The use of aversive conditioning, repellents and deterrents in the management of predator-livestock problems is evaluated based on a comprehensive literature review, contact with leading authorities and visits to areas with similar predation problems. The status of these management tools is reported and their applicability under Scandinavian conditions evaluated. Aversive conditioning usually ... [Show full abstract] involves treating baits with an emetic compound (usually lithium chloride), and has shown inconsistent and inconclusive results. Repellents and deterrents include physical, chemical and acoustic stimuli or devices that cause predators to stop an unwanted behaviour or to retreat from an area. Chemical repellents are not particularly effective against coyotes but have been effective for wolverines and bears under some conditions (e.g. with the availability of untreated, alternative prey). Projectile repellents give an immediate, positive result with bears, but their use is limited. Visual and acoustic devices work well, but only for a limited time, as predators quickly habituate to these devices. To summarize, these methods generally show little promise in reducing livestock depredation on a large-scale or long-term basis, especially under the conditions prevailing in Scandinavia.