Consensus Micro RNAs Governing the Switch of Dormant Tumors to the Fast-Growing Angiogenic Phenotype

Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Italy
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 08/2012; 7(8):e44001. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044001
Source: PubMed


Tumor dormancy refers to a critical stage in cancer development in which tumor cells remain occult for a prolonged period of time until they eventually progress and become clinically apparent. We previously showed that the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth is angiogenesis dependent and requires a stable transcriptional reprogramming in tumor cells. Considering microRNAs (miRs) as master regulators of transcriptome, we sought to investigate their role in the control of tumor dormancy. We report here the identification of a consensus set of 19 miRs that govern the phenotypic switch of human dormant breast carcinoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, and liposarcoma tumors to fast-growth. Loss of expression of dormancy-associated miRs (DmiRs, 16/19) was the prevailing regulation pattern correlating with the switch of dormant tumors to fast-growth. The expression pattern of two DmiRs (miR-580 and 190) was confirmed to correlate with disease stage in human glioma specimens. Reconstitution of a single DmiR (miR-580, 588 or 190) led to phenotypic reversal of fast-growing angiogenic tumors towards prolonged tumor dormancy. Of note, 60% of angiogenic glioblastoma and 100% of angiogenic osteosarcoma over-expressing miR190 remained dormant during the entire observation period of ∼ 120 days. Next, the ability of DmiRs to regulate angiogenesis and dormancy-associated genes was evaluated. Transcriptional reprogramming of tumors via DmiR-580, 588 or 190 over-expression resulted in downregulation of pro-angiogenic factors such as TIMP-3, bFGF and TGFalpha. In addition, a G-CSF independent downregulation of Bv8 was found as a common target of all three DmiRs and correlated with decreased tumor recruitment of bone marrow-derived CD11b+ Gr-1+ myeloid cells. In contrast, antiangiogenic and dormancy promoting pathways such as EphA5 and Angiomotin were upregulated in DmiR over-expressing tumors. This work suggests novel means to reverse the malignant tumor phenotype into an asymptomatic dormant state and may provide promising targets for early detection or prevention of cancer.

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Available from: Afshin Beheshti, Jul 10, 2014
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    • "Almog et al. have demonstrated in human breast carcinoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma and liposarcoma that over-expression of miRNA-190 governed the reverse switch of fast-growing angiogenic phenotype to the dormancy phase. These authors conducted their studies mainly in human cell lines, tissue cultures, mice and finally in 15 surgical specimens from patients with brain tumors [11, 12]. We have analyzed miR-190a expressions entirely in breast cancer patients, with reference to the database of in vitro experimental models published by other researchers. "
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    ABSTRACT: Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) has caught the attention of oncologists worldwide because of poor prognosis and paucity of targeted therapies. Gene pathways have been widely studied, but less is known about epigenetic factors such as microRNAs (miRNAs) and their role in tailoring an individual systemic and surgical approach for breast cancer patients. The aim of the study was to examine selected miRNAs in TNBC core biopsies sampled before preoperative chemotherapy and the subsequent pathologic response in mastectomy or breast conservation specimens. Prior to treatment, core needle biopsies were collected from 11 female patients with inoperable locally advanced TNBC or large resectable tumors suitable for down-staging. In all 11 TNBC core biopsies we analyzed 19 miRNAs per sample: 512, 190, 200, 346, 148, 449, 203, 577, 93, 126, 423, 129, 193, 182, 136, 135, 191, 122 and 222 (miRCURY LNA™ Universal RT microRNA polymerase chain reaction Custom Pick & Mixpanels). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare related samples. Ingenuity pathway analysis was used to evaluate potential functional significance of differentially expressed miRNAs. Statistical analysis showed that 3 of 19 miRNAs differed in relation to pathologic response i.e. good versus poor. These differences failed to reach statistical significance, although a trend was observed (p = 0.06). Among these miRNAs, we identified-miR-200b-3p, miR-190a and miR-512-5p. In summary, our results indicate that higher miR-200b-3p, higher miR-190a and lower miR-512-5p expression levels in core biopsies sampled from TNBC patients may be associated with better pathologic response to chemotherapy and the increased feasibility of breast conserving surgery in these patients. Although these results were from a small cohort, they provide an important basis for larger, prospective, multicenter studies to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in neoadjuvant setting.
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    • "In recent years, particular interest has been attributed to microRNAs (miRNAs) small non-coding RNA molecules, considered as regulators of gene expression. A recent review identified a set of 19 miRNAs that control the phenotypic switch of human dormant breast carcinoma, glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, and liposarcoma tumours to exponential growth [13]. High expression levels of 16 miRNAs were found in dormant tumours. "
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