Prevention of Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Disease: Updated CDC Guideline
University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ, USA. American family physician
(Impact Factor: 2.18).
Group B streptococcus is the leading cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the United States. Universal screening is recommended for pregnant women at 35 to 37 weeks' gestation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently updated its guideline for the prevention of early-onset neonatal group B streptococcal disease. The new guideline contains six important changes. First, there is a recommendation to consider using sensitive nucleic acid amplification tests, rather than just routine cultures, for detection of group B streptococcus in rectal and vaginal specimens. Second, the colony count required to consider a urine specimen positive is at least 104 colony-forming units per mL. Third, the new guideline presents separate algorithms for management of preterm labor and preterm premature rupture of membranes, rather than a single algorithm for both conditions. Fourth, there are minor changes in the recommended dose of penicillin G for intrapartum chemoprophylaxis. Fifth, the guideline provides new recommendations about antibiotic regimens for women with penicillin allergy. Cefazolin is recommended for women with minor allergies. For those at serious risk of anaphylaxis, clindamycin is recommended if the organism is susceptible or if susceptibility is unknown, and vancomycin is recommended if there is clindamycin resistance. Finally, the new algorithm for secondary prevention of early-onset group B streptococcal disease in newborns should be applied to all infants, not only those at high risk of infection. The algorithm clarifies the extent of evaluation and duration of observation required for infants in different risk categories.
Available from: Éva Görbe
- "A koraszülés oka az esetek 60–70%-ában fertőzés, más esetekben összetett az etiológia, és az okok között a fertőzés is szerepel . A korai szepszis előfordulási eseteinek száma csökkenthető a 90-es évek óta alkalmazott antibiotikumprofi laxissal  , és felvetődött a B csoportú Streptococcus elleni vakcina alkalmazásának lehetősége is . A fertőzés és a kolonizáció elkülönítésére a C-reaktív protein vagy a prokalcitoninmeghatározás javasolt  . "
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ABSTRACT: The mortality and morbidity of extremely low birth weight infants (birth weight below 1000 grams) are different from low birth weight and term infants. The Centers for Disease Control statistics from the year 2009 shows that the mortality of preterm infants with a birth weight less than 500 grams is 83.4% in the United States. In many cases, serious complications can be expected in survivals.
The aim of this retrospective study was to find prognostic factors which may improve the survival of the group of extremely low birth weight infants (<500 grams).
Data of extremely low birth weight infants with less than 500 grams born at the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Semmelweis University between January 1, 2006 and June 1, 2012 were analysed, and mortality and morbidity of infants between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2008 (period I) were compared those found between January 1, 2009 and June 1, 2012 (period II). Statistical analysis was performed with probe-t, -F and -Chi-square.
Survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants less than 500 grams in period 1 and II was 26.31% and 55.17%, respectively (p = 0.048), whereas the prevalence of complications were not significantly different between the period examined. The mean gestational age of survived infants (25.57 weeks) was higher than the gestational age of infants who did not survive (24.18 weeks) and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0045).
Education of the team of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, professional routine and technical conditions may improve the survival chance of preterm infants. The use of treatment protocols, conditions of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit and steroid prophylaxis may improve the survival rate of extremely low birth weight infants. Orv. Hetil., 2015, 156(10), 404-408.
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Microbiological screening (MS) is standard on neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Objectives are the collection of information regarding bacterial pathogens of the individual patient as well as of the NICU, especially of multidrug-resistant pathogens (MRE). The role of microbiological screening for preterm infants ≤32 weeks of gestational age has not been fully evaluated.
Patients and methods:
For preterm infants ≤32 weeks of gestational age admitted during a 41-month period the results of microbiological screening during the first 2 weeks of life were analysed retrospectively. The results were associated with documented septic episodes.
Bacteria were isolated in 215/972 of postnatal and 416/862 of later swabs. Detection of bacteria in the initial MS was associated with vaginal birth, low gestational age, low APGAR values at 5 and 10 min and mechanical ventilation. The proportion of patients with positive microbiological screening in subsequent swabs was not influenced by gestational age, birth weight, sex, mode of delivery and APGAR score. During the observation period 52 cases of sepsis (28 clinic, 24 microbiological) occurred. The sepsis rate was increased in patients with positive postnatal swabs, low gestational age, low birth weight, low 5 min APGAR score, male sex or need for mechanical ventilation.
Microbiological screening provides an overview of the NICU-specific pathogens but is of limited value in the prediction of septicaemias in preterm infants ≤32 weeks gestational age.
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ABSTRACT: this study aimed to investigate the incidence of premature rupture of fetal membranes in preterm singleton pregnancies and its association with sociodemographic factors and maternal self-reported genitourinary infections.
this was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included all mothers of newborns of singleton deliveries that occurred in 2010, with birth weight ≥ 500 rams, who resided in the city of Rio Grande. Women were interviewed in the two maternity hospitals. Cases were women who had lost amniotic fluid before hospitalization and whose gestational age was less than 37 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed by levels to control for confounding factors using Poisson regression.
of the 2,244 women eligible for the study, 3.1% had preterm premature rupture of fetal membranes, which was more frequent, after adjustment, in women of lower socioeconomic status, (prevalence ratio [PR]=1.94), with lower level of schooling (PR=2.43), age > 29 years (PR=2.49), and smokers (PR=2.04). It was also associated with threatened miscarriage (PR=1.68) and preterm labor, (PR=3.40). There was no association with maternal urinary tract infection or presence of genital discharge.
the outcome was more common in puerperal women with lower level of schooling, lower socioeconomic status, older, and smokers, as well as those with a history of threatened miscarriage and premature labor. These factors should be considered in the prevention, diagnosis, and therapy approach.
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