Air Pollution Particulate Matter Collected from an Appalachian Mountaintop Mining Site Induces Microvascular Dysfunction

Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, 26506.
Microcirculation (New York, N.Y.: 1994) (Impact Factor: 2.57). 09/2012; 20(2). DOI: 10.1111/micc.12014
Source: PubMed


Air pollution PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In Appalachia, PM from mining may represent a health burden to this sensitive population that leads the nation in cardiovascular disease, among others. Cardiovascular consequences following inhalation of PMMTM are unclear, but must be identified to establish causal effects.
PM was collected within 1 mile of an active MTM site in southern WV. The PM was extracted and was primarily <10 μm in diameter (PM10), consisting largely of sulfur (38%) and silica (24%). Adult male rats were IT with 300 μg PMMTM. Twenty-four hours following exposure, rats were prepared for intravital microscopy, or isolated arteriole experiments.
PMMTM exposure blunted endothelium-dependent dilation in mesenteric and coronary arterioles by 26%, and 25%, respectively, as well as endothelium-independent dilation. In vivo, PMMTM exposure inhibited endothelium-dependent arteriolar dilation (60% reduction). α-adrenergic receptor blockade inhibited PVNS-induced vasoconstriction in exposed animals compared with sham.
These data suggest that PMMTM exposure impairs microvascular function in disparate microvascular beds, through alterations in NO-mediated dilation and sympathetic nerve influences. Microvascular dysfunction may contribute to cardiovascular disease in regions with MTM sites.

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Available from: Michael S Hendryx, Oct 06, 2014
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    • "PM from the MTM area was identified as a microvascular toxicant, altering microvascular function in mesenteric and coronary arterioles including decreased endothelium-dependent dilation. If these findings are applicable to human subjects, they suggest that PM from MTM may contribute to cardiovascular disease prevalence in Appalachia (Knuckles et al. 2013). "
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