 6 servings of total grains at ≥3 servings of whole grains/day and ≤3 servings of refined grains/day, ≥4 weekly servings of legumes (dietary pulses or soy), and/or ≥5 weekly servings of nuts, and limiting consumption of red or processed meats, added saturated and trans-fat, sugar or sodium for improved odds for healthy aging and reduced chronic disease and premature mortality risk. Whole plant foods range widely in their health effects because of their variation in level and type of fiber, nutrients and phytochemicals, which can have differential effects on aging, chronic disease risk, cognitive function and longevity by their impact on weight regulation, lipoprotein concentrations and function, blood pressure, glucose-insulin homeostasis, oxidative stress, inflammation, endothelial health, hepatic function, adipocyte metabolism, visceral adiposity, brain neurochemistry and the microbiota ecosystem. For whole-grains, β-glucan-rich oats and barley lower total and LDL-cholesterol better than other cereal grains and whole-grain bread tends to be more beneficial than white bread in controlling weight gain and abdominal fat. For fruits and non-starchy vegetables, low energy dense and flavonoid and/or carotenoid rich varieties including apples, pears, berries, citrus fruits, cruciferous vegetables, and green leafy vegetables are especially associated with improved odds of healthy aging, cognitive performance and weight control, and reduced risk of chronic disease and premature death. Legumes (dietary pulses or soy) are associated with reduced risk of mortality, weight gain, and chronic disease. All nuts tend to have similar effects on managing body weight, and glycemic, lipoprotein and inflammatory profiles, but among nuts walnuts appear to be uniquely effective in promoting better vascular endothelial function such as flow mediated dilation , which helps to reduce the rate of vascular aging.
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The prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes has increased globally in parallel with the rising levels of obesity in adults and children, a phenomenon sometimes called diabesity. If this global trend continues, by 2030 an estimated one billion people are expected to have prediabetes and diabetes.
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The worldwide overweight and obesity pandemic is among the greatest public health challenges of our time with over 2 billion people now overweight or obese globally. Even a small daily positive energy balance of 50 kcals/day, by increased energy intake, lower fiber diets, and/or reduced activity, can lead to an annual weight gain of 0.4–0.9 kg/year.
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During the last several decades, there has been an increased exposure to higher energy-dense and lower fiber-containing foods and increasingly sedentary lifestyles, which have led to net habitual positive energy balances and weight gain in Western populations. For overweight or obese individuals who successfully lose weight, as many as 80% typically drift back to their original weight or more because after weight loss there are an array of metabolic regulatory processes at work to promote weight regain, so it is difficult to maintain weight loss. Consequently, maintaining a healthy weight is a daily effort but healthy fiber-rich dietary patterns can help to promote satiety and reduce overall dietary energy density to assist in weight control.
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Introduction: Among the non-pharmacologic measures for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are the first cause of death worldwide, the adequate intake of dietary fibers (DF) has shown an important role. Objective: To evaluate the association between the intake of DF and the cardio-metabolic risk factors in individuals on a secondary prevention for CVD. Methods: Transversal study with basal data of the study's DICA Br participants belonging to collaborative centers in the states of Maranhão (MA), Bahia (BA) and Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Sociodemographic and clinical data were used, as well as the daily intake of DF in individuals of both sexes, with age ≥ 45 years and manifest evidence of arteriosclerosis. The association between the intake of dietary fibers and the cardio-metabolic risk factors was obtained through Poisson's regression model. Results: With 141 evaluated individuals, high frequency of non-appropriateness of DF intake was observed. The participants in the centers of RJ (PR = 0.63; CI 95% = 0.49-0.80) and BA (PR = 0.79; CI 95% = 0.66-0.95), former smokers (PR = 0.59; CI 95% = 0.45-0.78) and non-smokers (PR = 0.62; CI 95% = 0.66-0.95) had fewer chances of having non appropriate intake of DF. On the other hand, overweight individuals showed 28.0% more chances of non-appropriate intake of DF. Conclusion: Results showed that the majority of the observed population presented non-appropriate intake of DF and that this low intake was significantly associated with overweight, smoking and location of the collaborative center.
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Brown (unpolished) rice meals may evoke stronger satiety signals than calorie-matched white (polished) rice meals. This study aimed to compare effects on satiety of brown rice versus white rice using subjective and physiologic measures of satiety in selected Filipino adults. Subjects (n=34) completed a six-week crossover study. In the first two weeks, they were randomly assigned to consume breakfast meals with either brown rice (n=17) or white rice (n=17) matched in energy (~500 kcal) and macronutrient content. This was followed by a two-week washout period and crossover in rice assignments in the next two weeks. One hundred-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger and fullness at pre-prandial (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 240 min postprandial. Ghrelin levels at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mean hunger ratings for the brown rice test meals were significantly lower than that of white rice at 150 (p=0.029), 180 (p=0.006) and 240 min (p<0.001) postprandial. Average fullness VAS ratings for the brown rice test meals stayed significantly higher than white rice at 150 (p=0.015), 180 (p=0.003) and 240 min (p<0.001) postprandial. However, temporal profiles of ghrelin did not differ significantly for both types of rice, and did not correlate with hunger and fullness VAS ratings. Subjective measures of satiety did not directly and positively reflect physiologic conditions. The potential health benefits of brown rice are well documented but generalizations about its effect of satiety should be stated with caution. © 2016, Science and Technology Information Institute. All rights reserved.
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Brown (unpolished) rice meals may evoke stronger satiety signals than calorie-matched white (polished) rice meals. This study aimed to compare effects on satiety of brown rice versus white rice using subjective and physiologic measures of satiety in selected Filipino adults. Subjects (n=34) completed a six-week crossover study. In the first two weeks, they were randomly assigned to consume breakfast meals with either brown rice (n=17) or white rice (n=17) matched in energy (~500 kcal) and macronutrient content. This was followed by a two-week washout period and crossover in rice assignments in the next two weeks. One hundred-mm visual analogue scales (VAS) were used to assess hunger and fullness at pre-prandial (0 minutes) and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180 and 240 min postprandial. Ghrelin levels at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mean hunger ratings for the brown rice test meals were significantly lower than that of white rice at 150 (p=0.029), 180 (p=0.006) and 240 min (p<0.001) postprandial. Average fullness VAS ratings for the brown rice test meals stayed significantly higher than white rice at 150 (p=0.015), 180 (p=0.003) and 240 min (p<0.001) postprandial. However, temporal profiles of ghrelin did not differ significantly for both types of rice, and did not correlate with hunger and fullness VAS ratings. Subjective measures of satiety did not directly and positively reflect physiologic conditions. The potential health benefits of brown rice are well documented but generalizations about its effect of satiety should be stated with caution.
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To investigate the association between intake of dietary fibre and whole grains and risk of colorectal cancer.
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The Swiss Society for Nutrition issued its Food Pyramid in 2005. It was updated according to the latest scientific evidence and is in principal agreement with food-based guidelines of other countries. It has also been officially endorsed by the Swiss government. The food pyramid stands for a balanced diet that guarantees the body a sufficient supply of energy, essential nutrients and protective substances. Food from the lower levels of the pyramid should be eaten in larger quantities, and those from the higher levels in smaller quantities. The six levels from top down represent the following food groups: sweets, salty snacks and sweetened or alcoholic drinks; oils, fats and nuts; milk, dairy products, meat, fish and eggs; whole grain products and pulses, other cereals and potatoes; fruit and vegetables; beverages. A basic principle to be communicated by the food pyramid is that there are no good or bad foods but that the relative amounts to be consumed play a key role for our health. The key message is to eat a diet that is as varied as possible and which considers foods of each pyramid level in the right amounts. The recommendations do not need to be followed every day, but should be observed on a long-term basis, e.g. a whole week. Liquid intake is an exception; liquids should be consumed on a daily basis. It is also very important to keep a healthy body weight by daily exercise as indicated by the icons on the side of the Swiss Food Pyramid.
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Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is selected with increasing frequency as a method for both assessing body composition and measuring the changes in body composition. Issues have been raised about hydration, software version, hardware (fan beam vs. pencil beam), and the subject population in relation to the validity of DXA-derived estimates of body composition. This paper reviews validation studies of DXA to assess the impact of recent developments in its technology. Studies by Prior et al., 1 Kohrt et al., 2 Salamone et al., 3 Going et al., 4 and Pietrobelli et al.5 demonstrate the effectiveness of DXA estimates of changes in body composition. By contrast, Clasey et al., 6 Nelson et al., 7 and Friedl et al.8 found limitations in DXA estimates of body composition and its changes. These contradictory conclusions were explored for threats to internal validity in each research study. From this analysis, two validation guidelines are recommended for use when evaluating estimates of body composition. When multicomponent models are used, it is essential that estimates of body water as a fraction of fat-free mass fall in the expected range (71 to 75%) and have a relatively small standard deviation (2 to 3%). For measuring changes in body composition, DXA estimates of total body mass must accurately reflect both baseline and posttreatment scale body weight estimates. Failure to meet these guidelines threatens the internal validity of the study and raises the likelihood of methodological discrepancies. Applying these criteria to DXA studies of body composition under review accounts for much of the contradictory conclusions among investigations.
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Alkylresorcinols (ARs) were first proposed as potential biomarkers of wholegrain wheat and rye intake a decade ago. Since then there has been a considerable body of research which suggests that ARs do meet most criteria of a biomarker of these foods. Results from human studies on plasma AR and their plasma and urinary metabolites strongly indicate that these compounds are responsive to whole grain wheat and rye intake and are correlated with various measures of AR consumption. This review briefly summarises work on the bioactivities of AR and focuses on aspects related to their use as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. Evidence suggests that they thus far broadly fulfil the criteria to act as biomarkers of these cereals. However, there are still gaps in the knowledge on factors relating to the wide interindividual variation, and application to different epidemiological cohorts. Overall, ARs are highly promising biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake and add to our increasing understanding of whole grains and health.
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Observational studies show inverse associations between intake of whole grain and adiposity and cardiovascular risk; however, only a few dietary intervention trials have investigated the effect of whole-grain consumption on health outcomes. We studied the effect of replacing refined wheat (RW) with whole-grain wheat (WW) for 12 wk on body weight and composition after a 2-wk run-in period of consumption of RW-containing food intake. In this open-label randomized trial, 79 overweight or obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an energy-restricted diet (deficit of ~1250 kJ/d) with RW or WW foods providing 2 MJ/d. Body weight and composition, blood pressure, and concentration of circulating risk markers were measured at wk 0, 6, and 12. Fecal output and energy excretion were assessed during run-in and wk 12. Plasma alkylresorcinol analysis indicated good compliance with the intervention diets. Body weight decreased significantly from baseline in both the RW (-2.7 ± 1.9 kg) and WW (-3.6 ± 3.2 kg) groups, but the decreases did not differ between the groups (P = 0.11). The reduction in body fat percentage was greater in the WW group (-3.0%) than in the RW group (-2.1%) (P = 0.04). Serum total and LDL cholesterol increased by ~5% (P < 0.01) in the RW group but did not change in the WW group; hence, the changes differed between the groups (P = 0.02). In conclusion, consumption of whole-grain products resulted in a greater reduction in the percentage fat mass, whereas body weight changes did not differ between the RW and WW groups. Serum total and LDL cholesterol, two important risk factors of cardiovascular disease, increased with RW but not WW consumption, which may suggest a cardioprotective role for whole grain.
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Although some will insist that the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans offers the same “moderation, variety, and balance” mantra as provided previously, this argument is clearly unfounded. Rather, this document represents an important step forward for nutrition scientists, public health professionals, and the general public. As our first Dietary Guidelines document based on a systematic, evidence-based review of the literature embedded in a holistic view of the complexity of our food environment, this publication will serve well to inform individual Americans which dietary patterns are proven effective in improving health outcomes. It will also provide a versatile template by which public health agencies can design, implement, and evaluate nutrition-related programs; and food manufacturers can contribute by developing and marketing more healthful food items. We can be encouraged that nutrition scientists will continue to not only get it right but also get it better. After all, as scientific understanding of how health and nutrition are related evolves, so should our dietary recommendations.
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The symposium "Putting the Whole Grain Puzzle Together: Health Benefits Associated with Whole Grains" sponsored by the ASN brought together researchers to review the evidence regarding the health benefits associated with whole grains. Current scientific evidence indicates that whole grains play an important role in lowering the risk of chronic diseases, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, and also contribute to body weight management and gastrointestinal health. The essential macro- and micronutrients, along with the phytonutrients present in whole grains, synergistically contribute to their beneficial effects. Current evidence lends credence to the recommendations to incorporate whole grain foods into a healthy diet and lifestyle program. The symposium also highlighted the need for further research to examine the role of whole grain foods in disease prevention and management to gain a better understanding of their mechanisms of action.
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Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity.
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The different compartments of the gastrointestinal tract are inhabited by populations of micro-organisms. By far the most important predominant populations are in the colon where a true symbiosis with the host exists that is a key for well-being and health. For such a microbiota, 'normobiosis' characterises a composition of the gut 'ecosystem' in which micro-organisms with potential health benefits predominate in number over potentially harmful ones, in contrast to 'dysbiosis', in which one or a few potentially harmful micro-organisms are dominant, thus creating a disease-prone situation. The present document has been written by a group of both academic and industry experts (in the ILSI Europe Prebiotic Expert Group and Prebiotic Task Force, respectively). It does not aim to propose a new definition of a prebiotic nor to identify which food products are classified as prebiotic but rather to validate and expand the original idea of the prebiotic concept (that can be translated in 'prebiotic effects'), defined as: 'The selective stimulation of growth and/or activity(ies) of one or a limited number of microbial genus(era)/species in the gut microbiota that confer(s) health benefits to the host.' Thanks to the methodological and fundamental research of microbiologists, immense progress has very recently been made in our understanding of the gut microbiota. A large number of human intervention studies have been performed that have demonstrated that dietary consumption of certain food products can result in statistically significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota in line with the prebiotic concept. Thus the prebiotic effect is now a well-established scientific fact. The more data are accumulating, the more it will be recognised that such changes in the microbiota's composition, especially increase in bifidobacteria, can be regarded as a marker of intestinal health. The review is divided in chapters that cover the major areas of nutrition research where a prebiotic effect has tentatively been investigated for potential health benefits. The prebiotic effect has been shown to associate with modulation of biomarkers and activity(ies) of the immune system. Confirming the studies in adults, it has been demonstrated that, in infant nutrition, the prebiotic effect includes a significant change of gut microbiota composition, especially an increase of faecal concentrations of bifidobacteria. This concomitantly improves stool quality (pH, SCFA, frequency and consistency), reduces the risk of gastroenteritis and infections, improves general well-being and reduces the incidence of allergic symptoms such as atopic eczema. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Promising beneficial effects have been demonstrated in some preliminary studies, including changes in gut microbiota composition (especially increase in bifidobacteria concentration). Often associated with toxic load and/or miscellaneous risk factors, colon cancer is another pathology for which a possible role of gut microbiota composition has been hypothesised. Numerous experimental studies have reported reduction in incidence of tumours and cancers after feeding specific food products with a prebiotic effect. Some of these studies (including one human trial) have also reported that, in such conditions, gut microbiota composition was modified (especially due to increased concentration of bifidobacteria). Dietary intake of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has been shown, especially in adolescents, but also tentatively in postmenopausal women, to increase Ca absorption as well as bone Ca accretion and bone mineral density. Recent data, both from experimental models and from human studies, support the beneficial effects of particular food products with prebiotic properties on energy homaeostasis, satiety regulation and body weight gain. Together, with data in obese animals and patients, these studies support the hypothesis that gut microbiota composition (especially the number of bifidobacteria) may contribute to modulate metabolic processes associated with syndrome X, especially obesity and diabetes type 2. It is plausible, even though not exclusive, that these effects are linked to the microbiota-induced changes and it is feasible to conclude that their mechanisms fit into the prebiotic effect. However, the role of such changes in these health benefits remains to be definitively proven. As a result of the research activity that followed the publication of the prebiotic concept 15 years ago, it has become clear that products that cause a selective modification in the gut microbiota's composition and/or activity(ies) and thus strengthens normobiosis could either induce beneficial physiological effects in the colon and also in extra-intestinal compartments or contribute towards reducing the risk of dysbiosis and associated intestinal and systemic pathologies.
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Observational studies have linked higher intakes of whole grains to lower abdominal adiposity; however, the association between whole- and refined-grain intake and body fat compartments has yet to be reported. Different aspects of diet may be differentially related to body fat distribution. The purpose of this study was to assess associations between whole- and refined-grain intake and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). Cross-sectional associations between whole- and refined-grain intakes, waist circumference measures, and abdominal SAT and VAT volumes were examined in 2834 Framingham Heart Study participants (49.4% women; age range: 32-83 y). Dietary information was assessed with the use of a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Whole-grain intake was inversely associated with SAT (2895 compared with 2552 cm³ in the lowest compared with the highest quintile category, P for trend < 0.001) and VAT (1883 compared with 1563 cm³, P for trend < 0.001), after adjustment for age, sex, current smoking status, total energy, and alcohol intake. In contrast, refined-grain intake was positively associated with SAT (2748 compared with 2934 cm³, P for trend = 0.01) and VAT (1727 compared with 1928 cm³, P for trend < 0.001) in multivariable models. When SAT and VAT were evaluated jointly, the P value for SAT was attenuated (P = 0.28 for whole grains, P = 0.60 for refined grains), whereas VAT remained associated with both whole grains (P < 0.001) and refined grains (P < 0.001). Increasing whole-grain intake is associated with lower VAT in adults, whereas higher intakes of refined grains are associated with higher VAT. Further research is required to elicit the potential mechanisms whereby whole- and refined-grain foods may influence body fat distribution.
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Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relation between a whole grain consumption and risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. One tentative mechanism relates to colonic metabolism of indigestible carbohydrates. In a previous study, we reported a positive relation between colonic fermentation and improved glucose tolerance. This work can be seen as an extension of that study, focusing on the tentative role of specific colonic metabolites, i.e. SCFA. Plasma concentrations of acetate, propionate, and butyrate were determined in the morning in healthy participants (5 women and 10 men, mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI < 25) following 8 different cereal-based evening meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P < 0.01) and acetate (r = -0.20; P < 0.05) concentrations. Evening meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-β-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P < 0.05). The results support the view that cereal products rich in indigestible carbohydrates may improve glucose tolerance through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation and generation of SCFA, where in particular butyric acid may be involved. This mechanism may be one explanation by which whole grain is protective against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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Three daily portions of whole-grain foods could lower cardiovascular disease risk, but a comprehensive intervention trial was needed to confirm this recommendation. We aimed to assess the effects of consumption of 3 daily portions of whole-grain foods (provided as only wheat or a mixture of wheat and oats) on markers of cardiovascular disease risk in relatively high-risk individuals. This was a randomized controlled dietary trial in middle-aged healthy individuals. After a 4-wk run-in period with a refined diet, we randomly allocated volunteers to a control (refined diet), wheat, or wheat + oats group for 12 wk. The primary outcome was a reduction of cardiovascular disease risk factors by dietary intervention with whole grains, which included lipid and inflammatory marker concentrations, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure. We recruited a total of 233 volunteers; 24 volunteers withdrew, and 3 volunteers were excluded. Systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure were significantly reduced by 6 and 3 mm Hg, respectively, in the whole-grain foods groups compared with the control group. Systemic markers of cardiovascular disease risk remained unchanged apart from cholesterol concentrations, which decreased slightly but significantly in the refined group. Daily consumption of 3 portions of whole-grain foods can significantly reduce cardiovascular disease risk in middle-aged people mainly through blood pressure-lowering mechanisms. The observed decrease in systolic blood pressure could decrease the incidence of coronary artery disease and stroke by ≥15% and 25%, respectively. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as ISRCTN27657880.
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Epidemiological studies have clearly shown that whole-grain cereals can protect against obesity, diabetes, CVD and cancers. The specific effects of food structure (increased satiety, reduced transit time and glycaemic response), fibre (improved faecal bulking and satiety, viscosity and SCFA production, and/or reduced glycaemic response) and Mg (better glycaemic homeostasis through increased insulin secretion), together with the antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of numerous bioactive compounds, especially those in the bran and germ (minerals, trace elements, vitamins, carotenoids, polyphenols and alkylresorcinols), are today well-recognised mechanisms in this protection. Recent findings, the exhaustive listing of bioactive compounds found in whole-grain wheat, their content in whole-grain, bran and germ fractions and their estimated bioavailability, have led to new hypotheses. The involvement of polyphenols in cell signalling and gene regulation, and of sulfur compounds, lignin and phytic acid should be considered in antioxidant protection. Whole-grain wheat is also a rich source of methyl donors and lipotropes (methionine, betaine, choline, inositol and folates) that may be involved in cardiovascular and/or hepatic protection, lipid metabolism and DNA methylation. Potential protective effects of bound phenolic acids within the colon, of the B-complex vitamins on the nervous system and mental health, of oligosaccharides as prebiotics, of compounds associated with skeleton health, and of other compounds such as alpha-linolenic acid, policosanol, melatonin, phytosterols and para-aminobenzoic acid also deserve to be studied in more depth. Finally, benefits of nutrigenomics to study complex physiological effects of the 'whole-grain package', and the most promising ways for improving the nutritional quality of cereal products are discussed.
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Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between risk of CVD and intake of whole grain (WG)-rich food. Regular consumption of breakfast cereals can provide not only an increase in dietary WG but also improvements to cardiovascular health. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including prebiotic modulation of the colonic microbiota. In the present study, the prebiotic activity of a maize-derived WG cereal (WGM) was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human feeding study (n 32). For a period of 21 d, healthy men and women, mean age 32 (sd 8) years and BMI 23·3 (sd 0·58) kg/m2, consumed either 48 g/d WG cereal (WGM) or 48 g placebo cereal (non-whole grain (NWG)) in a crossover fashion. Faecal samples were collected at five points during the study on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 (representing at baseline, after both treatments and both wash-out periods). Faecal bacteriology was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes specific for Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium histolyticum/perfringens subgroup, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus subgroup and total bacteria. After 21 d consumption of WGM, mean group levels of faecal bifidobacteria increased significantly compared with the control cereal (P = 0·001). After a 3-week wash-out period, bifidobacterial levels returned to pre-intervention levels. No statistically significant changes were observed in serum lipids, glucose or measures of faecal output. In conclusion, this WG maize-enriched breakfast cereal mediated a bifidogenic modulation of the gut microbiota, indicating a possible prebiotic mode of action.