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First country records of Pristimantis luscombei Duellman and Mendelson) and Syncope tridactyla(Duellman and Mendelson) in eastern lowlands of Ecuador (Amphibia: Anura: Strabomantidae, Microhylidae)

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The Upper Amazon Basin is located closer to Andes along the Equator, at eastern lowlands of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, which receives one of the highest levels of rainfall within all lowland Amazonia (Vigle 2008). These environmental conditions seem to favor the presence of the highest known species richness and complex herpetological communities (Dixon and Soini 1975; Duellman 1978; Duellman and Mendelson 1995; Lynch et al. 1997; Duellman 1999; Lynch 2005; Vigle 2008). For long time Amazonia was considered as one of the best studied regions in South America (Lynch 2005). Anyway, despite intense effort our knowledge of the Amazonian herpetofauna is far from beeing complete (Duellman and Mendelson 1995). Central Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador are not an exception and many areas remain unexplored and several species unreported or undescribed (Cisneros-Heredia and Meza-Ramos 2007; McCracken et al. 2007; Elmer and Cannatella 2008; Vigle 2008; Cisneros-Heredia et al. 2009; Ortega-Andrade 2009). Herpetological studies by Ecuadorian institutions through past fifteen years in the Amazonian lowlands of Ecuador resulted in the collection of novel species for the country, which we are glad to report herein.
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The Upper Amazon Basin is located closer to Andes
along the Equator, at eastern lowlands of Colombia,
Ecuador and Peru, which receives one of the highest
levels of rainfall within all lowland Amazonia (Vigle
2008). These environmental conditions seem to favor
the presence of the highest known species richness and
complex herpetological communities (Dixon and Soini
1975; Duellman 1978; Duellman and Mendelson 1995;
Lynch et al. 1997; Duellman 1999; Lynch 2005; Vigle
2008). For long time Amazonia was considered as one of
the best studied regions in South America (Lynch 2005).
Anyway, despite intense effort our knowledge of the
Amazonian herpetofauna is far from beeing complete
(Duellman and Mendelson 1995). Central Amazonian
lowlands of Ecuador are not an exception and many
areas remain unexplored and several species unreported
or undescribed (Cisneros-Heredia and Meza-Ramos
2007; McCracken et al. 2007; Elmer and Cannatella
2008; Vigle 2008; Cisneros-Heredia et al. 2009; Ortega-
Andrade 2009). Herpetological studies by Ecuadorian
institutions through past fteen years in the Amazonian
lowlands of Ecuador resulted in the collection of novel
species for the country, which we are glad to report
herein.
All specimens were reviewed from following
institutions: Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales
(DHMECN), Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés
(FHGO), Museo de Zoología, Ponticia Universidad
Católica del Ecuador (QCAZ), Quito, Ecuador, and
American Museum of Natural History (AMNH),
New York, United States of America. Morphometric
measurements are in millimeters. Map, elevations
and geographic coordinates were determined from the
author’s eld notes, DHMECN, QCAZ and FHGO
databases, and physical map of the Republic of Ecuador
(IGM 2008), developed in ARCVIEW 3.2 (ESRI
1999). We follow the terminology of vegetal formations
according with the classication system proposed
by Palacios et al. (1999) to Ecuador. The research
authorization (Nº001-IC-FAU/FLO-DRFN-P/MA)
was issued by the Ministerio del Ambiente de Ecuador,
Tena, Ecuador.
Pristimantis luscombei (Duellman and Mendelson
1995) was known from a series collected from type
locality at Teniente López and nearby areas from San
Jacinto, Departamento Loreto, northern Peru. This small
to medium sized (23.1–27.9 mm in two females; 17.7–
21.3 mm in ve males, Table 1) and pale orange frog can
be recognized from other Amazonian Pristimantis frogs
by: (1) iris orange, nely reticulated with black; (2) skin
of dorsum shagreen with scattered pustules in females
and W or \ /shaped dermal ridges in scapular region of
males; venter granular in males, areolate in females;
(3) snout with white blotches (cream interorbital stripe
or stains in some males); and, (4) dorsal color pattern
without marks or longitudinal stripes. In addition,
we found the presence of small tubercles along the
outer edge of tarsus in males DHMECN 3365– 3366,
not mentioned on the original description, useful for
identication. Color in life: Dorsum greenish–brown
with some reddish stains in scapular region; snout with
Herpetology Notes, volume 3: 251-256 (2010) (published online on 25 August 2010)
First country records of Pristimantis luscombei
(Duellman and Mendelson) and Syncope tridactyla
(Duellman and Mendelson) in eastern lowlands of Ecuador
(Amphibia: Anura: Strabomantidae, Microhylidae)
H. Mauricio Ortega-Andrade1, 2* and Jorge H. Valencia3
1 Instituto de Ecología, A.C., Red de Biología y Conservación
de Vertebrados, carretera antigua a Coatepec 351, El Haya,
AP 63, Xalapa, Veracruz, México;
e-mail: biomauro@hotmail.com
2 Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, División de Her-
petología, Sección de Vertebrados, calle Rumipamba 341 y
Av. de los Shyris, Quito, Ecuador and Fundación EcoCiencia,
Proyecto de Conservación de la Cuenca Baja del Pastaza,
Francisco Salazar E14-34 y Coruña, Quito, Ecuador;
3 Fundación Herpetologica Gustavo Orcés, Av. Amazonas 3008
y Rumipamba, Quito, Ecuador.
*Corresponding author
H. Mauricio Ortega-Andrade et al.
252
white blotches, upper lips with dark brown diagonal
stripes; cream interorbital stripe or stains in some
males. Groin yellowish-tan; anterior and posterior
surfaces of thighs uniform brown. The belly is cream.
Iris orange, nely reticulated with black (Figs. 1, 2).
Color in preservative: Dorsum dark brown to metallic
green (DHMECN 4448), with cream tubercles and
low dermal ridges. Dorsal surfaces of thighs with dark
brown transversal stripes; anterior and posterior surfaces
of thighs uniform brown. Snout and interorbital stripe
cream. Belly white with brown ecks.
Seven specimens were collected along Evergreen
lowland forest from Amazonia of Ecuador, at elevations
between 195 and 300 m a.s.l. Specimen QCAZ 10131
was collected on 20 February 1996 by O. Torres, Ma.
C. Terán and X. Cisneros; specimens FHGO 5252-5254
were collected by M. Read, E. Carrillo, S. Aldaz and
F. Ayala (no date related); specimens DHMECN 3365-
3366 were collected on 22 August 2005 and DHMECN
4448 on 2 June 2007, all by H. M. Ortega-Andrade.
Figure 1. Adult male (A-B: DHMECN 3365) and adult female (C: DHMECN 4448) of Pristimantis luscombei from Amazonian
lowlands, Republic of Ecuador.
New records of Pristimantis luscombei and Syncope tridactyla 253
Museum number DHMECN
3365
DHMECN
3366
DHMECN
4448
FHGO
5252
FHGO
5253
FHGO
5254
QCAZ
10131
Sex (status) Male Male Female Female Male Male Male
Snout-vent length 21.3 18.7 27.9 23.1 17.7 19.3 18.4
Head length 9.6 8 11.3 10.3 7.8 8.1 7.2
Head width 7.7 7.1 9.6 8.5 7 7.2 7.2
Tibia length 12.4 10.3 1 4.7 13.6 9.8 10 9.7
Foot length 15.4 12.8 17.6 18.1 12.9 13.2 12.6
Inter-orbital distance 2.3 1.4 1.4 3.3 2.6 3 2.3
Horizontal eye 2.8 2.4 3.5 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.3
Horizontal tympanic 1.4 0.9 1.4 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.8
Eye-nostril distance 2.6 2.4 4.5 3.2 2.6 2.6 2.3
Table 1. Measurements (in mm) of specimens of Pristimantis luscombei from Amazon Basin of Ecuador.
Figure 2. Pristimantis luscombei from Amazonian lowlands, Republic of Ecuador: (A–B) DHMECN 3366, juvenile; (C)
DHMECN 3365, adult male; (D–E) DHMECN 4448, adult female.
Collections from Km 95 of Pompeya Sur – Iro road
(=Maxus road), province of Francisco de Orellana, are
recognized as northernmost locality, ca. 153 km NW
from San Jacinto, Departamento Loreto, Peru. Bufeo,
province of Pastaza is the westernmost locality, ca. 89
Km NW from Teniente López, Departamento Loreto,
Peru (Fig. 3). This species was commonly found on
leaves of heliconia, herbs and bushes (0.3– 1.5 m) in
terra rme forest, at night (HMOA pers. obs.).
Syncope tridactyla (Duellman and Mendelson 1995)
has been known from two localities in Amazonian
Lowlands of Northern Loreto, Peru and from Tabatinga,
Amazonas, Brazil (Duellman and Mendelson 1995;
Da Silva and Meinhardt 1999; Frost 2009). Specimens
reviewed (Fig. 4, Appendix I) agree with description
and diagnosis provided by Duellman and Mendelson
(1995) and Da Silva and Meinhardt (1999) to assign
it to genus Syncope. This species can be differentiated
from Syncope antenori (Walker) and Syncope carvalhoi
(Nelson) by present Finger II not visible externally,
254 H. Mauricio Ortega-Andrade et al.
Figure 3. Map of Ecuador showing the locations of new records
for Pristimantis luscombei (open squares) and Syncope tridactyla
(open circle) in the Upper Amazon Basin: (a) Km 95 on Pompeya
Sur – Iro road (=Maxus road); (b) Obe Oriental, Parque Nacional
Yasuní; (c) Lorocachi; (d) Bufeo. Black dots are type localities:
(e) San Jacinto; (f) Teniente López. Provinces in eastern Ecua-
dor: (1) Sucumbios; (2) Francisco de Orellana; (3) Pastaza; (4)
Morona Santiago; (5) Zamora Chinchipe.
Figure 4. Body views of dorsum, belly, lateral proles, hands and feet of Syncope tridactyla (QCAZ 9577, male, left; QCAZ
9520, adult female, right) from Lorocachi, province of Pastaza, Republic of Ecuador.
Museum number DHMECN
3365
DHMECN
3366
DHMECN
4448
FHGO
5252
FHGO
5253
FHGO
5254
QCAZ
10131
Sex (status) Male Male Female Female Male Male Male
Snout-vent length 21.3 18.7 27.9 23.1 17.7 19.3 18.4
Head length 9.6 8 11.3 10.3 7.8 8.1 7.2
Head width 7.7 7.1 9.6 8.5 7 7.2 7.2
Tibia length 12.4 10.3 14.7 13.6 9.8 10 9.7
Foot length 15.4 12.8 17.6 18.1 12.9 13.2 12.6
Inter-orbital distance 2.3 1.4 1.4 3.3 2.6 3 2.3
Horizontal eye 2.8 2.4 3.5 2.9 2.5 2.6 2.3
Horizontal tympanic 1.4 0.9 1.4 1.2 0.9 1.2 0.8
Eye-nostril distance 2.6 2.4 4.5 3.2 2.6 2.6 2.3
Fingers III and V visible as small bumps (Fingers II
and V are longer in both previously species), Toe I not
visible, Toe II visible only as small bump, tympanum
present and visible externally (not differentiated in
S. antenori). Noblella myrmecoides (Lynch) and
Adelophryne adiastola (Hoogmoed and Lescure) differs
from S. tridactyla mainly by the presence of a short, but
visible, four nger and ve toes with tips expanded or
only slightly expanded; N. myrmecoides also has the tips
of at least toes III–IV acuminate. Although Duellman
and Mendelson (1995) reported teeth in this species,
we saw none in both reviewed specimens, match
with observations made by Da Silva and Meinhardt
(1999) on material available for their synonymy. Also,
coloration in life of S. tridactyla is quite different from
type series, according with Duellman and Mendelson
(1995) description: “KU 221992- Dorsum of head,
body, and limbs dark brown with cream ecks and
narrow cream canthal and dorsolateral stripes; anks
and belly black with cream spots; throat and ventral
surfaces of limbs brown with cream ecks; anterior and
posterior surfaces of upper arm orange-tan; iris red”.
In preservative, specimens reviewed had their dorsum
uniformly brown, head some darker than dorsum;
anks brown with creamy- white ecks; throat, chest,
belly and ventral surfaces of limbs with white blotches,
variable in size. Variation in coloration is referred to
specimens from Ecuador by lacking cream canthal and
dorsolateral stripes described for holotype (Duellman
and Mendelson 1995).
We report the presence of S. tridactyla (Fig. 3) in
Ecuador, based on specimens QCAZ 9520 (female) and
QCAZ 9577 (male), collected from Lorocachi, Pastaza
province by Ma. C. Terán, O. Torres-Carvajal and X.
Cisneros, between 18 to 24 February 1996. Lorocachi is
located on Evergreen lowland forest from Amazonia of
Ecuador, 200 m a.s.l. This is the fourth known record and
comprises the westernmost locality for S. tridactyla in
its distributional range, ca. 73.8 Km NW from its closest
locality, San Jacinto, Departamento Loreto, Peru. One
adult female (QCAZ 9520, 11.2 mm in SVL) contained
three eggs in its oviduct. Both specimens are slightly
shorter than holotype and paratype (up to 12.4 mm in
SVL) reported by Duellman and Mendelson (1995):
QCAZ 9520, female (QCAZ 9577, male): Snout-vent
length 11.3 mm (10.3 mm); head length 4.2 mm (4.2
mm); head width 4.1 mm (4.0 mm); femur 5.2 mm (5.3
mm); tibia length 5.1 mm (5.0 mm); foot length 7.2
mm (7.1 mm); inter-orbital distance 1.7 mm (1.7 mm);
horizontal eye diameter 1.5 mm (1.5 mm); eye-nostril
distance 1.1 mm (1.3 mm).
After decades of intensive research on Upper Amazon
Basin herpetofauna (e.g., Crump 1974; Dixon and
Soini 1975; Duellman 1978; Lynch and Duellman
1980; Almendáriz 1987; Duellman and Mendelson
1995; Lynch 2005; Cisneros-Heredia 2006; Vigle
2008), the knowledge of amphibians and reptiles in
this megadiverse area is still so far to be completed
(Lynch 2005) that Central Amazonia of Ecuador can
be considered as truly understudied region. More
studies are urgently necessary to understand biology,
biogeography and ecology of cryptic species, as those
reported herein.
Acknowledgements. We are grateful to S. Ron and L. A. Coloma
from Museo de Zoología, Ponticia Universidad Católica del
Ecuador, M. Yánez–Muñoz and M. Altamirano from Museo
Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, to María Elena Barragán and
Katty Garzón from Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, and
to Darrel Frost and David Kizirian from American Museum of
Natural History, for allow us review the herpetological collections
under their management. Especially thanks to F. Ayala, D.
Almeida, R. Betancourt, V. Peláez, I. Tapia, R. Pascocello and
David Dickey whose provides generously assistance along
museum specimens’s review. HMOA is indebted to eld
companions –Jorge Santi, Miguel Cachay, Tseremp Timias, José
Ruiz, Alcides Ushigua and Franklin Mayancha– for their efforts in
collecting herpetofauna in the Shiwiar and Sápara territories; to E.
Briones for supporting eld work with equipments, materials and
logistics through the eld work at Pastaza indigenous territories;
to Hector Santi, as the President of the Nacionalidad Shiwiar del
Ecuador (NASHIE), and to Luis Armas, as the President of the
Nacionalidad Sápara del Ecuador (NASAPE), the directive board
and to the local people for authorize biological studies in their
ancestral territories. The eld work of HMOA and subsequent
laboratory studies were supported by the project “Biodiversity
Conservation in Indigenous Territories on the Pastaza Region of
western Amazon, Ecuador” managed by Fundación EcoCiencia
and The Center for Environmental Studies in Latin America
(CESLA) of the University of Texas at Austin, nancially
supported by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation. Visits to
collections by HMOA throughout 2009-2010 were supported by
fellowship grants from Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología
(CONACyT), México, Consejo de Superación Académica
(COSUA), Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México, and Richard
Gilder Graduate School, American Museum of Natural History,
United States of America.
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Appendix I
Pristimantis luscombei: ECUADOR: Orellana province: Obe
Oriental, -1.10111 S, -75.86778 W, 216, DHMECN
3365, 3366; Parque Nacional Yasuní, -0.99408 S, -
76.24797 W, 275 m a.s.l, FHGO 5252–5254. Pastaza
province: Bufeo, -2.18728 S, -76.78577 W, 311 m
a.s.l., DHMECN 4448; Lorocachi, -1.63 S, -75.967
W, 195 m a.s.l., QCAZ 10131.
Syncope antenori: ECUADOR: Morona Santiago province: Río
Cusime, -2.540 S, -77.730 W, 320 m a.s.l., AMNH
94212.
Syncope tridactyla: ECUADOR: Pastaza province: Lorocachi, -
1.63 S, -75.967 W, 195 m a.s.l., QCAZ 9520, QCAZ
9577.
256 H. Mauricio Ortega-Andrade et al.
Accepted by Angelica Crottini; Managing Editor: Dennis Rödder
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La biodiversidad a nivel mundial está en crisis, con una acelerada pérdida de la diversidad genética, de especies y ecosistemas a escala global. Esto es cierto para los anfibios, siendo la cuenca Amazónica una de las regiones más diversas y amenazadas a nivel global. En sistemática, la especie es la unidad de análisis y punto de partida para estudios filogenéticos, de clasificación de la biodiversidad y conservación. Si bien se ha llegado a un consenso sobre el concepto de especie, existen problemas asociados con su delimitación, especialmente en sistemas con altas radiaciones evolutivas. En este trabajo se exploran los límites de especies de ranas Pristimantis (Anura: Craugastoridae) distribuidas en la cuenca alta Amazónica, en base al desarrollo de un protocolo integral basado en distintas líneas de evidencia (morfología, filogenias/coalescencias, nichos ecológicos y bioacústica) para diagnosticar y diferenciar linajes evolutivamente divergentes. Con este trabajo se describen cuatro especies nuevas para la ciencia (P. miktos, P. limoncochensis, P. omeviridis, P. enigmaticus), se sinonimiza una especie (P. achuar dentro de P. luscombei), se excluye de la sinonimia a una especie (P. brevicrus de P. altamazonicus) y se identifican al menos dos Especies Candidatas No Confirmadas (UCS, del inglés) en el complejo de P. altamazonicus. En total, el número de especies de Pristimantis actualizado para la Amazonía asciende a 56, representando el 11% de la diversidad del género. Se plantea una re-evaluación taxonómica de las especies nominales actualmente reconocidas para Amazonía, partiendo de la hipótesis de que muchas de ellas corresponden a complejos de especies. Varios de los problemas taxonómicos detectados en este trabajo soportan la idea de una amplia subestimación de la diversidad de Pristimantis en el Neotrópico y plantea retos futuros en la taxonomía sistemática del grupo.
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Duellman and Mendelson (1995) described several species of amphibians from northern Departamento Loreto, in Amazonian Peru. Among them, Pristimantis luscombei was described based on few adult specimens (3 males, one female), which included a series of subadults and juveniles. Pristimantis luscombei was considered a medium sized species (26.1 mm in one female; 17.7–21.3 mm in three males) commonly distinguished from other Pristimantis in the region by the presence of a W-shaped dermal ridge on the scapular region, a shagreen dorsum with scattered pustules, and cream or tan spot on top of the head or the snout (Duellman & Lehr 2009). Nonetheless, our examination of the type series revealed that it contains specimens of two species, one that roughly correspond to the original description but that lacks the W-shaped dermal ridge, and another one that possess it and that is identical to frogs now considered part of Pristimantis achuar (Elmer & Cannatella 2008). Thus, the original description of P. luscombei is misleading, as it lists characteristics of two very distinct species. Here, we solve this problem by providing morphological and molecular evidence to support that P. achuar is a junior synonym of P. luscombei, while two paratypes of P. luscombei and newly collected specimens are part of an unnamed species that we describe herein.
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We describe a new species of Pristimantis from evergreen lowland forest in the Amazon Basin of Ecuador. We observed all specimens to be active at night, located over leaves of shrubs in both primary forest and in the edge of forest clearings. The new species is tentatively assigned to Pristimantis (Pristimantis) frater group based on its small size (17.0–22.1 mm in snout–vent length of four males and 24.1 mm in a single female), relatively narrow head, short and subacuminate snout, lack of canthal stripes and labial bars, moderately long limbs, Finger I shorter than Finger II, and Toe V longer than Toe III. The new species differs from other congeneric species in Amazonia by possessing dense black reticulations on upper and lower borders of the iris, a dorsum that is orange or dark reddish brown without distinct pattern in life, a tympanic membrane not differentiated but ventral part of the tympanic annulus visible, and a small tubercle on each heel and eyelid.
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We describe three new species of Pristimantis leaflitter frogs from the upper Amazon basin of Ecuador: Pristimantis achuar, Pristimantis altamnis, and Pristimantis kichwarum. Each of these new species was previously considered to be part of a single species, formerly known as Eleutherodactylus ockendeni (Boulenger) morph B. However, analysis of DNA sequences together with examination of the morphology of more than 600 specimens from Ecuador reveals that multiple species were confused under the same name. The morphological differences among the three new species are subtle but consistent: presence or absence of a black canthal stripe and/or supratympanic ridge, snout-vent length, and ventral colouration. The three species are generally allopatric and geographically restricted, although at some localities two of the species occur sympatrically.Describimos tres especies nuevas de ranas del sotobosque de la cuenca Amazónica Ecuatoriana: Pristimantis achuar, Pristimantis altamnis y Pristimantis kichwarum. Estas especies fueron consideradas antes como una sola especie bajo el nombre Eleutherodactylus ockendeni (Boulenger) morfo B. Sin embargo, el análisis de secuencias de ADN y la examinación de la morfología de más que 600 especímenes Ecuatorianos indican que en realidad existen tres especies. Sus diferencias morfológicas son sutiles pero constantes: presencia o ausencia de una raya cantal negra y/o de un pliegue supratimpánico y su coloración ventral. Las tres especies tienen distribuciones alopátricas y distintas aunque en algunas localidades se puede encontrar dos de las tres especies juntas.
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The herpetofauna of the Tiputini Biodiversity Station (EBT), Amazonian Ecuador, was studied during four years (11 month/person 1760 hours/person of field work) through the application of Multiple Inventory Methods (transects, leaf-litter quadrats, pitfall traps, larvae study and independent points) to determine the species richness and diversity of amphibians and reptiles of EBT and to analyze the influence of phylogeny over the patterns of use of trophic and spatial resources by the anurans of EBT. The community of amphibians and reptiles of EBT is one of the most diverse by its number of species, 120 species of amphibians and 95 species of reptiles. At least four new (undescribed) species of amphibians were found, one anuran species new to the country, and several records that extend the distributional range of some amphibians and reptiles. Morphological and ecological data were analyzed for the anuran community and a strong relatiohship was found between the use of some resources (e.g., diet, microhabitat, and activity) and the different phylogenetic grups (families) of anurans. Aditionally, I discuss about the patterns of herpetofauna diversity in Western Amazonia and comment on herpetofaunal sampling methods in tropical areas.
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We describe a new species of frog of the family Centrolenidae, Cochranella amelie n. sp., from the central Amazonian Andean slopes, collected at the Oglan River, Province of Pastaza, Ecuador. This new species shows a very unusual com- bination of characters (lavender dorsum in preservative, absence of a humeral spine in adult males, transparent parietal peritoneum, white visceral peritonea, and bulbous liver). The relationships of this new species of Glassfrog are uncertain, and its assignment to Cochranella is preliminary.
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Ecuador has been poorly studied, many areas remain unexplored and several species unreported or undescribed (Cisneros-Heredia and McDiarmid, 2006; Lehr and Coloma, 2008). Recent expeditions conducted by the Departamento de Zoología of the Universidad Nacional de Loja—LOUNAZ in the eastern Andean slopes of the province of Zamora-Chinchipe resulted in the collection of novel species for the country. Herein, we are glad to present the first record of Pristimantis metabates from Ecuador and a distribution extension for Pristimantis skydmainos. All specimens were collected at the Centro de Estudios y Desarrollo para la Amazonía (CEDAMAZ), a reserve managed by Universidad Nacional de Loja. It is located at the region of "El Padmi", ca. 68 km from the city of Zamora and 128 km from the city of Loja (by road that leads to Gualaquiza), province of Zamora-Chinchipe, Republic of Ecuador (03.733° S, -78.6° W, 775–1150 m a.s.l.). CEDAMAZ protects 103.5 hectares of Lowland and Foothill Evergreen forests (Fig. 1) with a mean annual precipitation of about 2000 mm. All specimens are deposited in the herpetological collection of the Departamento de Zoología, Universidad Nacional de Loja (LOUNAZ), province of Loja, Ecuador. Pristimantis metabates (Duellman and Pramuk) was recently described based on two specimens collected at the River Marañon Valley, department of Amazonas, Peru (Duellman and Pramuk, 1999).
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Resumen. Los anfibios y reptiles que se encuentran en un área pequeña dentro de una reserva fragmentada de bosque lluvioso en la Amazonía ecuatoriana han sido intensivamente investigados en un período inicial de dos años mediante la recolección de muestras (1986–88). Esta actividad coincidió con la construcción de un camino a través del área y la subsiguiente oleada de conversión y fragmentación del bosque en las áreas circundantes. Se empleó una técnica de muestreo de transectos de tiempo restringido para facilitar luego el monitoreo de encuentro visual post-fragmentación y reunir datos de largo plazo sobre la riqueza y composición de las especies (en una escala cronológica desigual). Entre 1998 y 2005 se acumuló un esfuerzo de investigación y muestreo equivalente en la misma área reducida para compararla con la información de 1986 a 1988, en un intento por evaluar la eficiencia de esta reserva en la conservación de la fauna herpetológica documentada más de 10 años atrás. Basada en un total de 6,722 registros individuales obtenidos durante 1,117 horas de recolección de muestras divididas en dos períodos principales y cinco períodos secundarios de muestreo, la diversidad herpetofaunística estuvo entre las más altas reportadas hasta el momento en una única ubicación en la Amazonía, con 84 especies de anfibios y 82 especies de reptiles registrados de 1986 a 2007. Se provee una lista completa de especies, con comentarios en los registros más significativos. De las 73 especies de anfibios y 46 especies de reptiles registradas de 1986 a 1988, 68 anfibios (93%) y 40 reptiles (87%) fueron registrados nuevamente en el muestreo de 1998 a 2007; 11 especies de anfibios y 33 especies de reptiles no registrados entre 1986 y 1988 fueron añadidos en 1998 a 2007. Mediante un análisis de composición de pareja entre todos los períodos de muestreo usando un indice de similitud revelaron un > 50% de similitud para ambos grupos taxonómicos entre períodos; la similitud de estos dos períodos principales (1986–88 vs. 1998–2005) fue 0.90 por anfibios y 0.70 por reptiles. El presente estudio provee otro punto de referencia de sitio único para la herpetofauna megadiversa de la zona alta de la cuenca amazónica, pero es diferente ya que ofrece datos de largo plazo en la persistencia de especies; los resultados de un lapso de muestreo de 20 años sugieren que esta pequena reserva, desde 1986 ha conservado exitosamente esta fauna. Estos resultados coinciden con estudios previos de largo plaza de la cuenca central de la Amazonía en sugerir que las reservas relativamente pequeñas y otros remanentes de bosque con suficiente diversidad de hábitat pueden contribuir sustancialmente a la continua supervivencia de la alta diversidad de comunidades herpetofaunísticas de los bosques lluviosos amazónicos en medio de la extendida deforestación regional.