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Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi


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Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant's potential as being spermicidal, contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.
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Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo
54(5):273-280, September-October, 2012
doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652012000500007
Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, 273009, U.P. India.
Correspondence to: Prof. D.K. Singh, Malacology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur, 273009, UP, India. Tel: +91 551 2202187(O)/0509(R).
Sapindus mukorossi is an extremely valuable medicinal plant, distributed in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Asia. The aim of
present review is to form a short compilation of the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties of this multipurpose
tree. The main phytoconstituents isolated and identified from different parts of this plant are triterpenoidal saponins of oleanane,
dammarane and tirucullane type. The structure and chemical names of all the types of triterpenoidal saponins reported in Sapindus
mukorossi are included in this review. Many research studies have been conducted to prove the plant’s potential as being spermicidal,
contraceptive, hepatoprotective, emetic, anti-inflammatory and anti-protozoal. The present review highlights some of the salient
pharmacological uses of Sapindus mukorossi.
KEYWORDS: Sapindus mukorossi; Pharmacology; Saponins.
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn., a member of the family Sapindaceae, is
commonly known by several names such as soapnut, soapberry, washnut,
reetha, aritha, dodan and doadni. It is a deciduous tree widely grown in
upper reaches of Indo-Gangetic plains, Shivaliks and sub Himalayan
tracts at altitudes from 200 m to 1500 m. The Sapindus mukorossi is a
fairly large, deciduous tree with a straight trunk up to 12 meters in height,
sometimes attaining a height of 20 m and a girth of 1.8 m, with a globose
crown and rather fine leathery foliage. Bark is dark to pale yellow, fairly
smooth, with many vertical lines of lenticels and fine fissures exfoliating
in irregular wood scales. The blaze is 0.8-1.3 cm, hard, not fibrous, pale
orange brown, brittle and granular. Leaves are 30-50 cm long, alternate,
paripinnate; common petiole very narrowly bordered, glabrous; leaflets
5-10 pairs, opposite or alternate, 5-18 by 2.5-5 cm, lanceolate, acuminate,
entire, glabrous, often slightly falcate or oblique; petioles 2-5 m long.
Inflorescence is a compound terminal panicle, 30 cm or more in length,
with pubescent branches. Flowers are about 5 mm across, small, terminal,
polygamous, greenish white, subsessile, numerous, mostly bisexual.
Sepals 5, each with a woolly scale on either side above the claw. Fruits are
globose, fleshy, 1-seeded drupe, sometimes two drupels together, about
1.8-2.5 cm across. Seeds are 0.8-1.3 cm in diameter, globose, smooth,
black and loosely placed in dry fruit7.
The fruit is valued for the saponins (10.1%) present in the pericarp
and constitutes up to 56.5% of the drupe known for inhibiting tumor cell
growth37. In China and Japan it has been used as a remedy for centuries.
In Japan its pericarp is called “enmei-hi”, which means “life prolonging
pericarp” and in China “wu-huan-zi”, the “non-illness fruit”37. The major
compounds isolated from Sapindus mukorossi are triterpenoidal saponins
of mainly three oleanane, dammarane and tirucullane types. Recently
many of the pharmacological actions of this plant have been explored
which includes the antimicrobial19, cytotoxic29, molluscicidal16,42,
insecticidal12,26, piscicidal44 and fungicidal37,41 activities. One of the most
talked about activities of this plant is the contraceptive activity of the
saponins extracted from the pericarp of the fruit11,27.
Sapindus mukorossi is well known for its folk medicinal values30.
Pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi have been traditionally used as an
expectorant as well as a source of natural surfactant20. Due to the presence
of saponins, soapnut is well known for its detergent and insecticidal
properties and it is traditionally used for removing lice from the scalp.
The fruits are of considerable importance for their medicinal value for
treating a number of diseases like excessive salivation, pimples, epilepsy,
chlorosis, migranes, eczema and psoriasis21. The powdered seeds are
employed in the treatment of dental caries, arthritis, common colds,
constipation and nausea8. The seeds of Sapindus mukorossi are used in
Ayurvedic medicine to remove tan and freckles from the skin. It cleanses
the skin of oily secretion and is even used as a cleanser for washing hair
as it forms a rich, natural lather. The leaves are used in baths to relieve
joint pain and the roots are used in the treatment of gout and rheumatism.
Since ancient times Sapindus mukorossi has been used as a detergent for
shawls and silks. The fruit of Sapindus mukorossi was utilized by Indian
jewelers for restoring the brightness of tarnished ornaments made of gold,
silver and other precious metals33.
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
The major constituents of Sapindus mukorossi fruit are saponins
(10%-11.5%), sugars (10%) and mucilage10. Saponins are secondary plant
metabolites with divergent biological activities10. Sapindus saponins are
a mixture of six sapindosides (sapindosides A, B, C, D and mukorozi
saponins (E1 and Y1), with sapindoside B as one of the major constituents,
isolated by n-butanol extraction of the ethanolic extract of fruit pericarp
of Sapindus mukorossi and identified by liquid chromatography and
mass spectroscopy28. Saponins are a large family of structurally-related
compounds of steroid or triterpenoid aglycone (sapogenin) linked
to one or more oligosaccharide moieties by glycosidic linkage. The
aglycone, or sapogenin, may contain one or more unsaturated C-C
bonds. The oligosaccharide chain is normally attached at the C3 position
(monodesmosidic), but many saponins have an additional sugar moiety
at the C2,6 or C2,8 position (bidesmosidic)10. The great complexity of the
saponin structure arises from the variability of the aglycone structure, the
nature of the side chains and the position of attachment of these moieties
on the aglycone10. The carbohydrate moiety consists of pentoses, hexoses
or uronic acids. Due to this complexity, saponins are difficult to classify.
Because it is no longer customary to classify compounds based on their
physicochemical or biological properties, a state of the art classification
based on the biosynthesis of the saponin carbon skeletons was proposed
by VINCKEN et al.43.
Different types of triterpene, saponins of oleanane, dammarane and
tirucullane type were isolated from the galls, fruits and roots of Sapindus
mukorossi. Oleanane type triterpenoid saponins named Sapindoside A&B
(Fig. 34 & 35) were reported from the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi6.
Sapindoside C (Fig. 36)4, Sapindoside D (Fig. 37)5, which is a hexaoside
of hederagenin, and Sapindoside E (Fig. 38)3, a nonaoside of hederagenin,
was isolated and identified from the methanolic extract of the fruits of
Sapindus mukorossi.
Dammarane-type saponins, named Sapinmusaponins A & B (Fig. 11
& 12), C-E (Fig. 15, 16, 17), together with three known phenylpropanoid
glycosides, were isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi45.
Tirucallane-type saponins, sapinmusaponins F-J (Fig. 18-22), were
isolated from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi as reported by HUANG
et al.17. The structures of these saponins were elucidated on the basis of
spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques.
Triterpene saponins of oleanane type like, Sapinmusaponin K-N (Fig.
25-28), Mukorozisaponin G & E1 (Fig. 29-30), Sapindoside A & B along
with dammarane types like Sapinmusaponin O and P (Fig. 13 & 14) were
isolated from fruits and the galls of Sapindus mukorossi as per HUANG
et al.15. In another study by NAKAYAMA et al.23, Mukorozisaponin Y1
(Fig. 31), Y2 (Fig. 32), X (Fig. 33) were isolated from the pericarp of
Sapindus mukorossi.
Fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the galls of Sapindus mukorossi
has resulted in the isolation of two tirucallane type triterpenoid saponins,
sapinmusaponin Q and R (Fig. 23-24), along with three known oleanane
type triterpenoid saponins: sapindoside A, sapindoside B, and hederagenin-
arabinopyranoside14. The roots of Sapindus mukorossi contain tirucallane-
type triterpenoid saponins like Sapimukoside A & B38, Sapimukoside C
&D25. Further investigation of the roots of Sapindus mukorossi by NI
et al.24 reported the presence of Sapimukosides E-J24. The structures of
Sapimukosides A-J are shown in Fig. 1 to Fig. 10 respectively. Table 1
shows whole view of all the saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi.
1. Anti-bacterial activity: IBRAHIM et al.19 evaluated that
ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Sapindus mukorossi inhibited
the growth of Helicobacter pylori (both sensitive and resistant), at
very low concentrations, when given orally for seven days to male
wister rats. In the in vitro study, the isolates show a considerable zone
of inhibition at very low concentration (10 µg/mL) and in the in vivo
Fig R1 R2
2 Glc6-Rha H
8 3-Ara
9 3-Rha
10 Glc6-Rha Et
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
Table 1
List of Saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi
Saponins Chemical name Tirucullane/oleanane/
dammarane type
Structure Reference
A Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(21)-α-L-
Oleanane 34 Chirva et al., 1970 a
B Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(21)-O-α-L-
Oleanane 35 Chirva et al., 1970 a
C Hederagenin-3-O-β-D-glucosyl(14)-β-D-xylosyl
(13)-α-L-rhamnosyl(12)- α-L-arabinoside
Oleanane 36 Chirva et al., 1970 b
A 3,7,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 11 Yao et al., 2005
B 3,7,20(S),22,23-pentahydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 12 Yao et al., 2005
C 3,7,20(S),22,25-pentahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 15 Yao et al., 2005
D 25-methoxy-3,7,20(S),22-tetrahydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-α-
Dammarane 16 Yao et al., 2005
E 25-methoxy-3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-23-ene-3-O-α-L-
Dammarane 17 Yao et al., 2005
F 21 β-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 18 Huang et al., 2006
G 21α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-
Tirucullane 19 Huang et al., 2006
H 21α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 20 Huang et al., 2006
I 21β-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 21 Huang et al., 2006
J 21α-methoxy-3-β-21(S), 23I-epoxy tirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-
Tirucullane 22 Huang et al., 2006
K hederagenin-3-O-(3-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 25 Huang et al., 2008
L hederagenin-3-O-(4-O-acetyl-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 26 Huang et al., 2008
M hederagenin-3-O-(2,3-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 27 Huang et al., 2008
N hederagenin-3-O-(2,4-O-diacetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl)-
Oleanane 28 Huang et al., 2008
O 3,7,20(S)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-
Dammarane 13 Huang et al., 2008
P 3,7,20(R)-trihydroxydammar-24-ene-3-O-alpha-L-
Dammarane 14 Huang et al., 2007
Q 21α-methoxy-3β, 21I, 23(S)-epoxytirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-β-
Tirucullane 23 Huang et al., 2007
R 21α-methoxy-3β, 21I, 23(S)-epoxytirucall-7,24-diene-3-O-α-
Tirucullane 24 Huang et al., 2007
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
A 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-*α-L-
arabinopyranosyl-(13)+ – β-D-glucopyranosyl-21,
23R-epoxyl tirucall-7, 24R-diene-3 β, 2-diol
Tirucullane 1 Teng et al., 2003
B 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-21,
23R-epoxyl tirucall-7, 24R-diene-3 β, 21-diol
Tirucullane 2 Teng et al., 2003
C 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-
(13)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-
Tirucullane 3 Teng et al., 2004
D 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-[α-L-arabinopyranosyl-
(13)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl (21,23R)-epoxyl tirucall-7,
24-diene-(21S)-methoxyl-3β-ol .
Tirucullane 4 Teng et al., 2004
E 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 5 Ni et al., 2006
F {3-O-β-D-xylanopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 6 Ni et al., 2006
G {3-O-β-D-xylanopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
(21,23R)-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-methoxy-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 7 Ni et al., 2006
H {3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxy-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 8 Ni et al., 2006
I {3-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl-(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-methoxy-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 9 Ni et al., 2006
J {3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(16)-β-D-glucopyranosyl
21,23R-epoxyl tirucalla-7,24-diene-21β-ethoxyl-3β-ol}
Tirucullane 10 Ni et al., 2006
G Hederagenin-3-O-(2-O-acetyl-β-D-xylanopyranosyl)-(13)-
Oleanane 29 Huang et al., 2008
E1 Hederagenin-3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(13)-α-L-
Oleanane 30 Huang et al., 2008
Table 1
List of Saponins isolated from Sapindus mukorossi (cont.)
study the Helicobacter pylori infection was cleared with minimal dose
extracts of 2.5 mg/mL.
2. Insecticidal activity: Saponins possess insecticidal activity,
causing mortality and/or growth inhibition in the insects tested, the
cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis caterpillars and the pea aphid
Acyrthosiphon pisum. In the experiments with Acyrthosiphon pisum,
0.1% saponin killed all aphids, whereas with Spodoptera some
caterpillars were still able to develop into apparently normal adults on
food containing 7% saponin12. Saponins can be employed as novel natural
tactics in integrated pest management (IPM) to control pest insects, which
fit in modern agriculture and horticulture13. Ethanolic extract of Sapindus
mukorossi was investigated for repellency and insecticidal activity against
Sitophilus oryzae and Pediculus humanus. Average mortality percentage
indicated that the extracts caused significant mortality and repellency on
the target insects and bioassays indicated that toxic and repellent effect
was proportional to the concentration26.
3. Spermicidal activity: Saponins from Sapindus mukorossi are
known to be spermicidal11,27. Morphological changes in human ejaculated
spermatozoa after exposure to this saponin were evaluated under scanning
electron microscopy. The minimum effective concentration (0.05% in spot
test) did not affect the surface topography after exposure for one minute.
However, incubation of spermatozoa for 10 minutes resulted in extensive
vesiculation and a disruption of the plasma membrane in the head region.
Higher concentrations (0.1%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0%) caused more or less
similar changes which included vesiculation, vacuolation, disruption or
erosion of membranes in the head region. These findings suggest that the
morphological changes observed are due to alterations in the glycoproteins
associated with the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane of spermatozoa8.
This spermicidal property has been used in contraceptive cream9.
4. Anti-Trichomonas activity: TIWARI et al.39 demonstrated
that the Sapindus saponin mixture shows anti-Trichomonas activity
at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.005%) than its minimal effective
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
spermicidal concentration against human spermatozoa (0.05%)11.
Saponin concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites
to adhere to HeLa cells and decreased the proteolytic activity of the
parasite’s cysteine proteinases. This was associated with the decreased
expression of adhesin AP65 and membrane-expressed cysteine proteinase
TvCP2 genes. Saponins produced no adverse effect on host cells in the
mitochondrial reduction potential measurement assay. Saponin disrupts
the actin cytoskeleton network beneath the cell membrane and affects
membrane-mediated adherence of Trichomonas to the host cells.
5. Anti-cancer activity: Due to the great variability in saponin
structure, saponins always display anti-tumorigenic effect through
varieties of anti-tumor pathways. There are more than 11 distinguished
classes of saponins including dammaranes, tirucallanes, lupanes,
hopanes, oleananes, taraxasteranes, ursanes, cycloartanes, lanostanes,
cucurbitanes and steroids. Ginsenosides, belonging to dammaranes,
have been found beneficial in the inhibition of tumor angiogenesis by
suppressing its inducer in the endothelial cells of blood vessels, and then
in the prevention of adhering, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells22.
Dioscin, one of the steroidal saponins, and its aglycone diosgenin also
has an extensive anti-tumor effect by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis22.
The preliminary bioassay data revealed that saponins [39,4]-43] showed
moderate cytotoxic activity (ED50~9-18µg/mL) against human tumor cell
lines (Hepa59T/VGH, NCL, HeLa and Med)29. Strychnopentamine was
the reference compound used in the study. All saponins were reported to
be at least five times less active than the reference compound36.
6. Hepatoprotective activity: IBRAHIM et al.18 reported that the
extracts of Sapindus mukorossi (2.5 mg/L) and Rheum emodi (3.0 mg/L)
have a protective capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures
and in vivo in a rat model of tetrachloride carbon (CCl4) mediated liver
injury as judged from serum marker enzyme activities. These cultures
were treated with CCl4 and extracts of Sapindus mukorossi & Rheum
emodi. A protective activity could be demonstrated in the CCl4 damaged
primary monolayer culture. For the in vivo study, the hepatoprotective
capacity of the extract of the fruit pericarp of S. mukorossi and the
rhizomes of Rheum emodi was analyzed in liver injured CCl4- treated
male rats. Extracts of the fruit pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi (2.5 mg/
mL) and rhizomes of Rheum emodi (3.0 mg/mL) were found to have
protective properties in rats with CCl4 induced liver damage as judged
from serum marker enzyme activities. Thus, it was concluded that the
extracts of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum emodi do have a protective
capacity both in vitro on primary hepatocytes cultures and in in vivo in
a rat model of CCl4 mediated liver injury.
7. Anxiolytic activity: Methanolic extracts of Sapindus mukorossi
(200 and 40 mg/L) show significant anxiolytic activity as compared to
standard anxiolytics Diazepam (2 mg/Kg) and Fluoxetine (10 mg/Kg)1.
Fig R1 R2 R3 R4 R5
11 Glc2-Rha H OH OH H
12 Glc2-Rha H OH OH OH
13 Glc2-Rha OH CH3 H H
14 Glc2-Rha CH3 OH H H
Fig R1 R2 R3
15 Glc2-Rha OH OH
16 Glc2-Rha OH OCH3
17 Glc2-Rha H OCH3
Fig R1R2
18 Glc6-Rha β-OCH3
19 Glc6-Rha α-OCH3
20 Glc2-Rha α-OCH3
21 Glc β-OCH3
22 Glc α-OCH3
23 Glc2-Glc α-OCH3
24 Glc α-OCH3
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
8. Molluscicidal activity: Extracts of Sapindus mukorossi showed
molluscicidal effect against the golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata
Lamarck. (Ampullariidae) with LC50 values of 85, 22 and 17 ppm
at 24, 48 and 72h exposure period, respectively16. Bioassay-directed
fractionation of Sapindus mukorossi resulted in the isolation of one
new hederagenin-based acetylated saponin, hederagenin 3-O-(2,4-O-di-
L-arabinopyranoside [1], along with six known hederagenin saponins,
hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-α-L-arabinopyranoside)-(13)-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-α-L-arabinopyranoside [2], hederagenin 3-O-(3-
arabinopyranoside [3], hederagenin 3-O-(4-O-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-
(13)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-α-L-arabinopyranoside [4],
hederagenin 3-O-(3,4-O-di-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl)-(13)-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyl-(12)-α-L-arabinopyranoside [5], hederagenin
arabinopyranoside [6], and hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside [7].
The bioassay data revealed that 1-7 were molluscicidal, causing 70-100%
mortality at 10 ppm against the golden apple snail16.
UPADHYAY & SINGH42 reported that Sapindus mukorossi fruit
pericarp is a potential source of botanical molluscicides against Lymnaea
acuminata. These snails are the intermediate host of liver fluke Fasciola
gigantica, which causes 94% fascioliasis in the buffalo population
of northern India32. The active molluscicidal component of Sapindus
mukorossi fruit is soluble in chloroform, ether, acetone and ethanol.
The toxicity of ethanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi fruit powder
is higher than other extracts which indicates that the molluscicidal
component present is more soluble in ethanol than other organic solvents.
UPADHYAY & SINGH42 characterized that saponin is the active
component present in Sapindus mukorossi fruit by High Performance
Liquid Chromatography. A comparison of the molluscicidal activity of
the column-purified fraction of Sapindus mukorossi fruit powder with
synthetic molluscicides clearly demonstrates that the purified fraction
of Sapindus mukorossi is more potent. The LC50 at 96 h of the column–
purified fraction of Sapindus mukorossi fruit powder (5.43 mg/L) against
Lymnaea acuminata is lower than those of synthetic molluscicides-
carbaryl (14.40 mg/L), phorate (15.0 mg/L), formothion (8.56 mg/L) and
niclosamide (11.8 mg/L)32. LC50 at 96 h of crude powder of Sapindus
mukorossi (119.57 mg/L) against Lymnaea acuminata is lower than the
crude powder of Canna indica root (359.02 mg/L)40, Thuja orientalis
leaf powder (250.55 mg/L), Thuja orientalis fruit powder (255.12
mg/L)31, Zingiber officinale rhizome (273.80 mg/L), Allium cepa bulb
(253.27 mg/L)34.
9. Tyrosinase inhibition and free radical scavenging: CHEN
et al.2 first evaluated that the extracts of Sapindus mukorossi seeds
using methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EA) or hexane as solvents
show tyrosinase inhibition, free radical scavenging, antimicrobial and
anticancer properties. Sapindus mukorossi extracts showed strong specific
inhibition activities on the proliferation of human melanoma and lung
cell lines. The data exhibited the high potential of applying Sapindus
mukorossi extracts in medical cosmetology, food supplementation,
antibiotics and chemotherapy.
10. Fungicidal activity: The crude extract of Sapindus mukorossi
exhibits a strong growth inhibition against the pathogenic yeast Candida
albicans, which causes cutaneous candidiasis. Extracts from the dried
pericarp of Sapindus L. (Sapindaceae) fruits were investigated for their
antifungal activity against clinical isolates of yeasts Candida albicans
and Candida non-albicans from vaginal secretions of women with
Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Four clinical isolates of C. albicans, a single
clinical isolate of each of the species C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C.
tropicalis, and the strain of C. albicans ATCC 90028 were used. The
hydroalcoholic extract was bioactivity-directed against a clinical isolate
of C. parapsilosis, and showed strong activity. The n-BuOH extract and
one fraction showed strong activity against all isolates tested41. The
saponin fraction inhibited the dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum,
Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Sabouraudites canis and Epidermophyton
Fig R1R2
25 Ara2-Rha3-Ara3-OAC H
26 Ara2-Rha3-Rha4-OAC H
27 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl H
28 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl H
29 Ara2-Rha3-Xy H
30 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-OAC H
31 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl Glc2-Glc
32 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl Glc2-Glc
33 Ara2-Rha Glc2-Glc
34 Ara2-Rha H
35 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl H
36 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc H
37 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc H
38 Ara2-Rha3-Xyl Ara2-Rha3-Xyl4-Glc
UPADHYAY, A. & SINGH, D.K. - Pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo, 54(5): 273-80, 2012.
11. Anti-inflammatory activity: TAKAGI et al.35 reported that crude
saponin and hederagenin isolated from Sapindus mukorossi inhibited
the development of carrageen-induced edema in the rat hind paw as
well as on granuloma and exudates formations induced by croton oil
in rats. The effects of these agents on vascular permeability and acetic
acid induced writhing in mice were also examined. Anti-inflammatory
activity on carrageenin edema was observed after intraperitoneal and
oral administration of crude saponin, whilst hederagenin and the other
agents showed activity only when administered.
12. Piscicidal activity: Effects of Sapindus mukorossi have been
studied on fish. Pericarp of Sapindus mukorossi is the most toxic parts
yielding 100% mortality within 12 hours and mean survival time was
found to be 1.18 hours. LD10, LD50, LD100 ranging between 3.5 ppm and
10 ppm at 48 hrs and possess high potential for fish eradication. Sapindus
mukorossi fruit pericarp can be used as a selective eradicant for horny
fish like Heteropneustes fossils and channa punctuate44.
13 Anti-platelet aggregation activity: HUANG and co workers
demonstrated that five new tirucallane type saponins, sapinmusasaponins
from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi, showed moderate activity in a
12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus
early antigen (EBV-EA) activation assay25.
Sapindus mukorossi is a versatile and exceptionally valuable
medicinal plant. It is known by such regional names as soapnut,
soapberry, washnut, reetha and dodan. The phytochemical screening of
the plant extract showed the presence of saponins (10.1%) present in the
pericarp of the fruit. The use of Sapindus mukorossi in folk medicine
worldwide30 is validated by scientific studies that have demonstrated the
efficacy of the extracts in various experimental models. Pharmacological
effects of Sapindus mukorossi have been reported like anti-bacterial19,
insecticidal12,13,26, spermicidal11,27, anti-trichomonas11,39, anti-tumor22,29,36,
hepatoprotective18, anxiolytic1, molluscicidal16,42, fungicidal37,41, anti-
inflammatory35 and piscicidal44 activities and are being employed for
the treatment of different ailments in the indigenous system of medicine.
Although a number of phytochemicals present in Sapindus mukorossi
have been isolated and identified by researchers working in different
laboratories, their pharmacological/biological studies in human welfare
has not been studied so far.
Most of the scientific study is confined to the elaboration of traditional
practices of Sapindus mukorossi. There is a long list of saponins present
in Sapindus mukorossi. It needs individual attention so that they can be
explored in different pharmacological studies. The literature reviewed
gives a limited picture of pharmacological effects of Sapindus mukorossi.
There is a need for much additional research regarding pharmacological
effects of Sapindus mukorossi at molecular level to explain their mode
of action.
Sapindus mukorossi is a tropical tree whose numerous economic
applications and whose facility of propagation are arousing international
interest. It needs to be widely cultivated in most of the areas where
climatic conditions favor its optimum growth. In this way, a maximum
yield of its different usable parts could be achieved to derive the
maximal amount of commodities of a multifarious nature for the
welfare of mankind. This plant has been used as traditional medicine
for various ailments. The earlier reports on chemical investigation and
pharmacological evaluation showed that Sapindus mukorossi contains a
number of bio-active novel compounds. As literature illustrates, many
biological and pharmacological activities are shown by fractions of crude
extracts and isolated substances. Furthermore, the detailed chemical
analysis is required to isolate bio-active constituents from Sapindus
mukorossi and to trace out their biological activities. Thus, it can be
concluded that Sapindus mukorossi can play an important role in modern
medical system in near future.
Efeitos farmacológicos do Sapindus mukorossi
Sapindus mukorossi é planta medicinal extremamente valiosa
distribuída nas regiões tropical e subtropical da Ásia. O propósito da
presente revisão é uma compilação curta da composição fitoquímica e
das propriedades farmacológicas desta árvore que apresenta múltiplos
propósitos. O principal fitoconstituinte isolado e identificado das diferentes
partes desta planta são as saponinas triterpenoidais do tipo da oleana,
damarana e tiruculana. A estrutura e o nome químico de todos os tipos
de saponinas triterpenoidais encontrados no Sapindus mukorossi estão
incluídos nesta revisão. Muitas pesquisas tem sido conduzidas para provar o
potencial desta planta como espermaticida, contraceptivo, hépato-protetor,
emético, anti-inflamatório e anti-protozoário. A presente revisão exalta
alguns principais usos farmacológicos do Sapindus mukorossi.
One of the authors Aparna Upadhyay is thankful to Department of
Science and Technology, New Delhi for financial assistance (Inspire
Fellowship number- IF10296).
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8. Dhar JP, Bajpai VK, Setty BS, Kamboj VP. Morphological changes in human
spermatozoa as examined under scanning electron microscope after in vitro exposure
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9. Dwivedi AK, Chaudhry M, Sarin JPS. Standardization of a new spermicidal
agent Sapindus saponin and its estimation in its formulation. Indian J Pharm Sci.
10. Francis G, Kerem Z, Makkar H, Becker K. The biological action of saponins in animal
systems: a review. Br J Nutr. 2002;88:587-605.
11. Garg S, Taluja V, Upadhyay M, Talwar GP. Studies on contraceptive efficacy of
Praneem polyherbal cream. Contraception. 1993;48:591-6.
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Commun Agric Appl Biol Sci. 2007;72:645-8.
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as natural insecticides to control pest insects. Pest Tech. 2007;1:96-105.
14. Huang HC, Tsai WJ, Liaw CC, Wu SH, Wu YC, Kuo YH. Anti-platelet aggregation
triterpene saponins from the galls of Sapindus mukorossi. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).
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from the fruits and galls of Sapindus mukorossi. Phytochemistry. 2008;69:1609-16.
16. Huang HC, Liao SC, Chang FR, Kuo YH, Wu YC. Molluscicidal saponins from
Sapindus mukorossi, inhibitory agents of Golden Apple snails Pomacea canaliculata.
J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4916-9.
17. Huang HC, Tsai WJ, Morris-Natschke SL, Tokuda H, Lee KH, Wu YC, et al.
Sapinmusaponins F-J, bioactive tirucallane-type saponins from the galls of Sapindus
mukorossi. J Nat Prod. 2006;69:763-7.
18. Ibrahim M, Khaja MN, Aara A, Khan AA, Habeeb MA, Devi, YP, et al.
Hepatoprotective activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum modi extracts: in vitro
and in vivo studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14:2566-71.
19. Ibrahim M, Khan AA, Tiwari SK, Habeeb MA, Khaja MN, Habibullah CM.
Anti-microbial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Rheum modi extracts against
Helicobacter pylori: in vitro and in vivo studies. World J Gastroenterol. 2006;12:7136-
20. Kasai R, Fujino H, Kuzuki T, Wong WH, Goto C, Yata N, et al. Acyclic sesquiterpene
oligoglycosides from pericarps of Sapindus mukorossi. Phytochemistry. 1986;25:871-
21. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Allahabad: B.L.M. Publication; 1991.
22. Man S, Gao W, Zhang Y, Huang L, Liu C. Chemical study and medical application
of saponins as anti-cancer agents. Fitoterapia. 2010;81:703-14.
23. Nakayama K, Fujino H, Kasai R, Mitoma Y, Yata N, Tanaka O. Solubilizing
properties of saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).
24. Ni W, Hua Y, Liu HY, Teng RW, Kong YC, Hu XY, et al. Tirucallane-type triterpenoid
saponins from the roots of Sapindus mukorossi. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo).
25. Ni W, Hua Y, Teng RW, Kong YC, Chen CX. New tirucallane-type triterpenoid
saponins from Sapindus mukorossi. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2004;6:205-9.
26. Rahman SS, Rahman M, Begum SA, Khan MMR, Bhuiyan MH. Investigation of
Sapindus mukorossi extracts for repellency, insecticidal activity and plant growth
regulatory effect. J Appl Sci Res. 2007;3:95-101.
27. Rastogi RP, Mehrotra BN. Compendium of Indian medicinal plants. New Delhi:
CDRI Publication; 1999. p. 609-10.
28. Saxena D, Pal R, Dwivedi AK, Singh S. Characterization of sapindosides in Sapindus
mukorossi saponin (Reetha saponin) and quantitative determination of sapindoside
B. J Sci Ind Res. 2004;63:181-6.
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oil. Lipids. 1975;10:33-40.
30. Sharma A, Sati SC, Sati OP, Sati D, Maneesha Kothiyal SK. Chemical constituents
and bioactivities of genus Sapindus. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm. 2011;2:403-9.
31. Singh A, Singh VK. Molluscicidal activity of Saraca asoca and Thuja orientalis
against the fresh water snail Lymnaea acuminata. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:206-10.
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37. Tanaka O, Tamura Y, Masuda H, Mizutani K. Application of saponins in food and
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Received: 17 December 2011
Accepted: 21 March 2012
... Sapindus mukorossi is a deciduous medicinal tree that is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia. The tree commonly grows in the western region of Nepal, tropical and subtropical regions of southern Qinling mountains of China and Shivaliks, Indo-Gangetic plains, and lower Himalayan regions of India [1][2][3]. It is commonly known as Reetha in India and as Rittha in Nepal [2,3]. ...
... The tree commonly grows in the western region of Nepal, tropical and subtropical regions of southern Qinling mountains of China and Shivaliks, Indo-Gangetic plains, and lower Himalayan regions of India [1][2][3]. It is commonly known as Reetha in India and as Rittha in Nepal [2,3]. In Japan, the S. mukorossi pericarps are called "enmei-hi" whereas in China they are known as "wu-Huan-zi" [4]. ...
... The leaves of the plant have an alternate pattern with pinnate leaflets [5]. The flowers are small, greenish-white, and form in panicles [3]. The fruits are globular, yellow, leathery shinned drupes and contain 1-3 black loosely places globose seeds [3,5]. ...
Full-text available
Sapindus mukorossi is a deciduous tree found throughout Asia's tropical and subtropical zones. It has long been utilized for the treatment of many illnesses in Ayurveda and Chinese traditional medicine. Ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities S. mukorossi are all explored in this paper. The review intends to provide scientists and academics working in the fields of biodegradation, biosurfactants, natural, herbal, alternative medicine, and bio-control agents to combat crop loss with an up-to-date and complete overview of S. mukorossi. S. mukorossi is a tree that could be a source of compounds that can help farmers avoid crop loss and financial damage by combating pests such as insects, mollusks, and fungi. It has been shown to contain a variety of phytochemicals, flavonoids, and enzymes, which could be used to increase the growth, immune system, and meat quality of poultry, as well as reduce the usage of antibiotics in poultry farming. Heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolic chemicals, and dyes can all be remedied with the saponin biosurfactants found in the three sections. Various studies have shown that the extracts and phytochemicals obtained from the plant have a wide spectrum of biological effects. They have shown anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, contraceptive, and wound healing properties in different in-vivo and in-vitro studies. However, further studies are required to understand the mechanism of action, safety, and effectiveness of the S. mukorossi extracts and phytochemicals. More, in-vivo and in-vitro studies are also necessary to correlate traditional use with bioactivity. Akhtar et al. 301
... (family Sapindaceae) known as "Indian Soap Berry or Soapnut tree" is beautiful, largeleaved deciduous tree of the Asian continent. It is indigenous to India and China, and widely cultivated in upper reaches of the Indo-Gangetic plains, Shivaliks and sub-Himalayan tracts at altitudes varying from 200 to 1500 m above mean sea level (Luna, 2006;Upadhyay and Singh, 2012). It has been growing sporadically in forests and around villages in agroforestry fields. ...
... Saponin finds application as an emulsifier in insecticides. Its kernels contain a fixed oil, which can be used for soap manufacture and the exhausted cake as a filler and fertilizer (Upadhyay and Singh, 2012). S. mukorossi can be used for economic upliftment of the local inhabitants as its fruits are being sold at high price in the market for preparing medicine/ detergent. ...
... S. mukorossi can be used for economic upliftment of the local inhabitants as its fruits are being sold at high price in the market for preparing medicine/ detergent. It bears flowers every year providing fruits for sale/or to be used in developing green soap/ detergent/ shampoo locally (Upadhyay and Singh, 2012). This species has also been grown along agricultural fields for fuel, timber and medicinal requirements. ...
Full-text available
Sapindus mukorossi, commonly known as Indian Soap Berry (family Sapindaceae), is found in Northern India East to the Himalayan tract and used in soap industry as well as medicines. A study was undertaken to determine the optimum conditions for germination and TM seedling growth of S. mukorossi using four different manures mixed with soil viz., Celrich (bio-organic soil enricher), farmyard manure (FYM), goat and poultry manures; three types of nursery beds viz., sunken, flat and raised; three types of containers (having different volumes); and three types of soils viz., silt loam, sandy loam and sandy. Maximum seed germination (%) was recorded in FYM, sunken bed, sandy soil and 4000 ml plastic pots as compared to other treatments. Based on these experiments, the best combination for optimum germination and growth in nursery for S. mukorossi was sandy soil + FYM + sunken beds or 4000 ml plastic pots. Seedlings of S. mukorossi TM raised in plastic pot, sandy loam soil, Celrich and sunken bed showed better performance in terms of plant height and collar diameter under field conditions. ARTICLE INFO
... Sapindus mukorossi: The phytochemical screening of plant shows that the pericarp of the fruit consists about 10.1% of saponin (Upadhyay and Singh 2012). It contains oleanane, dammarane, and tirucullane type saponins (Suhagia et al. 2011). ...
... The powdered seeds are used to cure dental problems, common cold, arthritis, nausea, constipation (Dhar et al. 1989;Singh and Ali 2019). The leaves are used in baths to relieve joint pains (Upadhyay and Singh 2012). The seed oil of S. mukorossi is found to be effective in healing skin wounds (Chen et al. 2019). ...
... The study done by Chen et al. (2019) on seed oil extract of S. mukorossi confirmed antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cell proliferation, and skin wound healing properties. Moreover, it possesses anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities (Upadhyay and Singh 2012). Fruits are useful in snake bite, scorpion sting and dermatological problems (Burlakoti and Kuwar 2008;Kunwar et al. 2019). ...
Sapindus boninensis Tuyama; Sapindus detergens Roxb., Sapindus indicus Poir.; Sapindus saponaria L.
... 5−7 Several studies suggested that the triterpenoid saponin fraction from the soapberry pericarp has great potential as a natural surfactant for washing the soil pollutants, and the traditional external uses of this natural surfactant as a washing soap has no toxic effects on human skin and eyes. 3,5 To date, more than 70 triterpenoid saponin compounds have been identified in soapberry, which are mainly divided into four structural types, namely, oleanane, lupine, dammarane, and tirucullane types. 6 However, the majority of studies on soapberry saponins have focused on constituents and bioactivity, while there have been no reports regarding the biosynthesis of these physiologically active substances. ...
Full-text available
Soapberry (Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.) pericarps are rich in valuable bioactive triterpenoid saponins. However, the saponin content dynamics and the molecular regulatory network of saponin biosynthesis in soapberry pericarps remain largely unclear. Here, we performed combined metabolite profiling and transcriptome analysis to identify saponin accumulation kinetic patterns, investigate gene networks, and characterize key candidate genes and transcription factors (TFs) involved in saponin biosynthesis in soapberry pericarps. A total of 54 saponins were tentatively identified, including 25 that were differentially accumulated. Furthermore, 49 genes putatively involved in sapogenin backbone biosynthesis and some candidate genes assumed to be responsible for the backbone modification, including 41 cytochrome P450s and 45 glycosyltransferases, were identified. Saponin-specific clusters/modules were identified by Mfuzz clustering and weighted gene coexpression network analysis, and one TF-gene regulatory network underlying saponin biosynthesis was proposed. The results of yeast one-hybrid assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggested that SmbHLH2, SmTCP4, and SmWRKY27 may play important roles in the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis by directly regulating the transcription of SmCYP71D-3 in the soapberry pericarp. Overall, these findings provide valuable information for understanding the molecular regulatory mechanism of saponin biosynthesis, enriching the gene resources, and guiding further research on triterpenoid saponin accumulation in soapberry pericarps.
... Sapindus saponins are a mixture of six sapindosides (sapindosides A, B, C, D and mukorozi saponins (E1 and Y1). [1] It is the popular ingredient of many cosmetic products such as shampoo, cleansers and soaps. ...
Full-text available
Literary Review of Arishtaka plant from ayurveda classics.
... S. mukorossi can act as efficient natural surfactants in detergents and as a unique emulsifier in food (Shah et al., 2017) because its fruits contain saponins, which can be used in daily chemical industry. Saponin extracts also have medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-microbial, and antifungal activities (Upadhyay and Singh, 2012). Therefore, fruits of S. mukorossi have been widely used as traditional Chinese medicines in the treatment of several diseases (Tian, 1989). ...
Sapindus mukorossi is a species of great value in the oil, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. However, there have been little progress in industrialization development of S. mukorossi for a long time due to lacking genomics resources and fuzzy genetic relationships. In this study, the S. mukorossi mitochondrial genome was sequenced and compared with other Sapindales for the first time. The genome organization, gene number, type, repeat sequences were compared, and a phylogenetic tree was also constructed. The S. mukorossi mitogenome is circular and 602,121 bp in length with 36 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 18 tRNA genes, 3 rRNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) contain introns. In the entire mitogenome, AT content (54.16%) was slightly higher than GC content (45.84%). RNA-editing sites analysis identified 487 RNA editing sites in the PCG region, and all sites were nonsynonymous. Gene selection pressure analysis showed that most PCGs were purifying selection genes, and only three PCGs (nad6, ccmB, and ccmFN) were positive selection genes. Among six Sapindales species examined, S. mukorossi mitogenome host the highest proportion of repetitive regions, in which transposable elements (TEs) comprised the largest (7.50%). Mitogenomic synteny analysis revealed several gene rearrangements and seldom shared DNA among Sapindales mitogenomes. Further comparative analysis indicated large variation and frequent gene transfer in plants. This study shows great variation among Sapindales mitogenomes and is of great importance to the improved variety breeding, variety identification and development of genetic resources of S. mukorossi.
Full-text available
Cleanliness has been an important part of human culture from times immemorial. Different kinds of cleaning products have evolved over the centuries. Traditionally, natural products like clay, sand, ash and plant extracts were used for cleaning. With advancement in the field of chemistry, man-made synthetic products arrived, which were easy to store and use. Today the market is replete with synthetic cleaning products, pushing natural cleaning materials to the background. These synthetic products are toxic to the human body and polluting to the environment. Natural materials produced from plants are biodegradable and non-toxic. This study focuses on a natural product extracted from ritha (Sapindus mukorossi or Sapindus trifoliatus). Ritha has traditionally been used in several cleaning activities and has many stories associated with it. Ritha is widely available all over the country and large quantities can be used. Our experiments with the ritha extract show that it has prominent cleaning ability and it is comparable with any synthetic detergent available in the market. Ritha can become a non-toxic economically viable alternative detergent with diverse uses.
Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. (Sapindaceae), soapberry is an important biodiesel tree in southern China. In recent years, leaf spot disease on soapberry has been observed frequently in soapberry germplasm repository, Jianning County, Sanming City, Fujian Province, China. The symptoms initially appeared as irregular small yellow spots, and the center of the lesions became dark brown with time. Three fungal isolates from lesions were collected. Koch's postulates were performed, and their pathogenicity was confirmed. Morphologically, α conidia from diseased tissues were 1-celled, hyaline, smooth, clavate or ellipsoidal, biguttulate, and measured 6.2–7.2 × 2.3–2.7 μm. In addition, the three isolates in this study developed three types (α, β, and γ) of conidia on PDA, and their morphological characteristics matched those of Diaporthe. A phylogenetic analysis based on ITS, TEF, TUB, HIS, and CAL sequence data determined that the three isolates are a new species of Diaporthe. Based on both morphological and phylogenetic analyses, the causal fungus, Diaporthe sapindicola sp. nov. was described and illustrated.
Soapnuts and other saponin-rich plant materials are known for their phytochemistry and pharmacology. After a gap of two decades, there has been a sudden spate in research on soapnuts with experiments on a wide range of applications. The present review compiles these different aspects of research to explore the possibility of creating a circular economy around soapnut. We are looking at the study from the cradle-to-grave approach. Of the twelve soapnut species present globally, this paper focuses on three- Sapindus mukorossi, S. trifoliatus syn laurifolia, and S. emarginatus. The saponin content varies among the three species, making it difficult to ascertain the critical micelle concentration (CMC), an important functional aspect. Recent research in applications includes surfactants in industry, laundry, bioremediation, biopesticide, poultry feed supplement, biodiesel, biochar, and pharmacology. As an alternative to laundry detergent, soapnut works best at CMC. The ecological services of the tree are restricted to terrestrial ecosystems, while the fruit is toxic to aquatic animals. More research is needed to establish the permissible limits for soapnut saponins in wastewater and their biodegradability before soapnuts can be accepted as a bio-based surfactant. Nevertheless, research indicates that it will be beneficial to propagate soapnuts as a sustainable supplement to petroleum-based surfactants and fuels. With many by-products from soapnuts, it is possible to attain zero wastage. Propagation techniques, including natural regeneration, selective crop breeding, vegetative propagation, and tissue culture, have been explored to promote high-quality crops. Planting the appropriate variety of soapnuts could provide a sustainable agroforestry crop that is resilient to climate change.
This study aimed at the extraction of soap nut fruit to blend with natural rubber as a natural additive. The effectiveness of blending at various blend ratios has been studied in detail. The effects of soap nut extract on the tensile properties, thermal stability, glass transition and crystalline melting temperatures, solvent transport properties, morphology and antibacterial properties were investigated. FTIR was employed to confirm the presence of functional groups and the interaction between both the blend constituents. Enhancement in the tensile and thermal properties of natural rubber was noticed upon the incorporation of soap nut extract. The increased glass transition and crystalline melting temperatures suggests the miscibility of both blend compo- nents. Solvent transport study in benzene showed an increasing trend upon the addition of soap nut extract into natural rubber. SEM microphotographs showed a fine and continuous surface morphology in case of the blend when compared to pure natural rubber. Antibacterial studies revealed that the incorporation of soap nut extract makes natural rubber more stable. The blend with 5 % soap nut extract exhibited superior properties than that of the other blend components.
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The genus Sapindus has been reviewed for its chemical constituents and biological activities together with traditional importances. Trees of genus Sapindus are cultivated in many parts of India for ornamental purposes. The present review is based on chemical constituents and biological activities of known species of Sapindus. The different species of Sapindus are used for curing various diseases and commercially important. Over 103 compounds have been identified in the genus Sapindus and many of them have been evaluated for their biological activities. The overall activity of the extract is based on the interaction between its components. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of the extract cannot be fully imitated by individual constituent. The aim of present review is to summarize the different phytochemical and pharmacological work together.
The structure of sapindoside D, which is a hexaoside of hederagenin, has been shown.
AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of Sapindus mukorossi (S. mukorossi) and Rheum emodi (R. emodi). METHODS: Powders of S. mukorossi and R. emodi were extracted successively with petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and ethanol and were concentrated in vacuum. The disk diffusion method was used for in vitro studies and in vivo studies were performed on male Wister rats. Thirty resistant clinical isolates of H pylori, as determined by their antibiotic sensitivity patterns by E-test, along with two Gram +ve (S. aureus, B. subtilis) and two Gram -ve (E. coli, P. vugaris) organisms were screened for their susceptibility patterns against these extracts. RESULTS: In our screening, all 30 resistant isolates and the other four organisms (two Gram +ve S. aureus, B. subtilis and two Gram -ve, E. coli, P. vugaris) were sensitive to the test compounds. It was found that ethanol and chloroform extracts of S. mukorossi and ethanol and benzene extracts of R. emodi inhibited H pylori at very low concentrations. In the in vitro study, the isolates showed a considerable zone of inhibition at very low concentrations (10 μg/mL) for both the extracts. In the in vivo study, the H pylori infection was cleared with minimal doses of extracts of S. mukorossi (2.5 mg/mL) and R. emodi (3.0 mg/mL) given orally for seven days. CONCLUSION: We can conclude from this study that the extracts of S. mukorossi and R. emodi inhibited the growth of pylori in vitro and, in in vivo studies, the H pylori infection cleared within seven days at very low concentrations. We also found that H pylori did not acquire resistance against these herbal extracts even after 10 consecutive passages.
The structure of two triterpone glycosides from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. has been established. It has been shown that sapindoside A is hederagenin 3-O-α-L-arabinosyl-(2 → 1)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside and sapindoside B is the 3-O-α-L-arabopyranosyl-(2 → 1)-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(3→ 1)-β-D-xylopyranoside.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanolic extract of Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.(Sapindaceae). The anxiolytic activity was evaluated by Elevated plus maze, Y-maze, Hole-board, Actophotometer, and Marble-burying behavior models. The efficacy of the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) was compared with the standard anxiolytic drugs Diazepam (2 mg/kg) and Fluoxetine (10 mg/kg). The result showed that the extract significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in the open arm in the elevated plus maze. The results also showed that the extract significantly increased the number of head dipping and line crossing, decreased the numbers of visits to the three arms, locomotor score and number of marble-buried in Hole-board, Y-maze, Actophotometer and Marble-burying behavior models respectively. Present study confirms that the extract showed significant anxiolytic activity at both dose levels which is comparable with standard anxiolytics Diazepam and Fluoxetine.
High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method as well as high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method combined with ES-MS are developed and validated for fingerprinting (profiling) Sapindus saponin and quantitative determination of Sapindoside B in bulk drug samples of Sapindus saponin and its formulation Consap cream. The separation of saponins using TLC is achieved on precoated silica gel plates using chloroform: methanol: water as mobile phase. Detection of the spots is done at the 630 nm. The identification of saponins is done by LC-MS, using Electro Spray Ionisation [ESI] technique. The HPLC method involves chromatography of the saponins on reverse phase (C-18) column, using acetonitrile-water gradient as mobile phase. The detection is done by UV-visible detector at a wavelength of 215 nm. Calibration graphs are found to be linear over the range 11-220 μg in HPTLC and 30-200 μg/mL in HPLC method. The methods developed are being used for the analysis of the bulk drug samples and Consap cream samples.