Prophylactic Effect of Tadalafil on Bladder Function in a Rat Model of Chronic Bladder Ischemia

Nihon University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
The Journal of urology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 09/2012; 189(2). DOI: 10.1016/j.juro.2012.07.141
Source: PubMed


We investigated the effect of tadalafil on chronic ischemia related bladder dysfunction.

Materials and methods:
Adult male Sprague-Dawley® rats were divided into control, arterial endothelial injury and arterial endothelial injury with tadalafil treatment groups. The arterial injury and arterial injury-tadalafil groups underwent endothelial injury of the iliac arteries and received a 2% cholesterol diet after injury. Arterial injury-tadalafil rats received tadalafil (2 mg/kg per day) orally for 8 weeks after injury. The control group received a regular diet. At 8 weeks urodynamic investigation was performed. Bladder tissue was harvested for pharmacological studies, and histological examination of the iliac arteries and bladders was performed.

Iliac arteries from arterial injury and arterial injury-tadalafil rats showed neointimal formation and luminal occlusion. In the arterial injury group the micturition interval was significantly shorter (mean ± SEM 5.4 ± 0.5 vs 11.1 ± 1.1 minutes), and bladder capacity and voided volume were less than in controls. Contractile responses of bladder strips to KCl, electrical field stimulation and carbachol were significantly less after arterial injury than in controls. The arterial injury group showed a significantly increased percent of collagen compared with controls (mean 37.4% ± 1.8% vs 21.5% ± 1.8%). In the arterial injury-tadalafil group intimal formation and luminal occlusion were not prevented. However, there were significant improvements in all functional and morphological parameters compared with the arterial injury group.

Arterial occlusive disease may lead to chronic bladder ischemia and bladder hyperactivity. Chronic treatment with tadalafil protects bladder function and morphology, resulting in decreased bladder hyperactivity. If valid for humans, the data support phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition as treatment for chronic ischemia related bladder dysfunction.

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Available from: Lysanne Campeau
    • "However, despite intensive study in various animal models, the mechanisms behind changes in bladder function caused by chronic ischemia are incompletely known, and there is no established treatment. It has been suggested by animal studies, but has not been established clinically, that chronic ischemia-related bladder dysfunction will progress to bladder underactivity [Nomiya et al. 2013a; Sagawa et al. 2013]. Nevertheless, it would be desirable to treat not only LUTS, but also the progression of the morphological bladder changes induced by chronic ischemia. "
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    ABSTRACT: Epidemiological studies have shown that lower urinary tract symptoms, including overactive bladder, commonly occur in both men and women, with an age-related increase in both sexes. Vascular endothelial dysfunction and urological symptoms are common in the metabolic syndrome; they also occur during the human ageing process and are independent risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis and hypertension. Pelvic arterial insufficiency may lead to impaired lower urinary tract perfusion and play an important role in the development of bladder dysfunction such as detrusor overactivity and overactive bladder. It seems reasonable, but has not been definitely established clinically, that chronic ischemia-related bladder dysfunction will progress to bladder underactivity. Studies in experimental models in rabbits and rats have shown that pelvic arterial insufficiency may result in significant bladder ischemia with reduced bladder wall oxygen tension, oxidative stress, increased muscarinic receptor activity, ultrastructural damage, and neurodegeneration. Several types of drug may be able to prevent some of these changes. Even if the α1-adrenoceptor blocker, silodosin, the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, tadalafil, the β3-α1-adrenoceptor agonist, mirabegron, and the free radical scavenger, melatonin, were unable to prevent the development of neointimal hyperplasia and consequent luminal occlusion in animal models, they all exerted a protecting effect on urodynamic parameters, and on the functional and morphological changes of the bladder demonstrable in vitro. The different mechanisms of action of the drugs suggest that many factors are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic ischemia-induced bladder dysfunction and can be targets for intervention. Since several of the agents tested are used clinically and effectively for relieving lower urinary tract symptoms, the results from animal models of chronic bladder ischemia seem to have translational value. Animal models may be of relevance for designing clinical studies to demonstrate if a certain drug may prevent progression of ischemia-related functional and morphological bladder changes.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2014 · Therapeutic Advances in Urology
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    • "Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) is involved in the NO pathway and it has been immunolocalized both in the detrusor muscle cells and in the vascular endothelium [2]. PDE5 inhibitors were found to improve several functional aspects of bladder dysfunction in human and animal studies [2-10]. The mechanisms behind this have not been fully elucidated yet, but it can be assumed that PDE5 inhibitors influence detrusor muscle cell action directly but also indirectly through enhancement of tissue microcirculation of the bladder tissue [11]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Blood oxygen saturation (BOS) is decreased in a low-compliant, overactive obstructed bladder. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of Sildenafil (SC) on bladder function and BOS) in an in vivo animal model of bladder outlet obstruction. Methods Thirty-two guinea pigs; sham operated (n = 8), sham operated + SC (n = 8), urethrally obstructed (n = 8) and urethrally obstructed + SC (n = 8) were studied during an 8 week period. BOS of the bladder wall was measured by differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) before obstruction, at day 0, and at week 8. The bladder function was evaluated by urodynamic studies every week. Results Before surgery and after sham operation all study parameters were comparable. After sham operation, bladder function and BOS did not change. In the obstructed group the urodynamic parameters were deteriorated and BOS was decreased. In the group obstruction + SC, bladder compliance remained normal and overactivity occurred only sporadic. BOS remained unchanged compared to the sham group and was significantly higher compared to the obstruction group. Conclusions In an obstructed bladder the loss of bladder function is accompanied by a significant decrease in BOS. Treatment of obstructed bladders with SC yields a situation of high saturation, high bladder compliance and almost no overactivity. Maintaining the microcirculation of the bladder wall might result in better bladder performance without significant loss of bladder function. Measurement of BOS and interventions focussing on tissue microcirculation may have a place in the evaluation / treatment of various bladder dysfunctions.
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    ABSTRACT: The overactive bladder syndrome and detrusor overactivity are conditions that can have major effects on quality of life and social functioning. Antimuscarinic drugs are still first-line treatment. These drugs often have good initial response rates, but adverse effects and decreasing efficacy cause long-term compliance problems, and alternatives are needed. The recognition of the functional contribution of the urothelium/suburothelium, the autonomous detrusor muscle activity during bladder filling and the diversity of nerve transmitters involved has sparked interest in both peripheral and central modulation of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity pathophysiology. Three drugs recently approved for treatment of overactive bladder syndrome/detrusor overactivity (mirabegron, tadalafil and onabotulinum toxin A), representing different pharmacological mechanisms; that is, β-adrenoceptor agonism, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition, and inhibition of nerve release of efferent and afferent transmitters, all seem to have one effect in common: inhibition of the afferent nervous activity generated by the bladder during filling. In the present review, the different mechanisms forming the pharmacological basis for the use of these drugs are discussed.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2012 · International Journal of Urology
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