Depression of Married and Employed Women Based on Social-Role Theory

Department of Nursing, Inha University, Incheon, Korea.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing (Impact Factor: 0.38). 08/2012; 42(4):496-507. DOI: 10.4040/jkan.2012.42.4.496
Source: PubMed


This study was based on social-role theory, and purposes were to investigate (1) how depression and health determinants vary with married and employed women, and (2) what factors contribute to depression according to family cycle.
A stratified convenience sample of 765 married and employed women was recruited during May to August 2010. Study variables of depression, socio-demographic threatening factors, psycho-stimulating factors, and social-role related factors were measured via a structured questionnaire.
Prevalence rate for depression was 18.6%, with highest rate (25.4%) from elementary laborers. Greater levels of depression were related to women's occupation, higher life stress, and poorer health; lower social support and vulnerable personality; higher levels of social-role related stress. From multivariate analysis, women with preadolescents were the most vulnerable to depression affected by occupation, life stress, personality, and parenting stress. These factors (except for occupational class) combined with economic status, social support, and housework unfairness were significant for depression in women with adolescents.
Depression among married and employed women differs by psycho-stimulating and social role relevant factors in addition to occupational class and family life cycle. Female elementary laborers and women with children need to have the highest prioritization for community mental health programs.

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Available from: Sukhee Ahn, Apr 10, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the health behaviors and risk factors for self-reported depression in Korean working women. Methods This study adopted a secondary analysis from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES-V) for the Health Examination Survey and Health Behavior Survey, using stratified, multi-stage, cluster-sampling design to obtain a nationally representative sample. Data were gathered on extensive information including sociodemographic, occupational characteristics, health behaviors and depression. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to compute the odds ratio (OR) between health behaviors and depression to identify the health behaviors and the risk factors for depression with adjustment for the complex sample design of the survey. Results The prevalence rate of depression was 15.5% among working women. Depression was more common in older female workers and in those with part-time job. Current smokers were significantly more likely to be depression-positive. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, significant variables of depression were marital status (OR = 2.02; 95% CI [1.05, 3.89]), smoking status (OR = 1.55; 95% CI [1.01, 2.38]), stress (OR = 0.20; 95% CI [0.15, 0.26]), employment condition (OR = 1.77; 95% CI [1.34, 2.33]) and health status (OR = 2.10; 95% CI [1.53, 2.87]). Conclusions Based on the study, factors leading to depression were marital status, current smoking, stress, employment condition and self-reported health status. Further studies are expected to unravel the characteristics of stress. Health care providers for women need to evaluate underreported depression and change their associated health behaviors. Also it is necessary to establish preventive strategies for female workers to control the negative effect of depression in the workplace. Copyright © 2015, Korean Society of Nursing Science. Published by Elsevier. All rights reserved.
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