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Proceedings of Second Malaysian Postgraduate Conference (MPC) 2012, Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia, 7-9 July 2012.

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The heat flux distribution and emission characteristics of natural gas burners with a range of significantly different mixing characteristics are compared both in a pilot-scale cement kiln simulator and in operating rotary kilns. One burner type tested in the simulator combines a processing jet and a high-momentum axial jet whereas the other type is the generic multi-channel burner of the International Flame Research Foundation. The processing jet burner was found to produce higher peak and total heat flux than a multi-channel burner flame optimized to provide good external recirculation, based on the Craya Curtet parameter. However, the NOx emissions from both burners are found to be similar, in contrast to typically large reductions found in industrial installations. This apparent discrepancy is explained by considering the NOx emissions and the heat flux together, since the heat flux is controlled differently in the two facilities. The results demonstrate that the relationship between heat flux and NOx emissions should be considered together in any comparison of different combustion systems.
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Introduction Higher education has changed radically over the last decade, and is still in the process of change. Some argue that it is in a state of crisis – in terms of funding, quality, the management of academic time and priorities, the conception and management of teaching and learning, and, fundamentally, in terms of purposes. Analysts, such as Barnett (1994) and Scott (1997), conceive the latter as a crisis of knowledge, initiated by the increased role of the state and employers in the determination of the higher education curriculum, and exemplified by the increasing emphasis on so-called transferable skills. The latest major vision statement on higher education supports this shift in purpose, by portraying the new economic order as placing an increasing premium on what it calls ‘key’ skills – seen as necessary outcomes of all higher education programmes (Dearing Report, 1997). The last decade has seen a shattering of long-held assumptions about university and academic autonomy, as public and political interest in quality, standards and accountability has intensified efforts for reform. These reforms, underpinned by the ideological and philosophical approach of a conservative government and now being pursued by the present government, have had a major impact on higher education institutions. “The search for economy, efficiency and value for money assumes a degree of management totally foreign to the traditional democratic and collegiate culture of the universities” (Green, 1994). Nevertheless, the Committee of Vice Chancellors and Principals (CVCP) has advocated the inclusion of personal or key skill acquisition in higher education, as illustrated by their joint declaration of intent with the Confederation of British Industry (CBI) and the Council for Industry and Higher Education (CIHE) (1996). In this declaration it was asserted (although it is not clear what evidence has been used to underpin these statements) that most British people, most educators, and most students now believe that it is one of higher education's purposes to prepare students well for working life. A joint national effort was also agreed by the three parties, to ensure that students in higher education develop attributes thought useful for success in employment and future life, that is, the “general personal and intellectual capacities that go beyond those traditionally made explicit within an academic or vocational discipline” (CVCP, CBI, CIHE, 1996).
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Wind Turbines addresses all those professionally involved in research, development, manufacture and operation of wind turbines. It provides a cross-disciplinary overview of modern wind turbine technology and an orientation in the associated technical, economic and environmental fields. It is based on the author's experience gained over decades designing wind energy converters with a major industrial manufacturer and, more recently, in technical consulting and in the planning of large wind park installations, with special attention to economics. The second edition accounts for the emerging concerns over increasing numbers of installed wind turbines. In particular, an important new chapter has been added which deals with offshore wind utilisation. All advanced chapters have been extensively revised and in some cases considerably extended.
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Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to investigate the performance of three χ2 test statistics in confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Normal theory maximum likelihood χ2 (ML), Browne's asymptotic distribution free χ2 (ADF), and the Satorra-Bentler rescaled χ2 (SB) were examined under varying conditions of sample size, model specification, and multivariate distribution. For properly specified models, ML and SB showed no evidence of bias under normal distributions across all sample sizes, whereas ADF was biased at all but the largest sample sizes. ML was increasingly overestimated with increasing nonnormality, but both SB (at all sample sizes) and ADF (only at large sample sizes) showed no evidence of bias. For misspecified models, ML was again inflated with increasing nonnormality, but both SB and ADF were underestimated with increasing nonnormality. It appears that the power of the SB and ADF test statistics to detect a model misspecification is attenuated given nonnormally distributed data.