Article

Walking stabilizes cognitive functioning in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) across on year

Institute for Memory Impairments & Neurological Disorders, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, United States
Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Impact Factor: 1.85). 09/2012; 56(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.archger.2012.06.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

AD is a public health epidemic, which seriously impacts cognition, mood and daily activities; however, one type of activity, exercise, has been shown to alter these states. Accordingly, we sought to investigate the relationship between exercise and mood, in early-stage AD patients (N=104) from California, over a 1-year period. Patients completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Blessed-Roth Dementia Rating Scale (BRDRS), while their caregivers completed the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YALE), Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Functional Abilities Questionnaire (FAQ). Approximately half of the participants were female, from a variety of ethnic groups (Caucasian=69.8%; Latino/Hispanic Americans=20.1%). Our results demonstrated that the patients spent little time engaged in physical activity in general, their overall activity levels decreased over time, and this was paired with a change in global cognition (e.g., MMSE total score) and affect/mood (e.g., POMS score). Patients were parsed into Active and Sedentary groups based on their Yale profiles, with Active participants engaged in walking activities, weekly, over 1 year. Here, Sedentary patients had a significant decline in MMSE scores, while the Active patients had an attenuation in global cognitive decline. Importantly, among the Active AD patients, those individuals who engaged in walking for more than 2h/week had a significant improvement in MMSE scores. Structured clinical trials which seek to increase the amount of time AD patients were engaged in walking activities and evaluate the nature and scope of beneficial effects in the brain are warranted.

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Available from: Jeanna Winchester, Dec 06, 2015
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    • "Exercise is known to raise free radical content and can precondition against ischemia (Frasier et al. 2011; Powers et al. 2011; Zhang et al. 2011). Many studies have supported the long-term benefits of exercise in humans, even in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's patients (Chen et al. 2005; Xu et al. 2010; Erickson et al. 2012; Mayeux and Stern 2012; Fisher et al. 2013; Intlekofer and Cotman 2013; Winchester et al. 2013). Animal studies have also shown convincingly that exercise is protective in experimental models of neurodegeneration (for some examples, see Adlard et al. 2005; Nichol et al. 2009; Pothakos et al. 2009; Zigmond et al. 2009; Gerecke et al. 2010; Vuckovic et al. 2010; Intlekofer and Cotman 2013; Souza et al. 2013). "
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Questions & Answers about this publication

  • Jeanna Winchester added an answer in Dementia:
    Is there any objective, accurate and reliable method to assess physical function in dementia patients?

    Not only by observation done by professionals, but really assess the capacity of dementia patients. It's often very hard to conduct assessments available nowadays as dementia patients have difficulty in following instructions and poor attention span. It may be worth it to establish assessment tools which can effectively reflect the true ability of dementia patients...

    Jeanna Winchester

    We utilized the YALE physical activity survey in our publication with Alzheimer's patients.  In this scenario, the tracking of the activity level was done by a designated caregiver on behalf of the patient and it was collected over a year.  Other ways to effectively measure and corroborate changes over shorter and longer bouts of activity include VO2 max and PET scans (see other publication on my page with E4 carriers).

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      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: AD is a public health epidemic, which seriously impacts cognition, mood and daily activities; however, one type of activity, exercise, has been shown to alter these states. Accordingly, we sought to investigate the relationship between exercise and mood, in early-stage AD patients (N=104) from California, over a 1-year period. Patients completed the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Blessed-Roth Dementia Rating Scale (BRDRS), while their caregivers completed the Yale Physical Activity Survey (YALE), Profile of Mood States (POMS), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Functional Abilities Questionnaire (FAQ). Approximately half of the participants were female, from a variety of ethnic groups (Caucasian=69.8%; Latino/Hispanic Americans=20.1%). Our results demonstrated that the patients spent little time engaged in physical activity in general, their overall activity levels decreased over time, and this was paired with a change in global cognition (e.g., MMSE total score) and affect/mood (e.g., POMS score). Patients were parsed into Active and Sedentary groups based on their Yale profiles, with Active participants engaged in walking activities, weekly, over 1 year. Here, Sedentary patients had a significant decline in MMSE scores, while the Active patients had an attenuation in global cognitive decline. Importantly, among the Active AD patients, those individuals who engaged in walking for more than 2h/week had a significant improvement in MMSE scores. Structured clinical trials which seek to increase the amount of time AD patients were engaged in walking activities and evaluate the nature and scope of beneficial effects in the brain are warranted.
      Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Archives of gerontology and geriatrics