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Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.
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Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
54(5):273-280, September-October, 2012
doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652012000500007
Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, 273009, U.P. India.
Correspondence to: Prof. D.K. Singh, Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, 273009, UP, India. Tel: +91 551 2202187(O)/0509(R).
Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of
present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose
tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane,
dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus
mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant’s potential as being spermicidal,
contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient
pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.
KEYWORDS: Sapindus mukorossi; Pharmacology; Saponins.
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., a member of the family Sapindaceae, is
commonly known by several names such as soapnut, soapberry, washnut,
reetha, aritha, dodan and doadni. It is a deciduous tree widely grown in
upper reaches of Indo-Gangetic plains, Shivaliks and sub Himalayan
tracts at altitudes from 200 m to 1500 m. The Sapindus mukorossi is a
fairly large, deciduous tree with a straight trunk up to 12 meters in height,
sometimes attaining a height of 20 m and a girth of 1.8 m, with a globose
crown and rather fine leathery foliage. Bark is dark to pale yellow, fairly
smooth, with many vertical lines of lenticels and fine fissures exfoliating
in irregular wood scales. The blaze is 0.8-1.3 cm, hard, not fibrous, pale
orange brown, brittle and granular. Leaves are 30-50 cm long, alternate,
paripinnate; common petiole very narrowly bordered, glabrous; leaflets
5-10 pairs, opposite or alternate, 5-18 by 2.5-5 cm, lanceolate, acuminate,
entire, glabrous, often slightly falcate or oblique; petioles 2-5 m long.
Inflorescence is a compound terminal panicle, 30 cm or more in length,
with pubescent branches. Flowers are about 5 mm across, small, terminal,
polygamous, greenish white, subsessile, numerous, mostly bisexual.
Sepals 5, each with a woolly scale on either side above the claw. Fruits are
globose, fleshy, 1-seeded drupe, sometimes two drupels together, about
1.8-2.5 cm across. Seeds are 0.8-1.3 cm in diameter, globose, smooth,
black and loosely placed in dry fruit7.
The fruit is valued for the saponins (10.1%) present in the pericarp
and constitutes up to 56.5% of the drupe known for inhibiting tumor cell
growth37. In China and Japan it has been used as a remedy for centuries.
In Japan its pericarp is called “enmei-hi”, which means “life prolonging
pericarp” and in China “wu-huan-zi”, the “non-illness fruit”37. The major
compounds isolated from Sapindus mukorossi are triterpenoidal saponins
of mainly three oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane types. Recently
many of the pharmacological actions of this plant have been explored
which includes the antimicrobial19, cytotoxic29, molluscicidal16,42,
insecticidal12,26, piscicidal44 and fungicidal37,41 activities. One of the most
talked about activities of this plant is the contraceptive activity of the
saponins extracted from the pericarp of the fruit11,27.
Sapindus mukorossi is well known for its folk medicinal values30.
Pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi have been traditionally used as an
expectorant as well as a source of natural surfactant20. Due to the presence
of saponins, soapnut is well known for its detergent and insecticidal
properties and it is traditionally used for removing lice from the scalp.
The fruits are of considerable importance for their medicinal value for
treating a number of diseases like excessive salivation, pimples, epilepsy,
chlorosis, migranes, eczema and psoriasis21. The powdered seeds are
employed in the treatment of dental caries, arthritis, common colds,
constipation and nausea8. The seeds of Sapindus mukorossi are used in
Ayurvedic medicine to remove tan and freckles from the skin. It cleanses
the skin of oily secretion and is even used as a cleanser for washing hair
as it forms a rich, natural lather. The leaves are used in baths to relieve
joint pain and the roots are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism.
Since ancient times Sapindus mukorossi has been used as a detergent for
shawls and silks. The fruit of Sapindus mukorossi was utilized by Indian
jewelers for restoring the brightness of tarnished ornaments made of gold,
silver and other precious metals33.
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
The major constituents of Sapindus mukorossi fruit are saponins
(10%-11.5%), sugars (10%) and mucilage10. Saponins are secondary plant
metabolites with divergent biological activities10. Sapindus saponins are
a mixture of six sapindosides (sapindosides A, B, C, D and mukorozi
saponins (E1 and Y1), with sapindoside B as one of the major constituents,
isolated by n-butanol extraction of the ethanolic extract of fruit pericarp
of Sapindus mukorossi and identified by liquid chromatography and
mass spectroscopy28. Saponins are a large family of structurally-related
compounds of steroid or triterpenoid aglycone (sapogenin) linked
to one or more oligosaccharide moieties by glycosidic linkage. The
aglycone, or sapogenin, may contain one or more unsaturated C-C
bonds. The oligosaccharide chain is normally attached at the C3 position
(monodesmosidic), but many saponins have an additional sugar moiety
at the C2,6 or C2,8 position (bidesmosidic)10. The great complexity of the
saponin structure arises from the variability of the aglycone structure, the
nature of the side chains and the position of attachment of these moieties
on the aglycone10. The carbohydrate moiety consists of pentoses, hexoses
or uronic acids. Due to this complexity, saponins are difficult to classify.
Because it is no longer customary to classify compounds based on their
physicochemical or biological properties, a state of the art classification
based on the biosynthesis of the saponin carbon skeletons was proposed
by VINCKEN et al.43.
Different types of triterpene, saponins of oleanane, dammarane and
tirucullane type were isolated from the galls, fruits and roots of Sapindus
mukorossi. Oleanane type triterpenoid saponins named Sapindoside A&B
(Fig. 34 & 35) were reported from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi6.
Sapindoside C (Fig. 36)4, Sapindoside D (Fig. 37)5, which is a hexaoside
of hederagenin, and Sapindoside E (Fig. 38)3, a nonaoside of hederagenin,
was isolated and identified from the methanolic extract of the fruits of
Sapindus mukorossi.
Dammarane-type saponins, named Sapinmusaponins A & B (Fig. 11
& 12), C-E (Fig. 15, 16, 17), together with three known phenylpropanoid
glycosides, were isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi45.
Tirucallane-type saponins, sapinmusaponins F-J (Fig. 18-22), were
isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi as reported by HUANG
et al.17. The structures of these saponins were elucidated on the basis of
spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques.
Triterpene saponins of oleanane type like, Sapinmusaponin K-N (Fig.
25-28), Mukorozisaponin G & E1 (Fig. 29-30), Sapindoside A & B along
with dammarane types like Sapinmusaponin O and P (Fig. 13 & 14) were
isolated from fruits and the galls of Sapindus mukorossi as per HUANG
et al.15. In another study by NAKAYAMA et al.23, Mukorozisaponin Y1
(Fig. 31), Y2 (Fig. 32), X (Fig. 33) were isolated from the pericarp of
Sapindus mukorossi.
Fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi
has resulted in the isolation of two tirucallane type triterpenoid saponins,
sapinmusaponin Q and R (Fig. 23-24), along with three known oleanane
type triterpenoid saponins: sapindoside A, sapindoside B, and hederagenin-
arabinopyranoside14. The roots of Sapindus mukorossi contain tirucallane-
type triterpenoid saponins like Sapimukoside A & B38, Sapimukoside C
&D25. Further investigation of the roots of Sapindus mukorossi by NI
et al.24 reported the presence of Sapimukosides E-J24. The structures of
Sapimukosides A-J are shown in Fig. 1 to Fig. 10 respectively. Table 1
shows whole view of all the saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi.
1. Anti-bacterial activity: IBRAHIM et al.19 evaluated that
ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Sapindus mukorossi inhibited
the growth of Helicobacter pylori (both sensitive and resistant), at
very low concentrations, when given orally for seven days to male
wister rats. In the in vitro study, the isolates show a considerable zone
of inhibition at very low concentration (10 µg/mL) and in the in vivo
Fig R1 R2
2 Glc6-Rha H
8 3-Ara
9 3-Rha
10 Glc6-Rha Et
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
Table 1
List of Saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi
Saponins Chemical name Tirucullane/oleanane/
dammarane type
Structure Reference
A Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(21)-α-L-
Oleanane 34 Chirva et al., 1970 a
B Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(21)-O-α-L-
Oleanane 35 Chirva et al., 1970 a
C Hederagenin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl(14)-β-D-xylosyl
(13)-α-L-rhamnosyl(12)- α-L-arabinoside
Oleanane 36 Chirva et al., 1970 b
A 3,7,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 11 Yao et al., 2005
B 3,7,20(S),22,23-pentahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 12 Yao et al., 2005
C 3,7,20(S),22,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 15 Yao et al., 2005
D 25-methoxy-3,7,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-α-
Dammarane 16 Yao et al., 2005
E 25-methoxy-3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 17 Yao et al., 2005
F 21 β-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 18 Huang et al., 2006
G 21α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-
Tirucullane 19 Huang et al., 2006
H 21α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 20 Huang et al., 2006
I 21β-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 21 Huang et al., 2006
J 21α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 22 Huang et al., 2006
K hederagenin-3-O-(3-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 25 Huang et al., 2008
L hederagenin-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 26 Huang et al., 2008
M hederagenin-3-O-(2,3-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 27 Huang et al., 2008
N hederagenin-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 28 Huang et al., 2008
O 3,7,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-
Dammarane 13 Huang et al., 2008
P 3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-
Dammarane 14 Huang et al., 2007
Q 21α-methoxy-3β, 21I, 23(S)-epoxytirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-β-
Tirucullane 23 Huang et al., 2007
R 21α-methoxy-3β, 21I, 23(S)-epoxytirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-
Tirucullane 24 Huang et al., 2007
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
A 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-*α-L-
arabinopyranosyl-(13)+ – β-D-glucopyranosyl-21,
23R-epoxyl tirucall-7, 24R-diene-3 β, 2-diol
Tirucullane 1 Teng et al., 2003
B 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-21,
23R-epoxyl tirucall-7, 24R-diene-3 β, 21-diol
Tirucullane 2 Teng et al., 2003
C 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-
(13)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
Tirucullane 3 Teng et al., 2004
D 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-
(13)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucall-7,
24-diene-(21S)-methoxyl-3β-ol .
Tirucullane 4 Teng et al., 2004
E 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 5 Ni et al., 2006
F {3-O-β-D-xylanopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 6 Ni et al., 2006
G {3-O-β-D-xylanopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-methoxy-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 7 Ni et al., 2006
H {3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxy-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 8 Ni et al., 2006
I {3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-methoxy-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 9 Ni et al., 2006
J {3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 10 Ni et al., 2006
G Hederagenin-3-O-(2-O-acetyl-β-D-xylanopyranosyl)-(13)-
Oleanane 29 Huang et al., 2008
E1 Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(13)-α-L-
Oleanane 30 Huang et al., 2008
Table 1
List of Saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi (cont.)
study the Helicobacter pylori infection was cleared with minimal dose
extracts of 2.5 mg/mL.
2. Insecticidal activity: Saponins possess insecticidal activity,
causing mortality and/or growth inhibition in the insects tested, the
cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars and the pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum. In the experiments with Acyrthosiphon pisum,
0.1% saponin killed all aphids, whereas with Spodoptera some
caterpillars were still able to develop into apparently normal adults on
food containing 7% saponin12. Saponins can be employed as novel natural
tactics in integrated pest management (IPM) to control pest insects, which
fit in modern agriculture and horticulture13. Ethanolic extract of Sapindus
mukorossi was investigated for repellency and insecticidal activity against
Sitophilus oryzae and Pediculus humanus. Average mortality percentage
indicated that the extracts caused significant mortality and repellency on
the target insects and bioassays indicated that toxic and repellent effect
was proportional to the concentration26.
3. Spermicidal activity: Saponins from Sapindus mukorossi are
known to be spermicidal11,27. Morphological changes in human ejaculated
spermatozoa after exposure to this saponin were evaluated under scanning
electron microscopy. The minimum effective concentration (0.05% in spot
test) did not affect the surface topography after exposure for one minute.
However, incubation of spermatozoa for 10 minutes resulted in extensive
vesiculation and a disruption of the plasma membrane in the head region.
Higher concentrations (0.1%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0%) caused more or less
similar changes which included vesiculation, vacuolation, disruption or
erosion of membranes in the head region. These findings suggest that the
morphological changes observed are due to alterations in the glycoproteins
associated with the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of spermatozoa8.
This spermicidal property has been used in contraceptive cream9.
4. Anti-Trichomonas activity: TIWARI et al.39 demonstrated
that the Sapindus saponin mixture shows anti-Trichomonas activity
at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.005%) than its minimal effective
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
spermicidal concentration against human spermatozoa (0.05%)11.
Saponin concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites
to adhere to HeLa cells and decreased the proteolytic activity of the
parasite’s cysteine proteinases. This was associated with the decreased
expression of adhesin AP65 and membrane-expressed cysteine proteinase
TvCP2 genes. Saponins produced no adverse effect on host cells in the
mitochondrial reduction potential measurement assay. Saponin disrupts
the actin cytoskeleton network beneath the cell membrane and affects
membrane-mediated adherence of Trichomonas to the host cells.
5. Anti-cancer activity: Due to the great variability in saponin
structure, saponins always display anti-tumorigenic effect through
varieties of anti-tumor pathways. There are more than 11 distinguished
classes of saponins including dammaranes, tirucallanes, lupanes,
hopanes, oleananes, taraxasteranes, ursanes, cycloartanes, lanostanes,
cucurbitanes and steroids. Ginsenosides, belonging to dammaranes,
have been found beneficial in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by
suppressing its inducer in the endothelial cells of blood vessels, and then
in the prevention of adhering, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells22.
Dioscin, one of the steroidal saponins, and its aglycone diosgenin also
has an extensive anti-tumor effect by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis22.
The preliminary bioassay data revealed that saponins [39,4]-43] showed
moderate cytotoxic activity (ED50~9-18µg/mL) against human tumor cell
lines (Hepa59T/VGH, NCL, HeLa and Med)29. Strychnopentamine was
the reference compound used in the study. All saponins were reported to
be at least five times less active than the reference compound36.
6. Hepatoprotective activity: IBRAHIM et al.18 reported that the
extracts of Sapindus mukorossi (2.5 mg/L) and Rheum emodi (3.0 mg/L)
have a protective capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures
and in vivo in a rat model of tetrachloride carbon (CCl4) mediated liver
injury as judged from serum marker enzyme activities. These cultures
were treated with CCl4 and extracts of Sapindus mukorossi & Rheum
emodi. A protective activity could be demonstrated in the CCl4 damaged
primary monolayer culture. For the in vivo study, the hepatoprotective
capacity of the extract of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi and the
rhizomes of Rheum emodi was analyzed in liver injured CCl4- treated
male rats. Extracts of the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi (2.5 mg/
mL) and rhizomes of Rheum emodi (3.0 mg/mL) were found to have
protective properties in rats with CCl4 induced liver damage as judged
from serum marker enzyme activities. Thus, it was concluded that the
extracts of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi do have a protective
capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures and in in vivo in
a rat model of CCl4 mediated liver injury.
7. Anxiolytic activity: Methanolic extracts of Sapindus mukorossi
(200 and 40 mg/L) show significant anxiolytic activity as compared to
standard anxiolytics Diazepam (2 mg/Kg) and Fluoxetine (10 mg/Kg)1.
Fig R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
11 Glc2-Rha H OH OH H
12 Glc2-Rha H OH OH OH
13 Glc2-Rha OH CH3 H H
14 Glc2-Rha CH3 OH H H
Fig R1 R2 R3
15 Glc2-Rha OH OH
16 Glc2-Rha OH OCH3
17 Glc2-Rha H OCH3
Fig R1R2
18 Glc6-Rha β-OCH3
19 Glc6-Rha α-OCH3
20 Glc2-Rha α-OCH3
21 Glc β-OCH3
22 Glc α-OCH3
23 Glc2-Glc α-OCH3
24 Glc α-OCH3
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
8. Molluscicidal activity: Extracts of Sapindus mukorossi showed
molluscicidal effect against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata
Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC50 values of 85, 22 and 17 ppm
at 24, 48 and 72h exposure period, respectively16. Bioassay-directed
fractionation of Sapindus mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one
new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-
L-arabinopyranoside [1], along with six known hederagenin saponins,
hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranoside)-(13)-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-α-L-arabinopyranoside [2], hederagenin 3-O-(3-
arabinopyranoside [3], hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-
(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-α-L-arabinopyranoside [4],
hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-(13)-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-α-L-arabinopyranoside [5], hederagenin
arabinopyranoside [6], and hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside [7].
The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100%
mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail16.
UPADHYAY & SINGH42 reported that Sapindus mukorossi fruit
pericarp is a potential source of botanical molluscicides against Lymnaea
acuminata. These snails are the intermediate host of liver fluke Fasciola
gigantica, which causes 94% fascioliasis in the buffalo population
of northern India32. The active molluscicidal component of Sapindus
mukorossi fruit is soluble in chloroform, ether, acetone and ethanol.
The toxicity of ethanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi fruit powder
is higher than other extracts which indicates that the molluscicidal
component present is more soluble in ethanol than other organic solvents.
UPADHYAY & SINGH42 characterized that saponin is the active
component present in Sapindus mukorossi fruit by High Performance
Liquid Chromatography. A comparison of the molluscicidal activity of
the column-purified fraction of Sapindus mukorossi fruit powder with
synthetic molluscicides clearly demonstrates that the purified fraction
of Sapindus mukorossi is more potent. The LC50 at 96 h of the column–
purified fraction of Sapindus mukorossi fruit powder (5.43 mg/L) against
Lymnaea acuminata is lower than those of synthetic molluscicides-
carbaryl (14.40 mg/L), phorate (15.0 mg/L), formothion (8.56 mg/L) and
niclosamide (11.8 mg/L)32. LC50 at 96 h of crude powder of Sapindus
mukorossi (119.57 mg/L) against Lymnaea acuminata is lower than the
crude powder of Canna indica root (359.02 mg/L)40, Thuja orientalis
leaf powder (250.55 mg/L), Thuja orientalis fruit powder (255.12
mg/L)31, Zingiber officinale rhizome (273.80 mg/L), Allium cepa bulb
(253.27 mg/L)34.
9. Tyrosinase inhibition and free radical scavenging: CHEN
et al.2 first evaluated that the extracts of Sapindus mukorossi seeds
using methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EA) or hexane as solvents
show tyrosinase inhibition, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and
anticancer properties. Sapindus mukorossi extracts showed strong specific
inhibition activities on the proliferation of human melanoma and lung
cell lines. The data exhibited the high potential of applying Sapindus
mukorossi extracts in medical cosmetology, food supplementation,
antibiotics and chemotherapy.
10. Fungicidal activity: The crude extract of Sapindus mukorossi
exhibits a strong growth inhibition against the pathogenic yeast Candida
albicans, which causes cutaneous candidiasis. Extracts from the dried
pericarp of Sapindus L. (Sapindaceae) fruits were investigated for their
antifungal activity against clinical isolates of yeasts Candida albicans
and Candida non-albicans from vaginal secretions of women with
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single
clinical isolate of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C.
tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans ATCC 90028 were used. The
hydroalcoholic extract was bioactivity-directed against a clinical isolate
of C. parapsilosis, and showed strong activity. The n-BuOH extract and
one fraction showed strong activity against all isolates tested41. The
saponin fraction inhibited the dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum,
Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Sabouraudites canis and Epidermophyton
Fig R1R2
25 Ara2-Rha3-Ara3-OAC H
26 Ara2-Rha3-Rha4-OAC H
27 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl H
28 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl H
29 Ara2-Rha3-Xy H
30 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-OAC H
31 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl Glc2-Glc
32 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl Glc2-Glc
33 Ara2-Rha Glc2-Glc
34 Ara2-Rha H
35 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl H
36 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc H
37 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc H
38 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
11. Anti-inflammatory activity: TAKAGI et al.35 reported that crude
saponin and hederagenin isolated from Sapindus mukorossi inhibited
the development of carrageen-induced edema in the rat hind paw as
well as on granuloma and exudates formations induced by croton oil
in rats. The effects of these agents on vascular permeability and acetic
acid induced writhing in mice were also examined. Anti-inflammatory
activity on carrageenin edema was observed after intraperitoneal and
oral administration of crude saponin, whilst hederagenin and the other
agents showed activity only when administered.
12. Piscicidal activity: Effects of Sapindus mukorossi have been
studied on fish. Pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi is the most toxic parts
yielding 100% mortality within 12 hours and mean survival time was
found to be 1.18 hours. LD10, LD50, LD100 ranging between 3.5 ppm and
10 ppm at 48 hrs and possess high potential for fish eradication. Sapindus
mukorossi fruit pericarp can be used as a selective eradicant for horny
fish like Heteropneustes fossils and channa punctuate44.
13 Anti-platelet aggregation activity: HUANG and co workers
demonstrated that five new tirucallane type saponins, sapinmusasaponins
from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi, showed moderate activity in a
12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus
early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay25.
Sapindus mukorossi is a versatile and exceptionally valuable
medicinal plant. It is known by such regional names as soapnut,
soapberry, washnut, reetha and dodan. The phytochemical screening of
the plant extract showed the presence of saponins (10.1%) present in the
pericarp of the fruit. The use of Sapindus mukorossi in folk medicine
worldwide30 is validated by scientific studies that have demonstrated the
efficacy of the extracts in various experimental models. Pharmacological
effects of Sapindus mukorossi have been reported like anti-bacterial19,
insecticidal12,13,26, spermicidal11,27, anti-trichomonas11,39, anti-tumor22,29,36,
hepatoprotective18, anxiolytic1, molluscicidal16,42, fungicidal37,41, anti-
inflammatory35 and piscicidal44 activities and are being employed for
the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine.
Although a number of phytochemicals present in Sapindus mukorossi
have been isolated and identified by researchers working in different
laboratories, their pharmacological/biological studies in human welfare
has not been studied so far.
Most of the scientific study is confined to the elaboration of traditional
practices of Sapindus mukorossi. There is a long list of saponins present
in Sapindus mukorossi. It needs individual attention so that they can be
explored in different pharmacological studies. The literature reviewed
gives a limited picture of pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi.
There is a need for much additional research regarding pharmacological
effects of Sapindus mukorossi at molecular level to explain their mode
of action.
Sapindus mukorossi is a tropical tree whose numerous economic
applications and whose facility of propagation are arousing international
interest. It needs to be widely cultivated in most of the areas where
climatic conditions favor its optimum growth. In this way, a maximum
yield of its different usable parts could be achieved to derive the
maximal amount of commodities of a multifarious nature for the
welfare of mankind. This plant has been used as traditional medicine
for various ailments. The earlier reports on chemical investigation and
pharmacological evaluation showed that Sapindus mukorossi contains a
number of bio-active novel compounds. As literature illustrates, many
biological and pharmacological activities are shown by fractions of crude
extracts and isolated substances. Furthermore, the detailed chemical
analysis is required to isolate bio-active constituents from Sapindus
mukorossi and to trace out their biological activities. Thus, it can be
concluded that Sapindus mukorossi can play an important role in modern
medical system in near future.
Efeitos farmacológicos do Sapindus mukorossi
Sapindus mukorossi é planta medicinal extremamente valiosa
distribuída nas regiões tropical e subtropical da Ásia. O propósito da
presente revisão é uma compilação curta da composição fitoquímica e
das propriedades farmacológicas desta árvore que apresenta múltiplos
propósitos. O principal fitoconstituinte isolado e identificado das diferentes
partes desta planta são as saponinas triterpenoidais do tipo da oleana,
damarana e tiruculana. A estrutura e o nome químico de todos os tipos
de saponinas triterpenoidais encontrados no Sapindus mukorossi estão
incluídos nesta revisão. Muitas pesquisas tem sido conduzidas para provar o
potencial desta planta como espermaticida, contraceptivo, hépato-protetor,
emético, anti-inflamatório e anti-protozoário. A presente revisão exalta
alguns principais usos farmacológicos do Sapindus mukorossi.
One of the authors Aparna Upadhyay is thankful to Department of
Science and Technology, New Delhi for financial assistance (Inspire
Fellowship number- IF10296).
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agent Sapindus saponin and its estimation in its formulation. Indian J Pharm Sci.
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systems: a review. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:587-605.
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Praneem polyherbal cream. Contraception. 1993;48:591-6.
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as natural insecticides to control pest insects. Pest Tech. 2007;1:96-105.
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Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of Golden Apple snails Pomacea canaliculata.
J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4916-9.
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mukorossi. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:763-7.
18. Ibrahim M, Khaja MN, Aara A, Khan AA, Habeeb MA, Devi, YP, et al.
Hepatoprotective activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum modi extracts: in vitro
and in vivo studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2566-71.
19. Ibrahim M, Khan AA, Tiwari SK, Habeeb MA, Khaja MN, Habibullah CM.
Anti-microbial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum modi extracts against
Helicobacter pylori: in vitro and in vivo studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:7136-
20. Kasai R, Fujino H, Kuzuki T, Wong WH, Goto C, Yata N, et al. Acyclic sesquiterpene
oligoglycosides from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi. Phytochemistry. 1986;25:871-
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22. Man S, Gao W, Zhang Y, Huang L, Liu C. Chemical study and medical application
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23. Nakayama K, Fujino H, Kasai R, Mitoma Y, Yata N, Tanaka O. Solubilizing
properties of saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).
24. Ni W, Hua Y, Liu HY, Teng RW, Kong YC, Hu XY, et al. Tirucallane-type triterpenoid
saponins from the roots of Sapindus mukorossi. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).
25. Ni W, Hua Y, Teng RW, Kong YC, Chen CX. New tirucallane-type triterpenoid
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26. Rahman SS, Rahman M, Begum SA, Khan MMR, Bhuiyan MH. Investigation of
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regulatory effect. J Appl Sci Res. 2007;3:95-101.
27. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi:
CDRI Publication; 1999. p. 609-10.
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mukorossi saponin (Reetha saponin) and quantitative determination of sapindoside
B. J Sci Ind Res. 2004;63:181-6.
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and bioactivities of genus Sapindus. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm. 2011;2:403-9.
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Received: 17 December 2011
Accepted: 21 March 2012
... Arishtak and Soorana have been specifically noted for their anti-inflammatory actions. Sarja, on the other hand, contributes to the wound-healing action [4][5][6]. On the other hand, Arsha Hita ointment is formulated with Tila Taila or sesame oil (Sesamum indicum), which has wound-healing and analgesic properties [7]. Karpoora or camphor (Cinnamomum camphora) is another key ingredient that provides analgesic and anti-pruritic benefits [8]. ...
... In this study, a combination of Arsha Hita tablets and Arsha Hita ointment was found to be an effective initial treatment option for anal fissures that doesn't require surgery. The tablets contain ingredients such as Arishtak (Sapindus trifoliatus) and Soorana (Amorphophallus campanulatus), which have anti-inflammatory properties, while Sarja (Vateria indica) helps with wound healing [4][5][6]. The Arsha Hita ointment used in the study contains Tila Taila or Sesame oil, which is known for its wound healing and analgesic properties. ...
Full-text available
Introduction: Anal fissures are tears in the anal canal that cause pain, bleeding, and spasms. They can be treated with non-operative options such as sitz baths, local anesthetics, topical nitrates, oral fiber, and calcium channel blockers, but some patients require surgery. Topical nitrates have side effects such as severe headaches, while topical calcium channel blockers can cause itching. There is a need to explore alternative treatments with fewer side effects. This proof-of-concept pilot study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of a combination of Arsha Hita™ tablets and ointment (Shree Dhootapapeshwar Limited, Mumbai Maharastra, India) (test treatment) with a combination of lidocaine 1.5% w/w + nifedipine 0.3% w/w cream for local application and Isabgol powder (6 g) orally as an active comparator (standard treatment), which is the standard treatment of anal fissures as per the Association of Colon and Rectal Surgeons of India (ACRSI) guidelines. Methodology: This study was a single-center, prospective, randomized-controlled study conducted in Karnataka, India. Participants were screened for anal fissures and randomized to receive either standard treatment (Group A) or test treatment (Group B) for 14 days, and were re-evaluated after two, four, and six weeks. The study assessed signs and symptoms related to anal fissures, such as pain post-defecation on Visual Analog Scale (VAS), bleeding per anus grading, wound healing grade, stool consistency, and stool frequency. Compliance, inter-current illness, and concomitant therapy were noted at each visit. The study used independent sample t-tests to compare variables at baseline and chi-square or Fisher's exact tests to compare the number/proportion of participants achieving primary and secondary endpoints. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare median composite scores at baseline and Visit 4, and Friedman's two-way analysis of variance was used to compare median composite scores across the four visits (p < 0.05 was considered significant). Descriptive analysis was used to assess VAS, bleeding, and healing grades. Results: The study included 53 participants with anal fissures, of which 25 out of 27 allocated in Group A (two drop-outs) received standard treatment, and all 26 allocated in Group B received Arsha Hita treatment. At the end of the study, 11 participants in Group B achieved a 90% reduction in composite scores compared to only three patients in Group A (p<0.05). Both groups showed improvement in pain on defecation, severity of bleeding, healing of anal fissure wound, and participant's and physician's global impression score. Group B had significantly better results in terms of VAS score, resolution of per-anal bleeding, and physician's global impression score (p<0.05). There were no adverse events in either group during the six-week treatment period. Conclusion: The pilot study provides evidence that the combination of Arsha Hita tablets and Arsha Hita ointment may be more effective and safer for treating anal fissures than the standard treatment. The test treatment group experienced greater pain relief, complete resolution of per-anal bleeding, and better global impression scores than the standard treatment group. These findings suggest the need for further research through larger, randomized controlled trials to determine the efficacy and safety of Arsha Hita in treating anal fissures.
... Triterpenoid saponins consist of non-polar aglycones (triterpene) and one or more glycone (monosaccharide) moieties, which make them hydrophilic and hydrophobic. These properties make soapberry saponins excellent emulsifiers and foaming agents, with antibacterial, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic, antidyslipidemic, and insecticidal activities (Upadhyay and Singh, 2012). More than 70 variant triterpenoid saponins have been isolated from soapberry and identified as oleanane-type, dammarane-type, tirucullane-type and lupane-type saponins, respectively (Xu et al., 2018). ...
Full-text available
Triterpenoid saponin are important secondary metabolites and bioactive constituents of soapberry ( Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) and are widely used in medicine and toiletry products. However, little is known about the roles of miRNAs in the regulation of triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis in soapberry. In this study, a total of 3036 miRNAs were identified, of which 1372 miRNAs were differentially expressed at different stages of pericarp development. Important KEGG pathways, such as terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis, and basal transcription factors were highlighted, as well the roles of some key miRNAs, such as ath-miR5021, han-miR3630-3p, and ppe-miR858, which may play important roles in regulating triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In addition, 58 miRNAs might participate in saponin biosynthesis pathways by predicting the targets of those miRNAs to 53 saponin biosynthesis structural genes. And 75 miRNAs were identified to potentially play vital role in saponin accumulation by targeting transcript factor genes, bHLH, bZIP, ERF, MYB, and WRKY, respectively, which are candidate regulatory genes in the pathway of saponin biosynthesis. The results of weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) suggested that two saponin-specific miRNA modules and 10 hub miRNAs may participate in saponin biosynthesis. Furthermore, multiple miRNA–mRNA regulatory networks potentially involved in saponin biosynthesis were generated, e.g., ath-miR5021– SmIDI2 / SmGPS5 / SmbAS1 / SmCYP71D-3 / SmUGT74G-2 , han-miR3630-3p– SmCYP71A-14 / SmbHLH54 / SmMYB135 / SmWRKY32 , and ppe-miR858– SmMYB5 / SmMYB32 . qRT-PCR analysis validated the expression patterns of nine miRNAs and 12 corresponding target genes. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of miRNAs in soapberry and lays the foundation for further understanding of miRNA-based regulation in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis.
... Sapindus mukorossi is a well-established name in term for treatment for various diseases. Its husk has the use as an expectorant and surfactant 10 its fruit are important in the treatment of numerous skin disease like eczema and psoriasis 11 its seeds have been found useful to treat oral and gastrointestinal problems and root to treat gout and rheumatic disease. 12 The major compound isolated from Sapindus mukorossi are Triterpenoidal saponins, exhibit antimicrobial, molluscidal, insecticidal, piscicidal and fungicidal properties can be used in the management of smear layer. ...
Full-text available
Background: The treatment of infected root canals is one of the most essential areas in dentistry. The endodontic therapy comprises of a sequence of steps that includes the purging of disease and infectious tissues from the root canal system. The objective of the study is to compare the effect of an experimental herbal root canal irrigant (Sapindus mukorossi) and Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, on the micro hardness of human dentin. Methods: Ninety single rooted teeth were collected displayed intact external morphology the selected teeth were than divided randomly into 3 groups (n=30); 1 control and 2 experimental groups: Group A consisted of specimen treated with Ethanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi. Group B consisted of specimen treated with 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Group C (control group) consisted of specimen of roots were sectioned immersed in distilled water. After the removal of crowns, the roots were sectioned embedded in the polymer resin leaving the root dentine exposed, the micro hardness was determined. Then, the samples from each group were treated with respective irrigant solution for 15 minutes and then observation regarding the micro hardness were noted again by using Vickers micro hardness tester. Analysis of data were obtained by application of Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: The study revealed that there was no significant difference noted in dentin microhardness of group "A" sample after dipping in experimental irrigant solution (Sapindus mukorossi). However, the study found significant difference in context of decrease in dentin microhardness after dipping a sample in a group "B" irrigant solution (17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid). Conclusions: In order to preserve the strength of dentin that will ultimately be beneficial for increase in survival of teeth in function, probably the herbal extract of Sapindus mukorossi would be better candidate for future endeavour and presented as an economic and effective alternative amongst root canal irrigants.
... The percentage of total ash was estimated using air-dried samples. [11,12] ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the anti-arthritic activity of a methanolic fruit pericarp extract of Sapindus mukorossi in vitro (family: Sapindaceae). The plant's methanolic extract was fractionated with n-butanol, n-hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. All fractions/extracts were quantitatively assessed for saponins, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and preliminary phytochemical screening. Further examination of anti-arthritic activity was carried out under controlled experimental circumstances employing various invitro anti-arthritic activity methods such as bovine serum albumin denaturation and egg albumin denaturation. Protein denaturation was determined by measuring its absorbance. The results showed that the plant extract had anti-arthritic action in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity increased as the concentration of extracts was increased. The present study found that the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi possesses anti-arthritic action.
Heliotropium elongatum is used to treat inflammation, cough, and flu. This study aimed to characterize the phytochemical profile and determine the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant and cytogenotoxic activity of the ethanolic extract (EE), and fractions of H. elongatum leaves. In the phytochemical profile analysis, organic acids, reducing sugars, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, steroids/triterpenes, and depsides/depsidones were detected in the EE and/or fractions (hexanic/FH, chloroformic/FC, ethyl acetate/FAE, and hydromethanolic/FHM). The highest TPC and highest antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS) was detected in FHM. In FH, 16 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and ursolic acid was isolated by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. HPLC-DAD from EE, FAE, and FHM demonstrated characteristic wavelengths for flavonoids, flavonols, flavones, and anthraquinones. ESI-IT/MSn analysis of EE, FC, FAE, and FHM revealed alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. In Allium cepa assay there was no significant cytotoxic effect initiated by EE (62.5 to 1,000 µg/ml), FHM (1,000 µg/ml), and FAE (62.5 µg/ml). Genotoxicity was evidenced only with EE at 500 and 1,000 µg/ml, and FHM (62.5 to 1,000 µg/ml) as evidenced by presence of micronuclei (MN) and nuclear buds (NB). Our results identified compounds of medicinal interest with antioxidant activity; however observed cytogenotoxic changes indicated the need for caution when using these compounds for therapeutic purposes.
Eye-catching, aesthetic fashions often suppress its untold dark story of unsustainable processing including hazardous wet treatment. Considering the risks imposed by conventional cotton scouring and following the trend of scouring with enzymes, this study was undertaken to evaluate the bioscouring of cotton knit fabric involving saponin-enriched soapnut as a natural surfactant, applied from a bath requiring a few chemicals and gentle processing conditions, contributing to the eco-friendliness. The proposed application was compared to synthetic detergent engaged enzymatic scouring as well as the classic scouring with Sodium hydroxide. A cellulolytic pectate lyase enzyme (0.5%–0.8% o.w.f) was applied at 55 °C for 60 min at pH 5–5.5 with varying surfactant concentrations. A low concentration of soapnut extract (1 g/L to 2 g/L) was found sufficient to assist in the removal of non-cellulosic impurities from the cotton fabric after bioscouring with 0.5% o.w.f. enzyme, leading to good hydrophilicity indicated by an average wetting time of 4.86 s at the expense of 3.1%–3.8% weight loss. The scoured fabrics were further dyed with 1% o.w.f. reactive dye to observe the dyeing performance. The treated samples were characterized in terms of weight loss, wettability, bursting strength, whiteness index, and color value. The proposed application confronted level dyeing and the ratings for color fastness to washing and rubbing were 4–5 for all of the samples scoured enzymatically with soapnut. The study was also statistically analyzed and concluded.
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Book Available online at: PREFACE Chemical sciences and Biological science play an important role in the evolutionary concept of the living world. This book Recent Trends Innovation Chemical and Biological Science: An Approach towards Qualitative and Quantitative Studies and Applications is a considerable effort taken by different authors in the discipline to provide new methodologies of research, its applications, and practical inducements of chemical sciences and Biological Science. The various themes in the book such as application of biological organisms, ethnomedicinal used in different human disorder, biological activity of Indian medicinal plants, Ethnobotanical study, Ecofriendly energy, Transplastomic plants, Role of Sacred Groves in Biodiversity Conservation, Medicinal property rich plants comphora and different traditional parts in India its application. It covers topic from environment science like effect of toxic chemical on environment. Also covered point from pharmacognosy like as the pharmacological property of Euphorbiaceae. It cover topic like phytochemistry biochemistry and active ingredients Indian medicinal plants. From chemical science subject like organic and inorganic and as well as applied chemistry included such Activities. It also cover there under medicinal and computational chemistry. This book acts as an intermediary manual between Chemical sciences with other disciplines paving a way for ideas to new research in the respective arena. The experiments described in the boom chapters are such as should be performed by everyone beginning the study of chemistry, and would also serve as an excellent introduction to a course of qualitative and quantitative analysis. All scientists, academicians, researchers, and students working in the fields of chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering, among other fields, will find this book quite valuable. This book with valuable book chapters from eminent scientists, academicians, and researchers will surely be a part of almost information for the coming new research taken by the researchers in the field of chemical sciences and other disciplines in the future. Dr. Bassa Satyannarayana Mr. Mukul Machhindra Barwant CONTENT
Over the years, the food technology has emerged in tandem with changes in dietary trends. New technologies have arisen that not only improve the flavor and shelf life of food goods, but also contain effective additives that are same for customers’ health and provide nutraceutical benefits. As a result, the adoption of natural alternatives to replace synthetic additives is increasing in ongoing research. Biosurfactants have evolved as natural alternatives that can employed as an emulsifying agent in the food processing industry. Biosurfactants of the lipopeptide, glycolipid, glycoprotein, glycolipopeptide types can emulsify a wide range of vegetable oils and fats in food processing with high emulsification index. This biomolecule has a beneficial impact on texture profile analysis and sensory attributes such as color, aroma, and taste evolution in baked goods. The research in this field is still in the lab, and additional research is needed before this natural alternative, biosurfactants, may be used in large industrial sectors.
Biosurfactants are natural surface-active materials created by microorganisms. Biosurfactants can contribute several properties including antibacterial, antioxidant, emulsifying, and antiadhesive activities to the food in which they are incorporated. Biosurfactants have been employed in food formulations to enhance viscosity, extending the shelf life of the products, improving texture and flavor, as well as lowering the calorie value by substituting fat. This chapter summarizes the activities of biosurfactants as antioxidants in food, as well as the features of biosurfactants in boosting food quality and the variables impacting biosurfactant synthesis.
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AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Sapindus mukorossi (S. mukorossi) and Rheum emodi (R. emodi). METHODS: Powders of S. mukorossi and R. emodi were extracted successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethanol and were concentrated in vacuum. The disk diffusion method was used for in vitro studies and in vivo studies were performed on male Wister rats. Thirty resistant clinical isolates of H pylori, as determined by their antibiotic sensitivity patterns by E-test, along with two Gram +ve (S. aureus, B. subtilis) and two Gram -ve (E. coli, P. vugaris) organisms were screened for their susceptibility patterns against these extracts. RESULTS: In our screening, all 30 resistant isolates and the other four organisms (two Gram +ve S. aureus, B. subtilis and two Gram -ve, E. coli, P. vugaris) were sensitive to the test compounds. It was found that ethanol and chloroform extracts of S. mukorossi and ethanol and benzene extracts of R. emodi inhibited H pylori at very low concentrations. In the in vitro study, the isolates showed a considerable zone of inhibition at very low concentrations (10 μg/mL) for both the extracts. In the in vivo study, the H pylori infection was cleared with minimal doses of extracts of S. mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and R. emodi (3.0 mg/mL) given orally for seven days. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that the extracts of S. mukorossi and R. emodi inhibited the growth of pylori in vitro and, in in vivo studies, the H pylori infection cleared within seven days at very low concentrations. We also found that H pylori did not acquire resistance against these herbal extracts even after 10 consecutive passages.
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The genus Sapindus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities together with traditional importances. Trees of genus Sapindus are cultivated in many parts of India for ornamental purposes. The present review is based on chemical constituents and biological activities of known species of Sapindus. The different species of Sapindus are used for curing various diseases and commercially important. Over 103 compounds have been identified in the genus Sapindus and many of them have been evaluated for their biological activities. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully imitated by individual constituent. The aim of present review is to summarize the different phytochemical and pharmacological work together.
The structure of sapindoside D, which is a hexaoside of hederagenin, has been shown.
The structure of two triterpone glycosides from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. has been established. It has been shown that sapindoside A is hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(2 → 1)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and sapindoside B is the 3-O-α-L-arabopyranosyl-(2 → 1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(3→ 1)-β-D-xylopyranoside.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.(Sapindaceae). The anxiolytic activity was evaluated by Elevated plus maze, Y-maze, Hole-board, Actophotometer, and Marble-burying behavior models. The efficacy of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) was compared with the standard anxiolytic drugs Diazepam (2 mg/kg) and Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg). The result showed that the extract significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in the open arm in the elevated plus maze. The results also showed that the extract significantly increased the number of head dipping and line crossing, decreased the numbers of visits to the three arms, locomotor score and number of marble-buried in Hole-board, Y-maze, Actophotometer and Marble-burying behavior models respectively. Present study confirms that the extract showed significant anxiolytic activity at both dose levels which is comparable with standard anxiolytics Diazepam and Fluoxetine.
High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method as well as high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method combined with ES-MS are developed and validated for fingerprinting (profiling) Sapindus saponin and quantitative determination of Sapindoside B in bulk drug samples of Sapindus saponin and its formulation Consap cream. The separation of saponins using TLC is achieved on precoated silica gel plates using chloroform: methanol: water as mobile phase. Detection of the spots is done at the 630 nm. The identification of saponins is done by LC-MS, using Electro Spray Ionisation [ESI] technique. The HPLC method involves chromatography of the saponins on reverse phase (C-18) column, using acetonitrile-water gradient as mobile phase. The detection is done by UV-visible detector at a wavelength of 215 nm. Calibration graphs are found to be linear over the range 11-220 μg in HPTLC and 30-200 μg/mL in HPLC method. The methods developed are being used for the analysis of the bulk drug samples and Consap cream samples.