Reduced folate carrier A80G polymorphism and susceptibility to neural tube defects: A meta-analysis
Department of Pharmacy, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, China Gene
(Impact Factor: 2.14).
09/2012; 510(2):180-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.02.020
The reduced folate carrier (RFC1) plays a crucial role in mediating folate delivery into a variety of cells. RFC1 polymorphism (A80G) has been reported to be associated with increased risk of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, results derived from individually underpowered studies are conflicting. We performed a systematic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and carried out a meta-analysis on the association between RFC1 polymorphism (A80G) and NTDs risk. Overall, a significant correlation between RFC1 A80G polymorphism and NTDs risk was found neither in infants nor in maternal (allele contrast in infants: OR(RE)=1.15, 95% CI: 0.92-1.45; allele contrast in mothers: OR(RE)=1.24, 95% CI: 0.98-1.56). The present meta-analysis failed to support a positive association between RFC1 A80G polymorphism and susceptibility to NTDs. It is important to realize, however, that socio-economic factors, and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions, could have influenced the outcome of our meta-analysis. For this reason, a relationship between the A80G polymorphism and NTD risk cannot be entirely discounted.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Therefore, folate-related genes widely investigated for their potential involvement in pathogenesis of NTDs. To date, several meta-analyses have been conducted to investigate the association between NTDs and SNPs for candidate genes involved in the folate pathway, including C677T and A1298C in the MTHFR (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase) gene –, A66G in the MTRR (methionine synthase reductase) gene , , A2756G in the MTR (methionine synthase) gene –, and A80G in the RFC-1 (reduced folate carrier) gene , . However, no meta-analysis has been conducted on the effect of the MTHFD1 genetic polymorphism on susceptibility to NTDs. "
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The methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase (MTHFD1) gene, as one of the key genes involved in the folate pathway, has been reported to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the results of published studies are contradictory and inconclusive. Thus, this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effect of the common polymorphism in the MTHFD1 gene, the G1958A (R653Q, dbSNP ID: rs2236225) variant, on the risk of NTDs in all eligible studies.
Relevant literature published before January 3, 2014 was retrieved from the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases. Pooled crude odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and NTDs risk.
We performed a meta-analysis of nine studies with a total of 4,302 NTDs patients and 4,238 healthy controls. Our results demonstrated a significant correlation between the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism and NTDs in an overall meta-analysis. For family-based studies, the study subjects were classified as NTD cases, mothers with NTDs offspring, and fathers with NTDs offspring. We found no association between any of the fathers’ genotypes and NTDs, whereas there was a clear excess of the 1958A allele in the mothers of children with NTDs compared with controls individuals.
In summary, our meta-analysis strongly suggests that the MTHFD1 G1958A polymorphism might be associated with maternal risk for NTDs in Caucasian populations. However, the evidence of this association should be interpreted with caution due to the selective nature of publication of genetic association studies.
Available from: Robert J Berry
- "Researchers from Trinity College in Dublin observed a slight protective effect of the homozygous DHFR deletion genotype in mothers (Parle- McDermott et al., 2007). SLC19A1 plays an important role in folate transport, and some previous studies have reported associations between the 80A>G variant and NTD risk (Chango et al., 2000; De Marco et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2012b). O'Leary et al. (2006) did not find a difference in the frequency of the SLC19A1 80A>G reduced folate carrier in mothers, fathers and affected individuals compared with controls in an Irish population. "
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ABSTRACT: Periconceptional folic acid use can often prevent neural tube defects (NTDs). Variants of genes involved in folate metabolism in mothers and children have been associated with occurrence of NTDs. We identified Irish families with individuals affected by neural tube defects. In these families, we observed that neural tube defects and birth defects overall occurred at a higher rate in the maternal lineage compared with the paternal lineage. The goal of this study was to look for evidence for genetic effects that could explain the discrepancy in the occurrence of these birth defects in the maternal vs. paternal lineage. We genotyped blood samples from 322 individuals from NTD-affected Irish families, identified through their membership in spina bifida associations. We looked for differences in distribution in maternal vs. paternal lineages of five genetic polymorphisms: the DHFR 19bp deletion, MTHFD1 1958G>A, MTHFR 1298A>C, MTHFR 677C>T, and SLC19A1 80A>G. In addition to looking at genotypes individually, we determined the number of genotypes associated with decreased folate metabolism in each relative (“risk genotypes”) and compared the distribution of these genotypes in maternal vs. paternal relatives. Overall, maternal relatives had a higher number of genotypes associated with lower folate metabolism than paternal relatives (p=0.017). We expected that relatives would share the same risk genotype as the individuals with NTDs and/or their mothers. However, we observed that maternal relatives had an over-abundance of any risk genotype, rather than one specific genotype. The observed genetic effects suggest an epigenetic mechanism in which decreased folate metabolism results in epigenetic alterations related to the increased rate of NTDs and other birth defects seen in the maternal lineage. Future studies on the etiology of NTDs and other birth defects could benefit from including multigenerational extended families, in order to explore potential epigenetic mechanisms.
Available from: Henk J Blom
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ABSTRACT: Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common complex congenital malformations resulting from failure of the neural tube closure during embryogenesis. It is established that folic acid supplementation decreases the prevalence of NTDs, which has led to national public health policies regarding folic acid. To date, animal studies have not provided sufficient information to establish the metabolic and/or genomic mechanism(s) underlying human folic acid responsiveness in NTDs. However, several lines of evidence suggest that not only folates but also choline, B12 and methylation metabolisms are involved in NTDs. Decreased B12 vitamin and increased total choline or homocysteine in maternal blood have been shown to be associated with increased NTDs risk. Several polymorphisms of genes involved in these pathways have also been implicated in risk of development of NTDs. This raises the question whether supplementation with B12 vitamin, betaine or other methylation donors in addition to folic acid periconceptional supplementation will further reduce NTD risk. The objective of this article is to review the role of methylation metabolism in the onset of neural tube defects.
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