The global epidemic of childhood and adolescent obesity and its immediate as well as long-term consequences for obese individuals and society as a whole cannot be overemphasized. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of adult obesity and clinically significant consequences affecting the cardiovascular and metabolic systems. Importantly, obesity is additionally complicated by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), occurring in up to 60% of obese children. OSA, which is diagnosed using the gold standard polysomnogram (PSG), is characterised by snoring, recurrent partial (hypopneas) or complete (apneas) obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is frequently associated with intermittent oxyhemoglobin desaturations, sleep disruption, and sleep fragmentation. There is emerging data that OSA is associated with cardiovascular burden including systemic hypertension, changes in ventricular structure and function, arterial stiffness, and metabolic syndromes. Thus, OSA in the context of obesity may independently or synergistically magnify the underlying cardiovascular and metabolic burden. This is of importance as early recognition and treatment of OSA in obese children are likely to result in the reduction of cardiometabolic burden in obese children. This paper summarizes the current state of understanding of obesity-related OSA. Specifically, this paper will discuss epidemiology, pathophysiology, cardiometabolic burden, and management of obese children and adolescents with OSA.
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"Although obesity and OSA are independently associated with hypertension, studies show they are interrelated. Obesity is an important risk factor for both hypertension and OSA.25,26,27,28 In our study, BMI in the HTN group was significantly higher than in the non-HTN group. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Purpose
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered an independent risk factor for hypertension. However, it is still not clear which clinical factors are related with the presence of hypertension in OSA patients. We aimed to find different physical features and compare the sleep study results which are associated with the occurrence of hypertension in OSA patients.
Materials and Methods
Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for patients diagnosed with OSA at Severance Cardiovascular Hospital between 2010 and 2013. Males with moderate to severe OSA patients were enrolled in this study. Clinical and polysomnographic features were evaluated to assess clinical variables that are significantly associated with hypertension by statistical analysis.
Among men with moderate to severe OSA, age was negatively correlated with hypertension (odds ratio=0.956), while neck circumference was positively correlated with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio=1.363). Among the polysomnographic results, the lowest O2 saturation during sleep was significantly associated with the presence of hypertension (odds ratio=0.900).
Age and neck circumference should be considered as clinically significant features, and the lowest blood O2 saturation during sleep should be emphasized in predicting the coexistence or development of hypertension in OSA patients.
Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Yonsei Medical Journal
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: /st> The authors conducted a systematic review to consolidate the current knowledge regarding craniofacial morphological characteristics associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) in nonsyndromic pediatric patients.
/st> The authors included clinical studies in which participants were younger than 18 years, polysomnography was performed to determine the presence and severity of OSAS and the study group was compared with a control group or normative growth center data. The authors excluded studies with syndromic participants or participants who had received orthodontic treatment, orthognathic treatment or both previously.
/st> The authors identified nine articles. They conducted a meta-analyses of the data from all but one of the studies to evaluate the eight most common cephalometric variables in children with OSAS. The I values were 79.53 percent for the angle from the basion point to the sella nasion (SN) line, 89.54 percent for the angle between the SN and palatal plane lines and 96.82 percent for the angle between the mandibular plane and SN lines (MP-SN). Therefore, for these three variables, the authors conducted a random-effect model meta-analysis. For the remaining five variables (MP-SN, the angle from SN to Apoint, the angle from SN to B point [SNB], the angle from A point to nasion point to B point [ANB] and the angle from articulare point to gonion point to gnathion point), I values were all less than 40 percent, and therefore the authors conducted a fixed-effects model meta-analysis. Three of the evaluated cephalometric variables (MP-SN, SNB and ANB) had statistically significant differences in comparison with those in a control group. Although the values of these variables were increased in children with OSAS, results of the meta-analysis should be considered cautiously owing to the limited number of cephalometric variables included. Practical Implications Dentists who identify patients with a craniofacial morphology consistent with pediatric OSAS (retrusive chin, steep mandibular plane, vertical direction of growth and a tendency toward Class II malocclusion) should inquire further into their patients' medical histories. When the craniofacial morphology is accompanied by a history of snoring, inability to breathe through the nose, significant allergies, asthma or obesity, the dentist should refer the patient to an otolaryngologist for assessment.
Full-text · Article · Mar 2013 · Journal of the American Dental Association (1939)
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Sleep-disordered breathing includes disorders of breathing that affect airway patency, e.g. obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, and also conditions that affect respiratory drive (central sleep disorders) or cause hypoventilation, either as a direct central effect or due to peripheral muscle weakness. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is an increasingly-recognised clinical entity affecting up to 5.7% of children, which, if left untreated, is associated with adverse effects on growth and development including deleterious cognitive and behavioural outcomes. Evidence exists also that untreated OSAS impacts on cardiovascular risk. Close attention should be paid to assessment and investigation of this relatively common condition, instigating early and appropriate treatment to children with OSAS. First-line treatment in younger children is adenotonsillectomy, although other treatment options available include continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP), anti-inflammatory therapies (nasal corticosteroids and anti-leukotrienes), airway adjuncts and orthodontic appliances. Central sleep-disordered breathing may be related to immaturity of respiratory control and can be associated with prematurity as well as disorders such as Prader-Willi syndrome. In some cases, central apnoeas occur as part of a central hypoventilation disorder, which may be inherited, e.g. Congenital Central hypoventilation Syndrome, or acquired, e.g. Arnold-Chiari malformation, brain tumour, or spinal injury. The treatments of central breathing problems depend upon the underlying aetiology.