Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae at a Long-Term Acute Care Hospital: Sustained Reductions in Transmission through Active Surveillance and Targeted Interventions
Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, Georgia.Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology (Impact Factor: 4.18). 10/2012; 33(10):984-92. DOI: 10.1086/667738
Objective. To describe a Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) outbreak and interventions to prevent transmission. Design, setting, and patients. Epidemiologic investigation of a CRE outbreak among patients at a long-term acute care hospital (LTACH). Methods. Microbiology records at LTACH A from March 2009 through February 2011 were reviewed to identify CRE transmission cases and cases admitted with CRE. CRE bacteremia episodes were identified during March 2009-July 2011. Biweekly CRE prevalence surveys were conducted during July 2010-July 2011, and interventions to prevent transmission were implemented, including education and auditing of staff and isolation and cohorting of CRE patients with dedicated nursing staff and shared medical equipment. Trends were evaluated using weighted linear or Poisson regression. CRE transmission cases were included in a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for acquisition. A real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the bla(KPC) gene, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis was performed to assess the genetic relatedness of isolates. Results. Ninety-nine CRE transmission cases, 16 admission cases (from 7 acute care hospitals), and 29 CRE bacteremia episodes were identified. Significant reductions were observed in CRE prevalence (49% vs 8%), percentage of patients screened with newly detected CRE (44% vs 0%), and CRE bacteremia episodes (2.5 vs 0.0 per 1,000 patient-days). Cases were more likely to have received β-lactams, have diabetes, and require mechanical ventilation. All tested isolates were KPC-producing K. pneumoniae, and nearly all isolates were genetically related. Conclusion. CRE transmission can be reduced in LTACHs through surveillance testing and targeted interventions. Sustainable reductions within and across healthcare facilities may require a regional public health approach.
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ABSTRACT: In summer 2009, the Utah Department of Health investigated an outbreak of Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 (O157) illness associated with attendance at multiple rodeos. Patients were interviewed regarding exposures during the week before illness onset. A ground beef traceback investigation was performed. Ground beef samples from patient homes and a grocery store were tested for STEC O157. Rodeo managers were interviewed regarding food vendors present and cattle used at the rodeos. Environmental samples were collected from rodeo grounds. Two-enzyme pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) were performed on isolates. Fourteen patients with primary STEC O157 illness were reported in this outbreak. Isolates from all patients were indistinguishable by PFGE. Isolates from nine patients had identical MLVA patterns (main outbreak strain), and five had minor differences. Thirteen (93%) patients reported ground beef consumption during the week before illness onset. Results of the ground beef traceback investigation and ground beef sampling were negative. Of 12 primary patients asked specifically about rodeo attendance, all reported having attended a rodeo during the week before illness onset; four rodeos were mentioned. All four rodeos had used bulls from the same cattle supplier. An isolate of STEC O157 identified from a dirt sample collected from the bullpens of one of the attended rodeos was indistinguishable by PFGE and MLVA from the main outbreak strain. Recommendations were provided to rodeo management to keep livestock and manure separate from rodeo attendees. This is the first reported STEC O157 outbreak associated with attendance at multiple rodeos. Public health officials should be aware of the potential for rodeo-associated STEC illness.
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ABSTRACT: Emergences of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) have heightened global awareness of the prioritization of infection prevention and control (IPC) interventions to minimize infections attributed to these bacteria. Effective new antibiotic drugs for CRGNB are estimated to be at least 5 years off completion of trials and approval for use. Hence, effective IPC strategies remain at the core of clinical care and research for patients with CRGNB infection. The authors summarize current evidence and viewpoints for IPC strategies as related to the emergence, transmission and prevention of CRGNB.
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ABSTRACT: Objective. Multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae pose a serious infection control challenge and have emerged as a public health threat. We examined national trends in the proportion of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates resistant to carbapenems (CRKP) and third-generation cephalosporins (G3CRKP). Design and Setting. Retrospective analysis of approximately 500,000 K. pneumoniae isolates cultured between January 1999 and July 2010 at 287 clinical laboratories throughout the United States. Methods. Isolates were defined as CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to 1 or more carbapenems and were defined as G3CRKP if they were nonsusceptible to ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, or related antibiotics. A multivariable analysis examined trends in the proportion of resistant isolates, adjusting for age, sex, isolate source, patient location, and geographic region. Results. The crude proportion of CRKP increased from less than 0.1% to 4.5% between 2002 and 2010; the frequency of G3CRKP increased from 5.3% to 11.5% between 1999 and 2010. G3CRKP and CRKP were more common among elderly patients (those greater than 65 years of age); the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) relative to pediatric patients (those less than 18 years of age) was 1.2 for G3CRKP (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.3) and 3.3 for CRKP (95% CI, 2.6-4.2). G3CRKP and CRKP were also more common among patients from the northeastern United States (aOR, 2.9 [95% CI, 2.8-3.0] and 9.0 [95% CI, 7.9-10.4]) than among those from the western United States. The prevalence of outpatient CRKP isolates increased after 2006, reaching 1.9% of isolates in our sample in 2010 (95% CI, 1.6%-2.1%). Conclusions. The frequency of G3CRKP and CRKP is increasing in all regions of the United States, and resistance is emerging among isolates recovered in the outpatient setting. This underscores the need for enhanced laboratory capacity and coordinated surveillance strategies to contain the further spread of these emerging pathogens.
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