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On the association between glioma, wireless phones, heredity and ionising radiation

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Abstract

We performed two case-control studies on brain tumours diagnosed during 1 January 1997 to 30 June 2000 and 1 July 2000 to 31 December 2003, respectively. Living cases and controls aged 20-80 years were included. An additional study was performed on deceased cases with a malignant brain tumour using deceased controls. Pooled results for glioma yielded for ipsilateral use of mobile phone odds ratio (OR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.8-4.7 in the >10 years latency group. The corresponding result for cordless phone was OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.8-8.1. OR increased statistically significant for cumulative use of wireless phones per 100h and per year of latency. For high-grade glioma ipsilateral use of mobile phone gave OR=3.9, 95% CI=2.3-6.6 and cordless phone OR=5.5, 95% CI=2.3-13 in the >10 years latency group. Heredity for brain tumour gave OR=3.4, 95% CI=2.1-5.5 for glioma. There was no interaction with use of wireless phones. X-ray investigation of the head gave overall OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.7 for glioma without interaction with use of wireless phones or heredity. In conclusion use of mobile and cordless phone increased the risk for glioma with highest OR for ipsilateral use, latency >10 years and third tertile of cumulative use in hours. In total, the risk was highest in the age group <20 years for first use of a wireless phone.

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... The Hardell group has previously published pooled analysis of malignant brain tumours diagnosed during the period 1997-2003 [27]. These results were updated including also results for deceased cases with malignant brain tumours [28,29]. The results on use of wireless phones were based on 1251 cases with malignant brain tumour (response rate 85%) and 2438 controls (response rate 84%). ...
... and per year of latency; OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.037-1.075 [29]. Separate calculations of mobile phone and cordless phone use yielded similar results with statistically significant increasing risks. ...
... Ipsilateral use of mobile phone yielded in total OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.02-3.1 (n = 39 cases) and cordless phone OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.98-3.1 (n = 34 cases, data not in Table). Further results and discussion may be found elsewhere [29]. ...
Article
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO evaluation of the carcinogenic effect of RF-EMF on humans took place during a 24-31 May 2011 meeting at Lyon in France. The Working Group consisted of 30 scientists and categorised the radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF), as Group 2B, i.e., a 'possible', human carcinogen. The decision on mobile phones was based mainly on the Hardell group of studies from Sweden and the IARC Interphone study. We give an overview of current epidemiological evidence for an increased risk for brain tumours including a meta-analysis of the Hardell group and Interphone results for mobile phone use. Results for cordless phones are lacking in Interphone. The meta-analysis gave for glioma in the most exposed part of the brain, the temporal lobe, odds ratio (OR)=1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-2.81 in the ≥10 years (>10 years in the Hardell group) latency group. Ipsilateral mobile phone use ≥1640h in total gave OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.56-3.37. The results for meningioma were OR=1.25, 95% CI=0.31-4.98 and OR=1.35, 95% CI=0.81-2.23, respectively. Regarding acoustic neuroma ipsilateral mobile phone use in the latency group ≥10 years gave OR=1.81, 95% CI=0.73-4.45. For ipsilateral cumulative use ≥1640h OR=2.55, 95% CI=1.50-4.40 was obtained. Also use of cordless phones increased the risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma in the Hardell group studies. Survival of patients with glioma was analysed in the Hardell group studies yielding in the >10 years latency period hazard ratio (HR)=1.2, 95% CI=1.002-1.5 for use of wireless phones. This increased HR was based on results for astrocytoma WHO grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme). Decreased HR was found for low-grade astrocytoma, WHO grades I-II, which might be caused by RF-EMF exposure leading to tumour-associated symptoms and earlier detection and surgery with better prognosis. Some studies show increasing incidence of brain tumours whereas other studies do not. It is concluded that one should be careful using incidence data to dismiss results in analytical epidemiology. The IARC carcinogenic classification does not seem to have had any significant impact on governments' perceptions of their responsibilities to protect public health from this widespread source of radiation.
... The exposure to RFR still continues to have a high research priority according to the new World Health Organization (WHO) research agenda [13,14]. Indeed, a recent study has found an increased risk of glioma among people who had started to use mobile phones under the age of 20 [15]. ...
... Among the participating 2240 students, 54.6% were male. The mean age of the respondents was 16.5 ± 1.3 years (±SD; standard deviation) (min-max: [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. Table 1 shows the detailed distribution of the surveyed population according to socio-demographic characteristics. ...
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Background Use of mobile phones has rapidly risen among adolescents despite a lack of scientific certainty on their health risks. Risk perception is an important determinant of behavior, and studies on adolescents’ risk perceptions of mobile phones or base stations are very scarce. This study aims to evaluate high school students’ risk perceptions on mobile phones and base stations, their trust to authorities, their opinions regarding incivility while using mobile phones and to assess associated factors. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 2530 students were chosen with stratified cluster sampling among 20,493 high school students studying in Bornova district of Izmir, Turkey, among whom 2240 (88.5%) participated. Risk perceptions and opinions were questioned with a 5-point Likert scale for 24 statements grouped under four dimensions. The mean responses to the four dimensions were categorized as <3.5 (low) and ≥3.5 (high) and the determinants were analyzed with logistic regression. Results Mean risk perception scores for the mobile phone, base station, trust to authority and incivility dimensions were 3.69 ± 0.89, 4.34 ± 0.78, 3.77 ± 0.93, 3.16 ± 0.93 and the prevalence of high risk perception was 65.1%, 86.7%, 66.2%, 39.7%, respectively. In the mobile phone dimension; students attending industrial technical high school had lower risk perceptions while female students, lower mothers’ education groups and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.82, 95% CI = 1.80-4.40) had higher risk perceptions. In the base station dimension girls had higher risk perceptions (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.20-2.37). Girls and students attending industrial technical high school had significantly lower risk perception however 11-12th grade group perceived the risk higher (OR = 1.45 95% CI = 1.15-1.84) in the trust to authority dimension. For the incivility dimension, female students (OR = 1.44, 95% CI = 1.14-1.82), illiterate/only literate mothers (OR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.04-2.75) and students not using mobile phones (OR = 2.50, 95% CI = 1.62-3.87) perceived higher risk. Conclusions Understanding the effects of these determinants might aid in developing more effective educational interventions to specific subgroups on this topic. As debates on the health consequences of electromagnetic fields continue, it would be cautious to approach this issue with a preventive perspective. Efforts should be made to equalize the varying level of knowledge and to ensure that students are informed accurately.
... This time, the use of cordless phones was also assessed. Further details may be found in the various publications that are based on the results from these studies (11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16). ...
... In our previous study, we found that heredity and previous X-ray investigations of the head increased the risk for glioma. However, these were independent risk factors with no interaction with use of wireless phones (16). Thus, it was not necessary to adjust for these risk factors in the present study. ...
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Previous studies have shown a consistent association between long-term use of mobile and cordless phones and glioma and acoustic neuroma, but not for meningioma. When used these phones emit radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) and the brain is the main target organ for the handheld phone. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified in May, 2011 RF-EMF as a group 2B, i.e. a 'possible' human carcinogen. The aim of this study was to further explore the relationship between especially long-term (>10 years) use of wireless phones and the development of malignant brain tumours. We conducted a new case-control study of brain tumour cases of both genders aged 18-75 years and diagnosed during 2007-2009. One population-based control matched on gender and age (within 5 years) was used to each case. Here, we report on malignant cases including all available controls. Exposures on e.g. use of mobile phones and cordless phones were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusting for age, gender, year of diagnosis and socio-economic index using the whole control sample. Of the cases with a malignant brain tumour, 87% (n=593) participated, and 85% (n=1,368) of controls in the whole study answered the questionnaire. The odds ratio (OR) for mobile phone use of the analogue type was 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04‑3.3, increasing with >25 years of latency (time since first exposure) to an OR=3.3, 95% CI=1.6-6.9. Digital 2G mobile phone use rendered an OR=1.6, 95% CI=0.996-2.7, increasing with latency >15-20 years to an OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.6. The results for cordless phone use were OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.9, and, for latency of 15-20 years, the OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.2-3.8. Few participants had used a cordless phone for >20-25 years. Digital type of wireless phones (2G and 3G mobile phones, cordless phones) gave increased risk with latency >1-5 years, then a lower risk in the following latency groups, but again increasing risk with latency >15-20 years. Ipsilateral use resulted in a higher risk than contralateral mobile and cordless phone use. Higher ORs were calculated for tumours in the temporal and overlapping lobes. Using the meningioma cases in the same study as reference entity gave somewhat higher ORs indicating that the results were unlikely to be explained by recall or observational bias. This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.
... Advances in molecular biology have suggested that gain of oncogene function (e.g., N-ras, human epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-1 [HER-1, also known as v-ErbB-2 avian erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 1, erbB-1] and isoforms 1 and 2 of citrate dehydrogenase [IDH1/2]) [2, 3], as well as the loss or inactivation of the function in tumor suppressor genes (e.g., p53, RB1, O 6 -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase [MGMT], and phosphatase and tensin homolog [pTEN]) [4][5][6][7], are frequently associated with GBM. Although the oncogenic consequence is yet to be determined, risk factors in lifestyle (e.g., smoking, drinking habits and compulsive use of wireless phones) and environment (e.g., exposure to ionizing radiation and chemicals) have been implicated in the cumulative multigene alterations, which can then activate oncogene expression, induce aberrant cell growth and accelerate carcinogenic changes [8][9][10][11][12]. EGFR expression in GBM had attracted several provisional clinical trials targeted at EGFR-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways as well as several related passages [13][14][15]. ...
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Full-text available
Background: Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a GTPase involved in mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial protein imports, and drug sensitivity, suggesting an association with cancer progression. This study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of DRP1 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods : DRP1 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Correlations between DRP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were by statistical analysis. Differences in survival were compared by a log-rank test. Results : DRP1 expression was detected in 87.2% (41/47) patients with GBM. Patients with higher DRP1 levels had worse survival ( p = 0.0398). In vitro , silencing of DRP1 reduced cell proliferation, invasive potential, and radiation resistance. The addition of shikonin inhibited DRP1 expression and increased drug uptake. Moreover, shikonin reduced the nuclear entry of DNA repair-associated enzymes and increased radiation sensitivity, suggesting that to reduce DRP1 expression could inhibit DNA repair and increase the radiation sensitivity of GBM cells. Conclusions : Our results indicate that DRP1 overexpression is a prospective radio-resistant phenotype in GBM. Therefore, DRP1 could be a potential target for improving the effectiveness of radiation therapy.
... Especially interesting is the application of this model in oncology research involving the carcinogenic effects of mobile phones on brain structures. The procedure could be of great value in verifying SAR values in Case/Control studies of tumour occurrences caused by the use of mobile phones (32). The connection of the topographic location of maximum energy absorption and the primary place of a glioma (most cited brain tumour connected to mobile phone usage) could reveal the importance of this model. ...
Article
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The nature of an electromagnetic field is not the same outside and inside a biological subject. Numerical bioelectromagnetic simulation methods for penetrating electromagnetic fields facilitate the calculation of field components in biological entities. Calculating energy absorbed from known sources, such as mobile phones when placed near the head, is a prerequisite for studying the biological influence of an electromagnetic field. Such research requires approximate anatomical models which are used to calculate the field components and absorbed energy. In order to explore the biological effects in organs and tissues, it is necessary to establish a relationship between an analogous anatomical model and the real structure. We propose a new approach in exploring biological effects through combining two different techniques: 1) numerical electromagnetic simulation, which is used to calculate the field components in a similar anatomical model and 2) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), which is used to accurately locate sites with increased absorption. By overlapping images obtained by both methods, we can precisely locate the spots with maximum absorption effects. This way, we can detect the site where the most pronounced biological effects are to be expected. This novel approach successfully overcomes the standard limitations of working with analogous anatomical models.
... Surgery is a determinant for prognosis in this patient group. However, it should be noted that we have reported increased risk for both low-grade (grade I-II) and high-grade astrocytoma (grade III-IV) associated with use of mobile and cordless phones [22]. ...
Article
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On 31 May 2011 the WHO International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorised radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) from mobile phones, and from other devices that emit similar non-ionising electromagnetic fields, as a Group 2B, i.e., a "possible", human carcinogen. A causal association would be strengthened if it could be shown that the use of wireless phones has an impact on the survival of glioma patients. We analysed survival of 1678 glioma patients in our 1997-2003 and 2007-2009 case-control studies. Use of wireless phones in the >20 years latency group (time since first use) yielded an increased hazard ratio (HR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2-2.3 for glioma. For astrocytoma grade IV (glioblastoma multiforme; n = 926) mobile phone use yielded HR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-2.9 and cordless phone use HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.04-11 in the same latency category. The hazard ratio for astrocytoma grade IV increased statistically significant per year of latency for wireless phones, HR = 1.020, 95% CI = 1.007-1.033, but not per 100 h cumulative use, HR = 1.002, 95% CI = 0.999-1.005. HR was not statistically significant increased for other types of glioma. Due to the relationship with survival the classification of IARC is strengthened and RF-EMF should be regarded as human carcinogen requiring urgent revision of current exposure guidelines.
... Ionizing radiation and heredity are known risk factors for glioma, but these were independent risk factors with no interaction with wireless phones [36]. Thus, it was unnecessary to make adjustment for these factors in the statistical analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
We made a pooled analysis of two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours with patients diagnosed during 1997-2003 and 2007-2009. They were aged 20-80 years and 18-75 years, respectively, at the time of diagnosis. Only cases with histopathological verification of the tumour were included. Population-based controls, matched on age and gender, were used. Exposures were assessed by questionnaire. The whole reference group was used in the unconditional regression analysis adjusted for gender, age, year of diagnosis, and socio-economic index. In total, 1498 (89%) cases and 3530 (87%) controls participated. Mobile phone use increased the risk of glioma, OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 overall, increasing to OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.7-5.2 in the >25 year latency group. Use of cordless phones increased the risk to OR=1.4, 95% CI=1.1-1.7, with highest risk in the >15-20 years latency group yielding OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.1-2.5. The OR increased statistically significant both per 100h of cumulative use, and per year of latency for mobile and cordless phone use. Highest ORs overall were found for ipsilateral mobile or cordless phone use, OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.2 and OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.1, respectively. The highest risk was found for glioma in the temporal lobe. First use of mobile or cordless phone before the age of 20 gave higher OR for glioma than in later age groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
... In a qualitative study, Gustafson et al (IARC 2011) explored young adults' experience, attitudes and health beliefs in relation to information technology use and found that they perceived both opportunities and including risks to physical and psychosocial health. In respective studies of physiological complications, the carcinogenic effects of MPU are still controversial (Laviola G et al.1999& VanDeventer E et al. 2011), while the thermal (Roosli M et al. 2010, P. 887) and non-thermal effects (Patel V et al.2007& Carlberg M et al. 2012) of MPU have been confirmed. Previously researchers have found that problematic MPU was associated with low self-esteem in adult populations (Sweden Statistics 2007) in addition to alcohol drinking (Gustafson E et al. 2003, P. 565) and depression (Moulder JE ET al.2005, P.189) in Adolescent populations. ...
Article
Mobile phones, one of the greatest inventions in the late 20th century, now have become the newest addiction in the world. Even though it has given us convenient and comfort, it doesn’t mean it has no adverse effect. It is something that is going to affect everyone on day to day basis. The concept and ideas of the adolescents with mobile phone use and mental health generated a possible pathway for personnel dependency and also for the direct sources of stress, depression, sleep disturbances, aggression, and to a list of risky behaviors. However, studies on the association between problematic mobile phone use and psychological problems have been relatively few until now. The impact of mobile phone in adolescents in different domains of mental health should be considered for epidemiological and interventional studies. Keywords: Adolescents, Cell Phone Use [CPU], Mobile Phone, Mobile Phone Use [MPU], Psychological Problems.
... These higher energy radiofrequency radiation (RFR) waves propagate differently in the air and have much far-reaching fields. The impact of EMR on human health, particularly on cancer risk, has been investigated in many studies over the last few decades and some have shown highly significant associations, although establishing causal relationships has been difficult [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] . The BioInitiative Report 19 by an international panel of scientists and clinicians is the most up-to-date scientific information source with collated peer-reviewed publications (www.bioinitiative.org) in the area of EMR research. ...
Article
Impaired Public Health in the Wireless Age – a Challenge for Environmental and Dietary Medicine in the 21st Century. Priyanka Bandara Ayubowan Health & Lifestyle Education Service, Sydney, Australia and the Environmental Health Trust, Wyoming, USA Exposure to man-made non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the form of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) emitted by power lines and electrical appliances as well as high frequency radiowaves (including microwaves) emanating from modern wireless communication systems and devices has been investigated in light of its possible impact on human health. This article focuses on radio frequency radiation (RFR) - an environmental pollutant that has increased exponentially in most parts of the world over the last couple of decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. A large number of cell culture (in vitro) studies and animal (in vivo) studies have so far shown increased levels of endogenous oxidative stress markers and affected antioxidant levels in various tissue/cell types upon exposure to RFR. Some studies have further demonstrated ameliorative effects upon supplementation with a range of antioxidant. These findings are complemented by a limited number of human studies where exposure to RFR has shown increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. A review of the existing scientific literature indicates oxidative stress as a central mechanism underlying cytotoxic effects related to RFR exposure, such as DNA damage and micronuclei formation as well as induction of stress proteins. Existing literature provides evidence for altered in immune/nervous/endocrine and metabolic functions upon exposure. With multi-system effects, implications in public health are substantial.
... These higher energy radiofrequency radiation (RFR) waves propagate differently in the air and have much far-reaching fields. The impact of EMR on human health, particularly on cancer risk, has been investigated in many studies over the last few decades and some have shown highly significant associations, although establishing causal relationships has been difficult [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] . The BioInitiative Report 19 by an international panel of scientists and clinicians is the most up-to-date scientific information source with collated peer-reviewed publications (www.bioinitiative.org) in the area of EMR research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exposure to man-made non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the form of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) emitted by power lines and electrical appliances as well as high frequency radiowaves (including microwaves) emanating from modern wireless communication systems and devices has been investigated in light of its possible impact on human health. This article focuses on radio frequency radiation (RFR) - an environmental pollutant that has increased exponentially in most parts of the world over the last couple of decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. A large number of cell culture (in vitro) studies and animal (in vivo) studies have so far shown increased levels of endogenous oxidative stress markers and affected antioxidant levels in various tissue/cell types upon exposure to RFR. Some studies have further demonstrated ameliorative effects upon supplementation with a range of antioxidant. These findings are complemented by a limited number of human studies where exposure to RFR has shown increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. A review of the existing scientific literature indicates oxidative stress as a central mechanism underlying cytotoxic effects related to RFR exposure, such as DNA damage and micronuclei formation as well as induction of stress proteins. Existing literature provides evidence for altered in immune/nervous/endocrine and metabolic functions upon exposure. With multi-system effects, implications in public health are substantial.
... These higher energy radiofrequency radiation (RFR) waves propagate differently in the air and have much far-reaching fields. The impact of EMR on human health, particularly on cancer risk, has been investigated in many studies over the last few decades and some have shown highly significant associations, although establishing causal relationships has been difficult [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18] . The BioInitiative Report 19 by an international panel of scientists and clinicians is the most up-to-date scientific information source with collated peer-reviewed publications (www.bioinitiative.org) in the area of EMR research. ...
Article
Exposure to man-made non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the form of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) emitted by power lines and electrical appliances as well as high frequency radiowaves (including microwaves) emanating from modern wireless communication systems and devices has been investigated in light of its possible impact on human health. This article focuses on radio frequency radiation (RFR) - an environmental pollutant that has increased exponentially in most parts of the world over the last couple of decades due to a rapid expansion of mobile/wireless/satellite technologies. The WHO’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified RFR as a 2B possible human carcinogen in 2011. A large number of cell culture (in vitro) studies and animal (in vivo) studies have so far shown increased levels of endogenous oxidative stress markers and affected antioxidant levels in various tissue/cell types upon exposure to RFR. Some studies have further demonstrated ameliorative effects upon supplementation with a range of antioxidant. These findings are complemented by a limited number of human studies where exposure to RFR has shown increased oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status. A review of the existing scientific literature indicates oxidative stress as a central mechanism underlying cytotoxic effects related to RFR exposure, such as DNA damage and micronuclei formation as well as induction of stress proteins. Existing literature provides evidence for altered in immune/nervous/endocrine and metabolic functions upon exposure. With multi-system effects, implications in public health are substantial.
... due to recall bias. Carlberg and Hardell (2012) conducted a study which intended to look at the association between glioma, wireless phones, heredity and ionising radiation. The analyses of glioma and wireless phones are similar to analyses from earlier papers by Hardell at al. (2006bHardell at al. ( , 2011 . ...
... The odds ratios were higher in some of the short term follow up groups than the longer perhaps because few people have 25 years of extensive cell phone use, in part because they are not old enough. Carlberg and Hardell (2012) analyzed the association of brain cancer with mobile phone use and heredity. The results were based on 1251 cases with malignant brain tumor (response rate 85%) and 2438 controls (response rate 84%). ...
Article
Epidemiology studies (case-control, cohort, time trend and case studies) published since the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) 2011 categorization of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from mobile phones and other wireless devices as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B) are reviewed and summarized. Glioma is an important human cancer found to be associated with RFR in 9 case-control studies conducted in Sweden and France, as well as in some other countries. Increasing glioma incidence trends have been reported in the UK and other countries. Non-malignant endpoints linked include acoustic neuroma (vestibular Schwannoma) and meningioma. Because they allow more detailed consideration of exposure, case-control studies can be superior to cohort studies or other methods in evaluating potential risks for brain cancer. When considered with recent animal experimental evidence, the recent epidemiological studies strengthen and support the conclusion that RFR should be categorized as carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 1). Opportunistic epidemiological studies are proposed that can be carried out through cross-sectional analyses of high, medium, and low mobile phone users with respect to hearing, vision, memory, reaction time, and other indicators that can easily be assessed through standardized computer-based tests. As exposure data are not uniformly available, billing records should be used whenever available to corroborate reported exposures.
... Advances in molecular biology have suggested that gain of oncogene function (e.g., N-ras, human epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-1 [HER-1, also known as v-ErbB-2 avian erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 1, erbB-1] and isoforms 1 and 2 of citrate dehydrogenase [IDH1/2]) [2,3], as well as loss of tumour suppressor genes (e.g., p53, RB1, O 6 -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase [MGMT], and phosphatase and tensin homolog [pTEN]) [4][5][6][7], are frequently associated with GBM. Although the oncogenic consequence is yet to be determined, risk factors in lifestyle (e.g., smoking, drinking habits and compulsive use of wireless phones) and environment (e.g., exposure to ionizing radiation and chemicals) have been implicated in the cumulative multigene alterations, which can then activate oncogene expression, induce aberrant cell growth and accelerate carcinogenic changes [8][9][10][11][12]. EGFR expression in GBM had attracted several provisional clinical trials targeted at EGFR-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways as well as several related passages [13][14][15]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a GTPase involved in mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial protein imports, and drug sensitivity, suggesting an association with cancer progression. This study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of DRP1 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Material and Methods DRP1 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Correlations between DRP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were analyzed by statistical analysis. Differences in survival were compared by a log-rank test. Results DRP1 expression was detected in 87.2% (41/47) patients with GBM. Patients with higher DRP1 levels had worse survival (p = 0.0398). In vitro, silencing of DRP1 reduced cell proliferation, metastatic potential, and radiation resistance. The addition of shikonin inhibited DRP1 expression and increased drug uptake. Moreover, shikonin reduced the nuclear entry of DNA repair-associated enzymes and increased radiation sensitivity, suggesting that to reduce DRP1 expression could inhibit DNA repair and increase the radiation sensitivity of GBM cells. Conclusion Our results indicate that DRP1 overexpression is a prospective radio-resistant phenotype in GBM. Therefore, DRP1 could be a potential target for improving the effectiveness of radiation therapy.
... [13] The use of mobile and cordless phones amplified the risk for glioma, especially the ipsilateral use; the risk was maximum in the age group <20 years. [14] Mobile phone use decreased pyramidal neuron numbers by 51.15% and improved ischemic neuron numbers by 73% at cortex region of the brain. [15] Mobile phone use changed resting electroencephalogram (EEG) patterns and values by reducing 1-4 Hz activity at the right hemisphere sites and increasing 8-12 Hz activity as a function of exposure period at the midline posterior positions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The human body is a permissible medium, and radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) waves pass through this medium. The effects exerted by RF-EMF devices such as mobile phones on brain tissues are categorised into thermal and non-thermal effects. The aim of this review was to analyse the interactions and interface between RF-EMF exposure and the nervous system, to ascertain any negative impact on the nervous system at both cellular, molecular and systems level. Original studies that reported on the effects of RF-EMF exposure on the brain function and nervous system from inception to 20 August 2019 were searched online. The PubMed database was utilised. The MeSH system was used to excerpt relevant research studies from PubMed using the following keywords: electromagnetic field, radiofrequency, mobile phone, brain, central nervous system, radiation and neurophysiology. All selected articles were published in the English. Full articles were assessed, and relevant information was extracted. RF-EMF exposure significantly altered several neurophysiological mechanisms based on electroencephalogram studies and molecular and biochemical analysis. However, there was no substantial evidence linking RF-EMF exposure to the pathogenesis of brain tumour.
... 3 epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR]-1 [HER-1, also known as v-ErbB-2 avian erythroblastic leukaemia viral oncogene homolog 1, erbB-1] and isoforms 1 and 2 of citrate dehydrogenase [IDH1/2]) [4,5], as well as the loss or inactivation of the function of tumor suppressor genes (e.g., p53, RB1, O 6 -methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase [MGMT], and phosphatase and tensin homolog [pTEN]) [6][7][8][9], are frequently associated with GBM. Although their oncogenic consequences have yet to be fully determined, lifestyle-related risk factors (e.g., smoking, drinking habits and compulsive use of wireless phones) and environmental risk factors (e.g., exposure to ionizing radiation and chemicals) have been implicated in cumulative multigene alterations, which can then activate oncogene expression, induce aberrant cell growth and accelerate carcinogenic changes [10][11][12][13][14]. EGFR expression in GBM has been investigated in several provisional clinical trials targeted at the EGFRphosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways, as well as several related passages [15][16][17]. ...
Preprint
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Background: Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a GTPase involved in mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial protein imports, and drug sensitivity, suggesting an association with cancer progression. This study is to evaluate the prognostic significance of DRP1 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods : DRP1 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Correlations between DRP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were by statistical analysis. Differences in survival were compared by a log-rank test. Results : DRP1 expression was detected in 87.2% (41/47) patients with GBM. Patients with higher DRP1 levels had worse survival ( p = 0.0398). In vitro , silencing of DRP1 reduced cell proliferation, invasive potential, and radiation resistance. The addition of shikonin inhibited DRP1 expression and increased drug uptake. Moreover, shikonin reduced the nuclear entry of DNA repair-associated enzymes and increased radiation sensitivity, suggesting that to reduce DRP1 expression could inhibit DNA repair and increase the radiation sensitivity of GBM cells. Conclusions : Our results indicate that DRP1 overexpression is a prospective radio-resistant phenotype in GBM. Therefore, DRP1 could be a potential target for improving the effectiveness of radiation therapy.
... Given near-universal adoption of mobile telecommunications technologies across the world, even slight adverse effects of exposure to RF fields in biological model systems could have significant implications for public health. Epidemiological evidence for a role of such fields in promoting or initiating specific cancers (such as gliomas or acoustic neuromas) remains ambiguous and hotly contested [Hardell et al., 2007;Schleofer et al., 2007;Sage and Carpenter, 2009;INTERPHONE Study Group, 2010, 2011Carlberg and Hardell, 2012;Hardell et al., 2013]. Equally, evidence for any role of EMFs in causation or aggravation of human neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases remains scarce, although cognitive impairment associated with increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier in rodents following long-term exposure to 900 MHz GSM fields has been reported by two independent studies [Nittby et al., 2008[Nittby et al., , 2009Tang et al., 2015]. ...
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Potential health effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation from mobile phones arouse widespread public concern. RF fields from handheld devices near the brain might trigger or aggravate brain tumors or neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Aggregation of neural α-synuclein (S) is central to PD pathophysiology, and invertebrate models expressing human S have helped elucidate factors affecting the aggregation process. We have recently developed a transgenic strain of Caenorhabditis elegans carrying two S constructs: SC tagged with cyan (C) blue fluorescent protein (CFP), and SV with the Venus (V) variant of yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). During S aggregation in these SC+SV worms, CFP, and YFP tags are brought close enough to allow Foerster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). As a positive control, S aggregation was promoted at low Hg2+ concentrations, whereas higher concentrations activated stress-response genes. Using two different exposure systems described previously, we tested whether RF fields (1.0 GHz CW, 0.002-0.02 W kg−1; 1.8 GHz CW or GSM, 1.8 W kg−1) could influence S aggregation in SC+SV worms. YFP fluorescence in similar SV-only worms provided internal controls, which should show opposite changes due to FRET quenching during S aggregation. No statistically significant changes were observed over several independent runs at 2.5, 24, or 96 h. Although our worm model is sensitive to chemical promoters of aggregation, no similar effects were attributable to RF exposures. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:116–129, 2016.
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Vestibuler schwannomalar, Vestibulocochlear (8. kranial) sinirin, sıklıkla alt vestibüler bölümünde schwann kılıfından çıkan benign intra kranial tümörlerdir. Kaynaklara göre değişmekle birlikte, erişkinlerde tüm intra kranial neoplazilerinin %1-10’unu oluşturmaktadır. Tüm schwannomaların %60’ının, tüm intrakranial schwannomaların ise %90’nın, vestibuler schwannoma olduğu bildirilmektedir. Rastlanma olasılığı yaşamın 50 ve 60’lı yıllarında pik yapmakta ve olguların yaklaşık 2/3’ünü kadınlar oluşturmaktadır. Semptomlar ve belirtiler tümör büyüklüğü, büyüme hızı ve lokalizasyonuna bağlı olarak değişmekle birlikte, genellikle tek taraflı işitme kaybı, tinnitus, vertigo mevcuttur. Tümörün fokal bası etkisine ve kafa içi basınç artışına bağlı semptomlar da görülebilmektedir. Gelişen görüntüleme teknolojisi, olguların erken tanısı ve daha az invaziv yöntemlerle tedavisine olanak sağlamıştır. Bu olgu sunumunda; ani şüpheli ölüm olarak adli otopsisi talep edilen ve otopside rastlantısal olarak Vestibuler Schwannoma saptanan 44 yaşında bir erkek olguya ait otopsi ve histopatoloji bulguları verilmektedir. Kaynaklar ışığında olgu tartışılmakta ve Vestibuler Schwannomanın bulguları ve tanısına ek olarak etyolojide yer alabilecek risk faktörleri gözden geçirilmektedir. Baz istasyonları, cep telefonları ya da diğer mobil iletişim araçlarının etyolojideki rolü konusunda yapılan kaynak taramasına ait veriler de aktarılmaktadır. Anahtar Kelimeler : Vestibuler schwannoma, serebello pontin köşe tümörü, intra kranial neoplazi, nervus vestibulocochlearis.
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The purpose of this study was to clarify ownership and usage of mobile phones among young patients with brain tumors in Japan. The subjects of this study were patients with brain tumors diagnosed between 2006 and 2010 who were between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The target population for the analysis was 82 patients. Patients were divided into two groups: 16 patients who were mobile phone owners 1 year before diagnosis, and 66 patients who did not own mobile phones (non-owners). Using data on the mobile phone ownership rate obtained from three general-population surveys, we calculated the expected number of mobile phone owners. The three age-adjusted standardized ownership ratios were 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56–1.22), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.24–1.04), and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.42–1.32). The mobile phone ownership prevalence among the young Japanese patients with brain tumors in the current study does not differ from available estimates for the general population of corresponding age. However, since the use of mobile phones among children is increasing annually, investigations into the health effects of mobile phone use among children should continue. Bioelectromagnetics.
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Scholarly debate on the use of deceased controls in epidemiologic research continues. This systematic review examines published epidemiologic research using deceased persons as a control group. A systematic search of five major biomedical literature databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, Scopus, and EMBASE) was conducted using variations of search terms "deceased" and "controls", to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles. Information was sought on study design; rationale for using deceased controls; application of theoretical principles of control selection; and discussion of the use of deceased controls. The review identified 134 studies using deceased controls published in English between 1978 and 2015. Common health outcomes under investigation included cancer (n = 31, 23.1%), nervous system diseases (n = 26, 19.4%), and injury and other external causes (n = 22, 16.4%). The majority of studies used deceased controls for comparison with deceased cases (n = 95, 70.9%). Investigators rarely presented their rationale for control selection (n = 25/134, 18.7%), however common reasons included comparability of information on exposures; lack of appropriate controls from other sources; and counteracting bias associated with living controls. Comparable accuracy was the most frequently observed principle of control selection (n = 92, 68.7%). This review highlights the breadth of research using deceased controls and indicates their appropriateness in studies using deceased cases.
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Mobile phones (MPs) are the most relevant source of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to the brain and the salivary gland. Whether this exposure implies a cancer risk has been addressed in several case-control and few cohort studies. A meta-analysis of these studies does not show increased risks for meningioma, pituitary, and salivary gland tumors. For glioma and acoustic neuroma, the results are heterogeneous, with few case-control studies reporting substantially increased risks. However, these elevated risks are not coherent with observed incidence time trends, which are considered informative for this specific topic owing to the steep increase in MP use, the availability of virtually complete cancer registry data from many countries, and the limited number of known competing environmental risk factors. In conclusion, epidemiological studies do not suggest increased brain or salivary gland tumor risk with MP use, although some uncertainty remains regarding long latency periods (>15 years), rare brain tumor subtypes, and MP usage during childhood.
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Emerging studies have provided evidence on the carcinogenicity of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from cell phones. This study aims to test the genetic susceptibility on the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer. Population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut between 2010 and 2011 including 440 thyroid cancer cases and 465 population-based controls with genotyping information for 823 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 176 DNA genes. We used multivariate unconditional logistic regression models to estimate the genotype-environment interaction between each SNP and cell phone use and to estimate the association with cell phone use in populations according to SNP variants. Ten SNPs had P < 0.01 for interaction in all thyroid cancers. In the common homozygote groups, no association with cell phone use was observed. In the variant group (heterozygotes and rare homozygotes), cell phone use was associated with an increased risk for rs11070256 (odds ratio (OR): 2.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-4.30), rs1695147 (OR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.30-4.90), rs6732673 (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.01-2.49), rs396746 (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.13-5.65), rs12204529 (OR: 2.62, 95% CI: 1.33-5.17), and rs3800537 (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 1.30-5.36) with thyroid cancers. In small tumors, increased risk was observed for 5 SNPs (rs1063639, rs1695147, rs11070256, rs12204529 and rs3800537), In large tumors, increased risk was observed for 3 SNPs (rs11070256, rs1695147, and rs396746). Our result suggests that genetic susceptibilities modify the associations between cell phone use and risk of thyroid cancer. The findings provide more evidence for RFR carcinogenic group classification.
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Primary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are the third cause of death by cancer in the adult and the first in children. They account for 10% of the CNS tumors, since 90% are metastases. The glioblastoma is the most frequent malignant tumor and the meningioma the most frequent benign one.Their clinical manifestations are due to the increase of intracranial pressure (headaches, nausea, instability and cranial pair involvement) reorganization of the cortex cytoarchitecture (epilepsy) and focal functional deficits (paresias, apraxias, cognitive deficits).Although biopsy is recommended for diagnosis in difficult-to-access sites, magnetic resonance imaging, spectroscopy and magnetoencephalography techniques make it possible to detect, characterize and establish the prognosis.Surgery is elective as long as it spares the eloquent cortex. It cures most of the benign ones and increases survival in the malignant ones. Stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery are useful for both and with the metastases.Survival is approximately 15% at 5 years and the benign tumors generally recur. More selective collimators for radiotherapy will be used and neuronavigation guided surgery or ultrasound will be more precise with fewer neurological sequels.
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Background : Dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) is a GTPase involved in mitochondrial fission, mitochondrial protein import, and drug sensitivity, suggesting an association with cancer progression. This study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of DRP1 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Methods : DRP1 expression was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Correlations between DRP1 expression and clinicopathological parameters were determined by statistical analysis. Differences in survival were compared using the log-rank test. Results : DRP1 expression was detected in 87.2% (41/47) of the investigated patients with GBM. The patients with higher DRP1 levels had worse survival ( p = 0.0398). In vitro , the silencing of DRP1 reduced cell proliferation, invasive potential, and radiation resistance. The addition of shikonin inhibited DRP1 expression and increased drug uptake. Moreover, shikonin reduced the nuclear entry of DNA repair-associated enzymes and increased radiation sensitivity, suggesting that reducing DRP1 expression could inhibit DNA repair and increase the radiation sensitivity of GBM cells. Conclusions : Our results indicate that DRP1 overexpression is a prospective radio-resistant phenotype in GBM. Therefore, DRP1 could be a potential target for improving the effectiveness of radiation therapy.
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The use of cellular telephones has increased dramatically during the 1990's in the world. In the 1980's the analogue NMT system was used whereas the digital GSM system was introduced in early 1990's and is now the preferred system. Case reports of brain tumours in users initiated this case-control study on brain tumours and use of cellular telephones. Also other exposures were assessed. All cases, both males and females, with histopathologically verified brain tumour living in Uppsala-Örebro region (1994-96) and Stockholm region (1995-96) aged 20-80 at the time of diagnosis and alive at start of the study were included, 233 in total. Two controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register matched for sex, age and study region. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires supplemented over the phone. The analyses were based on answers from 209 (90%) cases and 425 (91%) controls. Use of cellular telephone gave odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69-1.41. For the digital GSM system OR = 0.97, CI = 0.61-1.56 and for the analogue NMT system OR = 0.94, CI = 0.62-1.44 were calculated. Dose-response analysis and using different tumour induction periods gave similar results. Non-significantly increased risk was found for tumour in the temporal or occipital lobe on the same side as a cellular phone had been used, right side OR = 2.45, CI = 0.78-7.76, left side OR = 2.40, CI = 0.52-10.9 Increased risk was found only for use of the NMT system. For GSM use the observation time is still too short for definite conclusions. An increased risk for brain tumour in the anatomical area close to the use of a cellular telephone should be especially studied in the future.
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Our case-control studies were the first to report an association between the use of mobile or cordless phones and brain tumors; glioma and acoustic neuroma. Criticism of these results has been based partly on results from the Inter-phone studies conducted under the auspice of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Here, we com-pare study design and epidemiological methods used in our studies and the Interphone studies. We conclude that while our results appear sound and reliable, several of the Interphone findings display differential misclassification of exposure due to observational and recall bias, for example, following low participation rates in both cases and controls and bed-side computer guided interviews of cases rather than blinded interviews of cases and controls. However, as we have presented elsewhere, there seems to be a consistent pattern of an association between mobile phone use and ipsilateral glioma and acoustic neuroma using > 10 years latency period.
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Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer recently classified radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, such as those emanating from mobile and cordless phones, as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B), two additional reports relevant to the topic have been published. Both articles were new updates of a Danish cohort on mobile phone subscribers and concern the possible association between assumed use of mobile phones and risk of brain tumors. The aim of the present review is to reexamine all four publications on this cohort. In brief, publications were scrutinized, and in particular, if the authors made explicit claims to have either proved or disproved their hypothesis, such claims were reviewed in light of applied methods and study design, and in principle, the stronger the claims, the more careful our review. The nationwide Danish cohort study on mobile phone subscribers and risk of brain tumors, including at best 420,095 persons (58% of the initial cohort), is the only one of its kind. In comparison with previous investigations, i.e., case-control studies, its strength lies in the possibility to eliminate non-response, selection, and recall bias. Although at least non-response and recall bias can be excluded, the study has serious limitations related to exposure assessment. In fact, these limitations cloud the findings of the four reports to such an extent that render them uninformative at best. At worst, they may be used in a seemingly solid argument against an increased risk--as reassuring results from a large nationwide cohort study, which rules out not only non-response and recall bias but also an increased risk as indicated by tight confidence intervals. Although two of the most comprehensive case-control studies on the matter both have methodological limitations that need to be carefully considered, type I errors are not the only threats to the validity of studies on this topic--the Danish cohort study is a textbook example of that.
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Although CT scans are very useful clinically, potential cancer risks exist from associated ionising radiation, in particular for children who are more radiosensitive than adults. We aimed to assess the excess risk of leukaemia and brain tumours after CT scans in a cohort of children and young adults. In our retrospective cohort study, we included patients without previous cancer diagnoses who were first examined with CT in National Health Service (NHS) centres in England, Wales, or Scotland (Great Britain) between 1985 and 2002, when they were younger than 22 years of age. We obtained data for cancer incidence, mortality, and loss to follow-up from the NHS Central Registry from Jan 1, 1985, to Dec 31, 2008. We estimated absorbed brain and red bone marrow doses per CT scan in mGy and assessed excess incidence of leukaemia and brain tumours cancer with Poisson relative risk models. To avoid inclusion of CT scans related to cancer diagnosis, follow-up for leukaemia began 2 years after the first CT and for brain tumours 5 years after the first CT. During follow-up, 74 of 178,604 patients were diagnosed with leukaemia and 135 of 176,587 patients were diagnosed with brain tumours. We noted a positive association between radiation dose from CT scans and leukaemia (excess relative risk [ERR] per mGy 0·036, 95% CI 0·005-0·120; p=0·0097) and brain tumours (0·023, 0·010-0·049; p<0·0001). Compared with patients who received a dose of less than 5 mGy, the relative risk of leukaemia for patients who received a cumulative dose of at least 30 mGy (mean dose 51·13 mGy) was 3·18 (95% CI 1·46-6·94) and the relative risk of brain cancer for patients who received a cumulative dose of 50-74 mGy (mean dose 60·42 mGy) was 2·82 (1·33-6·03). Use of CT scans in children to deliver cumulative doses of about 50 mGy might almost triple the risk of leukaemia and doses of about 60 mGy might triple the risk of brain cancer. Because these cancers are relatively rare, the cumulative absolute risks are small: in the 10 years after the first scan for patients younger than 10 years, one excess case of leukaemia and one excess case of brain tumour per 10,000 head CT scans is estimated to occur. Nevertheless, although clinical benefits should outweigh the small absolute risks, radiation doses from CT scans ought to be kept as low as possible and alternative procedures, which do not involve ionising radiation, should be considered if appropriate. US National Cancer Institute and UK Department of Health.
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Case-control studies on adults point to an increased risk of brain tumours (glioma and acoustic neuroma) associated with the long-term use of mobile phones. Recently, the first study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents, CEFALO, was published. It has been claimed that this relatively small study yielded reassuring results of no increased risk. We do not agree. We consider that the data contain several indications of increased risk, despite low exposure, short latency period, and limitations in the study design, analyses and interpretation. The information certainly cannot be used as reassuring evidence against an association, for reasons that we discuss in this commentary.
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To investigate the risk of tumours in the central nervous system among Danish mobile phone subscribers. Nationwide cohort study. Denmark. All Danes aged ≥ 30 and born in Denmark after 1925, subdivided into subscribers and non-subscribers of mobile phones before 1995. Risk of tumours of the central nervous system, identified from the complete Danish Cancer Register. Sex specific incidence rate ratios estimated with log linear Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, education, and disposable income. 358,403 subscription holders accrued 3.8 million person years. In the follow-up period 1990-2007, there were 10,729 cases of tumours of the central nervous system. The risk of such tumours was close to unity for both men and women. When restricted to individuals with the longest mobile phone use--that is, ≥ 13 years of subscription--the incidence rate ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.27) in men and 0.91 (0.41 to 2.04) in women. Among those with subscriptions of ≥ 10 years, ratios were 1.04 (0.85 to 1.26) in men and 1.04 (0.56 to 1.95) in women for glioma and 0.90 (0.57 to 1.42) in men and 0.93 (0.46 to 1.87) in women for meningioma. There was no indication of dose-response relation either by years since first subscription for a mobile phone or by anatomical location of the tumour--that is, in regions of the brain closest to where the handset is usually held to the head. In this update of a large nationwide cohort study of mobile phone use, there were no increased risks of tumours of the central nervous system, providing little evidence for a causal association.
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It has been hypothesized that children and adolescents might be more vulnerable to possible health effects from mobile phone exposure than adults. We investigated whether mobile phone use is associated with brain tumor risk among children and adolescents. CEFALO is a multicenter case-control study conducted in Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Switzerland that includes all children and adolescents aged 7-19 years who were diagnosed with a brain tumor between 2004 and 2008. We conducted interviews, in person, with 352 case patients (participation rate: 83%) and 646 control subjects (participation rate: 71%) and their parents. Control subjects were randomly selected from population registries and matched by age, sex, and geographical region. We asked about mobile phone use and included mobile phone operator records when available. Odds ratios (ORs) for brain tumor risk and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Regular users of mobile phones were not statistically significantly more likely to have been diagnosed with brain tumors compared with nonusers (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 0.92 to 2.02). Children who started to use mobile phones at least 5 years ago were not at increased risk compared with those who had never regularly used mobile phones (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 0.70 to 2.28). In a subset of study participants for whom operator recorded data were available, brain tumor risk was related to the time elapsed since the mobile phone subscription was started but not to amount of use. No increased risk of brain tumors was observed for brain areas receiving the highest amount of exposure. The absence of an exposure-response relationship either in terms of the amount of mobile phone use or by localization of the brain tumor argues against a causal association.
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Whether or not there is a relationship between use of mobile phones (analogue and digital cellulars, and cordless) and head tumour risk (brain tumours, acoustic neuromas, and salivary gland tumours) is still a matter of debate; progress requires a critical analysis of the methodological elements necessary for an impartial evaluation of contradictory studies. A close examination of the protocols and results from all case-control and cohort studies, pooled- and meta-analyses on head tumour risk for mobile phone users was carried out, and for each study the elements necessary for evaluating its reliability were identified. In addition, new meta-analyses of the literature data were undertaken. These were limited to subjects with mobile phone latency time compatible with the progression of the examined tumours, and with analysis of the laterality of head tumour localisation corresponding to the habitual laterality of mobile phone use. Blind protocols, free from errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give positive results that reveal a cause-effect relationship between long-term mobile phone use or latency and statistically significant increase of ipsilateral head tumour risk, with biological plausibility. Non-blind protocols, which instead are affected by errors, bias, and financial conditioning factors, give negative results with systematic underestimate of such risk. However, also in these studies a statistically significant increase in risk of ipsilateral head tumours is quite common after more than 10 years of mobile phone use or latency. The meta-analyses, our included, examining only data on ipsilateral tumours in subjects using mobile phones since or for at least 10 years, show large and statistically significant increases in risk of ipsilateral brain gliomas and acoustic neuromas. Our analysis of the literature studies and of the results from meta-analyses of the significant data alone shows an almost doubling of the risk of head tumours induced by long-term mobile phone use or latency.
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The objective of this study was to examine the associations of brain tumours with radio frequency (RF) fields from mobile phones. Patients with brain tumour from the Australian, Canadian, French, Israeli and New Zealand components of the Interphone Study, whose tumours were localised by neuroradiologists, were analysed. Controls were matched on age, sex and region and allocated the 'tumour location' of their matched case. Analyses included 553 glioma and 676 meningioma cases and 1762 and 1911 controls, respectively. RF dose was estimated as total cumulative specific energy (TCSE; J/kg) absorbed at the tumour's estimated centre taking into account multiple RF exposure determinants. ORs with ever having been a regular mobile phone user were 0.93 (95% CI 0.73 to 1.18) for glioma and 0.80 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.96) for meningioma. ORs for glioma were below 1 in the first four quintiles of TCSE but above 1 in the highest quintile, 1.35 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.90). The OR increased with increasing TCSE 7+ years before diagnosis (p-trend 0.01; OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.47 in the highest quintile). A complementary analysis in which 44 glioma and 135 meningioma cases in the most exposed area of the brain were compared with gliomas and meningiomas located elsewhere in the brain showed increased ORs for tumours in the most exposed part of the brain in those with 10+ years of mobile phone use (OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.13 to 6.94 for glioma). Patterns for meningioma were similar, but ORs were lower, many below 1.0. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma in long-term mobile phone users with high RF exposure and of similar, but apparently much smaller, increases in meningioma risk. The uncertainty of these results requires that they be replicated before a causal interpretation can be made.
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The energy absorbed from the radio-frequency fields of mobile telephones depends strongly on distance from the source. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate whether gliomas occur preferentially in the areas of the brain having the highest radio-frequency exposure. The authors used 2 approaches: In a case-case analysis, tumor locations were compared with varying exposure levels; in a case-specular analysis, a hypothetical reference location was assigned for each glioma, and the distances from the actual and specular locations to the handset were compared. The study included 888 gliomas from 7 European countries (2000-2004), with tumor midpoints defined on a 3-dimensional grid based on radiologic images. The case-case analyses were carried out using unconditional logistic regression, whereas in the case-specular analysis, conditional logistic regression was used. In the case-case analyses, tumors were located closest to the source of exposure among never-regular and contralateral users, but not statistically significantly. In the case-specular analysis, the mean distances between exposure source and location were similar for cases and speculars. These results do not suggest that gliomas in mobile phone users are preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest radio-frequency fields from mobile phones.
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We studied the association between use of mobile and cordless phones and malignant brain tumours. Pooled analysis was performed of two case-control studies on patients with malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 and matched controls alive at the time of study inclusion and one case-control study on deceased patients and controls diagnosed during the same time period. Cases and controls or relatives to deceased subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Replies were obtained for 1,251 (85%) cases and 2,438 (84%) controls. The risk increased with latency period and cumulative use in hours for both mobile and cordless phones. Highest risk was found for the most common type of glioma, astrocytoma, yielding in the >10 year latency group for mobile phone use odds ratio (OR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.9-3.7 and cordless phone use OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.9. In a separate analysis, these phone types were independent risk factors for glioma. The risk for astrocytoma was highest in the group with first use of a wireless phone before the age of 20; mobile phone use OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11, cordless phone use OR = 3.9, 95% CI = 1.7-8.7. In conclusion, an increased risk was found for glioma and use of mobile or cordless phone. The risk increased with latency time and cumulative use in hours and was highest in subjects with first use before the age of 20.
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In genome-wide association studies, inherited risk of glioma has been demonstrated for rare familial syndromes and with common variants from 3-5 chromosomal regions. To assess the degree of familial aggregation of glioma, the authors performed a pooled analysis of data from 2 large glioma case-control studies in the United States (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (1994-2006) and University of California, San Francisco (1991-2004)) and from the Swedish Cancer Registry (1958-2006) to measure excess cases of cancer among first-degree relatives of glioma probands. This analysis included 20,377 probands with glioma and 52,714 first-degree relatives. No overall increase was found in the expected number of cancers among family members; however, there were 77% more gliomas than expected. There were also significantly more sarcoma and melanoma cases than expected, which is supported by evidence in the literature, whereas there were significantly fewer-than-expected cases of leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and bladder, lung, pancreatic, prostate, and uterine cancers. This large pooled analysis provided sufficient numbers of related family members to examine the genetic mechanisms involved in the aggregation of glioma with other cancers in these families. However, misclassification due to unvalidated cancers among family members could account for the differences seen by study site.
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Group functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) studies have documented reliable changes in human functional brain maturity over development. Here we show that support vector machine-based multivariate pattern analysis extracts sufficient information from fcMRI data to make accurate predictions about individuals' brain maturity across development. The use of only 5 minutes of resting-state fcMRI data from 238 scans of typically developing volunteers (ages 7 to 30 years) allowed prediction of individual brain maturity as a functional connectivity maturation index. The resultant functional maturation curve accounted for 55% of the sample variance and followed a nonlinear asymptotic growth curve shape. The greatest relative contribution to predicting individual brain maturity was made by the weakening of short-range functional connections between the adult brain's major functional networks.
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Objective During the last decade, mobile phone use increased to almost 100% prevalence in many countries of the world. Evidence for potential health hazards accumulated in parallel by epidemiologic investigations has raised controversies about the appropriate interpretation and the degree of bias and confounding responsible for reduced or increased risk estimates. Data Sources Overall, I identified 33 epidemiologic studies in the peer-reviewed literature, most of which (25) were about brain tumors. Two groups have collected data for ≥ 10 years of mobile phone use: Hardell and colleagues from Sweden and the Interphone group, an international consortium from 13 countries coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Data Synthesis Combined odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) from these studies for glioma, acoustic neuroma, and meningioma were 1.5 (1.2–1.8); 1.3 (0.95–1.9); and 1.1 (0.8–1.4), respectively. Conclusions Methodologic considerations revealed that three important conditions for epidemiologic studies to detect an increased risk are not met: a ) no evidence-based exposure metric is available; b) the observed duration of mobile phone use is generally still too low; c) no evidence-based selection of end points among the grossly different types of neoplasias is possible because of lack of etiologic hypotheses. Concerning risk estimates, selection bias, misclassification bias, and effects of the disease on mobile phone use could have reduced estimates, and recall bias may have led to spuriously increased risks. The overall evidence speaks in favor of an increased risk, but its magnitude cannot be assessed at present because of insufficient information on long-term use.
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We investigated the use of mobile or cordless phones and the risk for malignant brain tumors in a group of deceased cases. Most previous studies have either left out deceased cases of brain tumors or matched them to living controls and therefore a study matching deceased cases to deceased controls is warranted. Recall error is one issue since it has been claimed that increased risks reported in some studies could be due to cases blaming mobile phones as a cause of the disease. This should be of less importance for deceased cases and if cancer controls are used. In this study brain tumor cases aged 20-80 years diagnosed during 1997-2003 that had died before inclusion in our previous studies on the same topic were included. Two control groups were used: one with controls that had died from another type of cancer than brain tumor and one with controls that had died from other diseases. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire sent to the next-of-kin for both cases and controls. Replies were obtained for 346 (75%) cases, 343 (74%) cancer controls and 276 (60%) controls with other diseases. Use of mobile phones gave an increased risk, highest in the >10 years' latency group yielding odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.4-4.1. The risk increased with cumulative number of lifetime hours for use, and was highest in the >2,000 h group (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.6-7.1). No clear association was found for use of cordless phones, although OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 0.8-3.4 was found in the group with >2,000 h of cumulative use. This investigation confirmed our previous results of an association between mobile phone use and malignant brain tumors.
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Cordless and mobile (cellular) telephone use has increased substantially in recent years causing concerns about possible health effects. This has led to much epidemiological research, but the usual focus is on mobile telephone radiofrequency (RF) exposure only despite cordless RF being very similar. Access to and use of cordless phones were included in the Mobile Radiofrequency Phone Exposed Users Study (MoRPhEUS) of 317 Year 7 students recruited from Melbourne, Australia. Participants completed an exposure questionnaire-87% had a cordless phone at home and 77% owned a mobile phone. There was a statistically significant positive relationship (r = 0.38, p < 0.01) between cordless and mobile phone use. Taken together, this increases total RF exposure and its ratio in high-to-low mobile users. Therefore, the design and analysis of future epidemiological telecommunication studies need to assess cordless phone exposure to accurately evaluate total RF telephone exposure effects.
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The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.
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Case-control studies have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between mobile phone use and tumor risk. We investigated these associations using a meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in August 2008. Two evaluators independently reviewed and selected articles based on predetermined selection criteria. Of 465 articles meeting our initial criteria, 23 case-control studies, which involved 37,916 participants (12,344 patient cases and 25,572 controls), were included in the final analyses. Compared with never or rarely having used a mobile phone, the odds ratio for overall use was 0.98 for malignant and benign tumors (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.07) in a random-effects meta-analysis of all 23 studies. However, a significant positive association (harmful effect) was observed in a random-effects meta-analysis of eight studies using blinding, whereas a significant negative association (protective effect) was observed in a fixed-effects meta-analysis of 15 studies not using blinding. Mobile phone use of 10 years or longer was associated with a risk of tumors in 13 studies reporting this association (odds ratio = 1.18; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.34). Further, these findings were also observed in the subgroup analyses by methodologic quality of study. Blinding and methodologic quality of study were strongly associated with the research group. The current study found that there is possible evidence linking mobile phone use to an increased risk of tumors from a meta-analysis of low-biased case-control studies. Prospective cohort studies providing a higher level of evidence are needed.
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The Hardell-group conducted during 1997-2003 two case control studies on brain tumours including assessment of use of mobile phones and cordless phones. The questionnaire was answered by 905 (90%) cases with malignant brain tumours, 1,254 (88%) cases with benign tumours and 2,162 (89%) population-based controls. Cases were reported from the Swedish Cancer Registries. Anatomical area in the brain for the tumour was assessed and related to side of the head used for both types of wireless phones. In the current analysis we defined ipsilateral use (same side as the tumour) as >or=50% of the use and contralateral use (opposite side) as <50% of the calling time. We report now further results for use of mobile and cordless phones. Regarding astrocytoma we found highest risk for ipsilateral mobile phone use in the >10 year latency group, OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.0-5.4 and for cordless phone use OR=5.0, 95% CI=2.3-11. In total, the risk was highest for cases with first use <20 years age, for mobile phone OR=5.2, 95% CI=2.2-12 and for cordless phone OR=4.4, 95% CI=1.9-10. For acoustic neuroma, the highest OR was found for ipsilateral use and >10 year latency, for mobile phone OR=3.0, 95% CI=1.4-6.2 and cordless phone OR=2.3, 95% CI=0.6-8.8. Overall highest OR for mobile phone use was found in subjects with first use at age <20 years, OR=5.0, 95% CI 1.5-16 whereas no association was found for cordless phone in that group, but based on only one exposed case. The annual age-adjusted incidence of astrocytoma for the age group >19 years increased significantly by +2.16%, 95% CI +0.25 to +4.10 during 2000-2007 in Sweden in spite of seemingly underreporting of cases to the Swedish Cancer Registry. A decreasing incidence was found for acoustic neuroma during the same period. However, the medical diagnosis and treatment of this tumour type has changed during recent years and underreporting from a single center would have a large impact for such a rare tumour.
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During recent years there has been increasing public concern on potential cancer risks from microwave emissions from wireless phones. We evaluated the scientific evidence for long-term mobile phone use and the association with certain tumors in case-control studies, mostly from the Hardell group in Sweden and the Interphone study group. Regarding brain tumors the meta-analysis yielded for glioma odds ratio (OR)=1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.9-1.1. OR increased to 1.3, 95% CI=1.1-1.6 with 10 year latency period, with highest risk for ipsilateral exposure (same side as the tumor localisation), OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, lower for contralateral exposure (opposite side) OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.7. Regarding acoustic neuroma OR=1.0, 95% CI=0.8-1.1 was calculated increasing to OR=1.3, 95% CI=0.97-1.9 with 10 year latency period. For ipsilateral exposure OR=1.6, 95% CI=1.1-2.4, and for contralateral exposure OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.8-1.9 were found. Regarding meningioma no consistent pattern of an increased risk was found. Concerning age, highest risk was found in the age group <20 years at time of first use of wireless phones in the studies from the Hardell group. For salivary gland tumors, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and testicular cancer no consistent pattern of an association with use of wireless phones was found. One study on uveal melanoma yielded for probable/certain mobile phone use OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.2-14.5. One study on intratemporal facial nerve tumor was not possible to evaluate due to methodological shortcomings. In summary our review yielded a consistent pattern of an increased risk for glioma and acoustic neuroma after >10 year mobile phone use. We conclude that current standard for exposure to microwaves during mobile phone use is not safe for long-term exposure and needs to be revised.
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In today's world, technologic developments bring social and economic benefits to large sections of society; however, the health consequences of these developments can be difficult to predict and manage. With rapid advances in electromagnetic field (EMF) technologies and communications, children are increasingly exposed to EMFs at earlier and earlier ages. Consistent epidemiologic evidence of an association between childhood leukemia and exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has led to their classification by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as a "possible human carcinogen." Concerns about the potential vulnerability of children to radio frequency (RF) fields have been raised because of the potentially greater susceptibility of their developing nervous systems; in addition, their brain tissue is more conductive, RF penetration is greater relative to head size, and they will have a longer lifetime of exposure than adults. To evaluate information relevant to children's sensitivity to both ELF and RF EMFs and to identify research needs, the World Health Organization held an expert workshop in Istanbul, Turkey, in June 2004. This article is based on discussions from the workshop and provides background information on the development of the embryo, fetus, and child, with particular attention to the developing brain; an outline of childhood susceptibility to environmental toxicants and childhood diseases implicated in EMF studies; and a review of childhood exposure to EMFs. It also includes an assessment of the potential susceptibility of children to EMFs and concludes with a recommendation for additional research and the development of precautionary policies in the face of scientific uncertainty.
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The authors' case-control study on the possible association between brain tumors and mobile and cordless telephone use included 1,617 patients and 1,617 controls. A questionnaire was answered by 1,429 (88%) cases and 1,470 (91%) controls. Use of analog cellular telephones yielded an odds ratio (OR) for brain tumors of 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.64, increasing for ipsilateral use to OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.19-2.30. The authors found the highest risk for the 20-29-yr age group, with OR = 5.91, 95% CI = 0.63-55 for ipsilateral use of analog phones. The highest risks were associated with >5-year latency period in the 20-29-yr age group for analog phones (OR = 8.17, 95% CI = 0.94-71), and cordless phones (OR = 4.30, 95% CI = 1.22-15).
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To study the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for malignant brain tumours. Two case-control studies on malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1997-2003 included answers from 905 (90%) cases and 2,162 (89%) controls aged 20-80 years. We present pooled analysis of the results in the two studies. Cumulative lifetime use for >2,000 h yielded for analogue cellular phones odds ratio (OR)=5.9, 95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5-14, digital cellular phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.7-7.7, and for cordless phones OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.5-3.6. Ipsilateral exposure increased the risk for malignant brain tumours; analogue OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.5-2.9, digital OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.4-2.4, and cordless OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.3-2.2. For high-grade astrocytoma using >10 year latency period analogue phones yielded OR=2.7, 95% CI=1.8-4.2, digital phones OR=3.8, 95% CI=1.8-8.1, and cordless phones OR=2.2, 95% CI=1.3-3.9. In the multivariate analysis all phone types increased the risk. Regarding digital phones OR=3.7, 95% CI=1.5-9.1 and cordless phones OR=2.1, 95% CI=0.97-4.6 were calculated for malignant brain tumours for subjects with first use use <20 years of age, higher than in older persons. Increased risk was obtained for both cellular and cordless phones, highest in the group with >10 years latency period.
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The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 2.0-4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1-2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04-2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3-2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2-1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1-1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.
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Recent years have seen a rapid increase in the use of mobile phones and other sources of microwave radiation, raising concerns about possible adverse health effects. As children have longer expected lifetime exposures to microwaves from these devices than adults, who started to use them later in life, they are a group of special interest. We performed a population-based study to assess ownership and use of mobile phones and cordless phones among children aged 7-14 years. A questionnaire comprising 24 questions was sent to 2000 persons selected from the Swedish population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. The response rate was 71.2%. Overall, 79.1% of the respondents reported mobile phone access, and 26.7% of them talked for 2 minutes or more per day. Of those who reported mobile phone access, only 5.9% reported use of hands-free equipment. Use of cordless phones was reported by 83.8% of the respondents and 38.5% of them talked for 5 minutes or more per day. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. This study showed that most children had access to and used mobile and cordless phones early in life and that there was a rapid increase in use with age. It also showed very low use of hands-free equipment among children with mobile phone access, and finally that girls talked significantly more minutes per day using mobile and cordless phones than boys did.
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The very rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in the possible health effects of exposure to radio frequency (RF) fields. A multinational case-control study, INTERPHONE, was set-up to investigate whether mobile phone use increases the risk of cancer and, more specifically, whether the RF fields emitted by mobile phones are carcinogenic. The study focused on tumours arising in the tissues most exposed to RF fields from mobile phones: glioma, meningioma, acoustic neurinoma and parotid gland tumours. In addition to a detailed history of mobile phone use, information was collected on a number of known and potential risk factors for these tumours. The study was conducted in 13 countries. Australia, Canada, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the UK using a common core protocol. This paper describes the study design and methods and the main characteristics of the study population. INTERPHONE is the largest case-control study to date investigating risks related to mobile phone use and to other potential risk factors for the tumours of interest and includes 2,765 glioma, 2,425 meningioma, 1,121 acoustic neurinoma, 109 malignant parotid gland tumour cases and 7,658 controls. Particular attention was paid to estimating the amount and direction of potential recall and participation biases and their impact on the study results.
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Background: Use of cell phones has increased dramatically since 1992 when they were first introduced in France. Certain electromagnetic fields (at extremely low frequency) have been recognized as possibly carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Given the use of radiofrequency technology in cell phones, the rapid increase in the number of cell phones has generated concerns about the existence of a potential health hazard. To evaluate the relationship between the use of cell phones and the development of tumors of the head, a multicentric international study (INTERPHONE), coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, was carried out in 13 countries. This publication reports the results of the French part of the INTERPHONE study. Methods: INTERPHONE is a case-control study focused on tumors of the brain and central nervous system: gliomas, meningiomas and neuromas of cranial nerves. Eligible cases were men and women, residents of Paris or Lyon, aged 30-59, newly diagnosed with a first primary tumor between February 2001 and August 2003. The diagnoses were all either histologically confirmed or based upon unequivocal radiological images. Controls were matched for gender, age (+/-5 years) and place of residence. They were randomly drawn from electoral rolls. Detailed information was collected for all subjects during a computer-assisted face-to-face interview. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) for an association between the use of cell phones and risk of each type of cancer. Results: Regular cell phone use was not associated with an increased risk of neuroma (OR=0,92; 95% confidence interval=[0.53-1.59]), meningioma (OR=0,74; 95% confidence interval=[0.43-1.28]) or glioma (OR=1.15; 95% confidence interval=[0.65-2.05]). Although these results are not statistically significant, a general tendency was observed for an increased risk of glioma among the heaviest users: long-term users, heavy users, users with the largest numbers of telephones. Conclusion: No significant increased risk for glioma, meningioma or neuroma was observed among cell phone users participating in Interphone. The statistical power of the study is limited, however. Our results, suggesting the possibility of an increased risk among the heaviest users, therefore need to be verified in the international INTERPHONE analyses.
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We included in a case-control study on brain tumours and mobile and cordless telephones 1,617 patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes diagnosed during January 1, 1997 to June 30, 2000. They were alive at the study time and had histopathology verified brain tumour. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppsala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linköping and Göteborg medical regions of Sweden. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire that was answered by 1,429 (88%) cases and 1,470 (91%) controls. In total use of analogue cellular telephones gave an increased risk with odds ratio (OR)=1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.04-1.6, whereas digital and cordless phones did not overall increase the risk significantly. Ipsilateral use of analogue phones gave OR=1.7, 95% CI=1.2-2.3, digital phones OR=1.3, 95% CI=1.02-1.8 and cordless phones OR=1.2, 95% CI=0.9-1.6. The risk for ipsilateral use was significantly increased for astrocytoma for all studied phone types, analogue phones OR=1.8,95% CI=1.1-3.2, digital phones OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.8, cordless phones OR=1.8, 95% CI=1.1-2.9. Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with a significantly increased risk for brain tumours. Regarding anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls, significantly so for analogue cellular telephones OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.1. For acoustic neurinoma OR=4.4, 95% CI=2.1-9.2 was calculated among analogue cellular telephone users. When duration of use was analysed as a continuous variable in the total material, the risk increased per year for analogue phones with OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.08. For astrocytoma and ipsilateral use the trend was for analogue phones OR=1.10, 95% CI=1.02-1.19, digital phones OR=1.11, 95% CI=1.01-1.22, and cordless phones OR=1.09, 95% CI=1.01-1.19. There was a tendency of a shorter tumour induction period for ipsilateral exposure to microwaves than for contralateral, which may indicate a tumour promotor effect.
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Background: Despite the last years of rapid increase in use of wireless phones little data on the use of these devices has been systematically assessed among young persons. The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to assess use of wireless phones and to study such use in relation to explanatory factors and self-reported health symptoms. Methods: A postal questionnaire comprising 8 pages of 27 questions with 75 items in total was sent to 2000 Swedish adolescents aged 15-19 years and selected from the population registry using a stratified sampling scheme. Results: The questionnaire was answered by 63.5% of the study subjects. Most participants reported access to a mobile phone (99.6%) and use increased with age; 55.6% of the 15-year-olds and 82.2% of the 19-year-olds were regular users. Girls generally reported more frequent use than boys. Use of wired hands-free equipment 'anytime' was reported by 17.4%. Cordless phones were used by 81.9%, and 67.3% were regular users. Watching TV increased the odds ratio for use of wireless phones, adjusted for age and gender. Some of the most frequently reported health complaints were tiredness, stress, headache, anxiety, concentration difficulties and sleep disturbances. Regular users of wireless phones had health symptoms more often and reported poorer perceived health than less frequent users. Conclusion: Almost all adolescence in this study used a wireless phone, girls more than boys. The most frequent use was seen among the older adolescents, and those who watched TV extensively. The study further showed that perceived health and certain health symptoms seemed to be related to the use of wireless phones. However, this part of the investigation was explorative and should therefore be interpreted with caution since bias and chance findings due to multiple testing might have influenced the results. Potentially this study will stimulate more sophisticated studies that may also investigate directions of associations and whether, or to what degree, any mediation factors are involved.
Article
Malignant nervous system (NS) tumors account for 18,300 of new cancer diagnoses each year or 1.4% of all primary incident cancers and for 13,100 or 2.4% of annual cancer deaths. The vast majority of these tumors arise in the central nervous system (CNS), and for this site inclusion of benign tumors doubles the annual incidence. This chapter reviews the epidemiology of tumors in the central nervous system. Topics covered include classification, demographic patterns, environmental factors, host factors, and preventive measures.
Article
Methods An interview-based case-control study with 2708 glioma and 2409 meningioma cases and matched controls was conducted in 13 countries using a common protocol. Results A reduced odds ratio (OR) related to ever having been a regular mobile phone user was seen for glioma [OR 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-0.94] and meningioma (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.68-0.91), possibly reflecting participation bias or other methodological limitations. No elevated OR was observed >= 10 years after first phone use (glioma: OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.76-1.26; meningioma: OR 0.83; 95% CI 0.61-1.14). ORs were < 1.0 for all deciles of lifetime number of phone calls and nine deciles of cumulative call time. In the 10th decile of recalled cumulative call time, >= 1640 h, the OR was 1.40 (95% CI 1.03-1.89) for glioma, and 1.15 (95% CI 0.81-1.62) for meningioma; but there are implausible values of reported use in this group. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in the temporal lobe than in other lobes of the brain, but the CIs around the lobe-specific estimates were wide. ORs for glioma tended to be greater in subjects who reported usual phone use on the same side of the head as their tumour than on the opposite side. Conclusions Overall, no increase in risk of glioma or meningioma was observed with use of mobile phones. There were suggestions of an increased risk of glioma at the highest exposure levels, but biases and error prevent a causal interpretation. The possible effects of long-term heavy use of mobile phones require further investigation.
Article
The use of cellular telephones has increased dramatically during the 1990's in the world. In the 1980's the analogue NMT system was used whereas the digital GSM system was introduced in early 1990's and is now the preferred system. Case reports of brain tumours in users initiated this case-control study on brain tumours and use of cellular telephones. Also other exposures were assessed. All cases, both males and females, with histopathologically verified brain tumour living in Uppsala-Orebro region (1994-96) and Stockholm region (1995-96) aged 20-80 at the time of diagnosis and alive at start of the study were included, 233 in total. Two controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register matched for sex, age and study region. Exposure was assessed by questionnaires supplemented over the phone. The analyses were based on answers from 209 (90%) cases and 425 (91%) controls. Use of cellular telephone gave odds ratio (OR) = 0.98 with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0. 69-1.41. For the digital GSM system OR = 0.97, CI = 0.61-1.56 and for the analogue NMT system OR = 0.94, CI = 0.62-1.44 were calculated. Dose-response analysis and using different tumour induction periods gave similar results. Non-significantly increased risk was found for tumour in the temporal or occipital lobe on the same side as a cellular phone had been used, right side OR = 2.45, CI = 0.78-7.76, left side OR = 2.40, CI = 0.52-10.9 Increased risk was found only for use of the NMT system. For GSM use the observation time is still too short for definite conclusions. An increased risk for brain tumour in the anatomical area close to the use of a cellular telephone should be especially studied in the future.
Article
A case-control study on brain tumours included 233 patients aged 20-80 years and alive at the study time. They had histopathologically verified brain tumour and lived in the Uppsala-Orebro region (1994-1996) or the Stockholm region (1995-1996). Two matched controls to each case were selected from the Swedish Population Register. Two hundred and nine cases (90%) and 425 controls (91%) answered the questionnaire. Results are presented for the whole study group, as given here, and for malignant and benign tumours separately. For workers in the chemical industry the odds ratio (OR) was 4.10, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-13.4 and laboratory workers OR 3.21, 95% CI 1.16-8.85. Radiotherapy of the head and neck region gave OR 3.61, 95% CI 0.65-19.9. Medical diagnostic X-ray of the same area yielded OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.04-2.58. Work as a physician gave OR 6.00, 95% CI 0.62-57.7. All three cases had worked with fluoroscopy. Ipsilateral (same side) use of a cellular telephone increased the risk of tumours in the temporal, temporoparietal and occipital areas, with OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.97-6.05 (i.e. the anatomical areas with highest exposure to microwaves from a mobile phone).
Article
Microwave exposure from the use of cellular telephones has been discussed in recent years as a potential risk factor for brain tumours. We included in a case-control study 1617 patients aged 20-80 years of both sexes with brain tumour diagnosed between 1 January 1997 and 30 June 2000. They were alive at the study time and had histopathologically verified brain tumour. One matched control to each case was selected from the Swedish Population Register. The study area was the Uppsala-Orebro, Stockholm, Linköping and Göteborg medical regions of Sweden. Exposure was assessed by a questionnaire that was answered by 1429 (88%) cases and 1470 (91%) controls. In total, use of analogue cellular telephones gave an increased risk with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.6). With a tumour induction period of >10 years the risk increased further: OR 1.8 (95% CI 1.1-2.9). No clear association was found for digital or cordless telephones. With regard to the anatomical area of the tumour and exposure to microwaves, the risk was increased for tumours located in the temporal area on the same side of the brain that was used during phone calls; for analogue cellular telephones the OR was 2.5 (95% CI 1.3-4.9). Use of a telephone on the opposite side of the brain was not associated with an increased risk for brain tumours. With regard to different tumour types, the highest risk was for acoustic neurinoma (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.8-6.8) among analogue cellular telephone users.
Article
To evaluate a possible association of glioma or meningioma with use of cellular telephones, using a nationwide population-based case-control study of incident cases of meningioma and glioma. The authors ascertained all incident cases of glioma and meningioma diagnosed in Denmark between September 1, 2000, and August 31, 2002. They enrolled 252 persons with glioma and 175 persons with meningioma aged 20 to 69. The authors also enrolled 822 randomly sampled, population-based controls matched for age and sex. Information was obtained from personal interviews, medical records containing diagnoses, and the results of radiologic examinations. For a small number of cases and controls, the authors obtained the numbers of incoming and outgoing calls. They evaluated the memory of the respondents with the Mini-Mental State Examination and obtained data on socioeconomic factors from Statistics Denmark. There were no material socioeconomic differences between cases and controls or participants and non-participants. Use of cellular telephone was associated with a low risk for high-grade glioma (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.90). The risk estimates were closer to unity for low-grade glioma (1.08; 0.58 to 2.00) and meningioma (1.00; 0.54 to 1.28). The results do not support an association between use of cellular telephones and risk for glioma or meningioma.
Article
We performed a case-control study on the use of cellular and cordless telephones and the risk for brain tumors diagnosed during 2000-2003. We report the results for malignant brain tumors with data from 317 cases (88%) and 692 controls (84%). The use of analog cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 and a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 1.5-4.3, increasing to OR=3.5 and 95% CI=2.0-6.4 with a >10-year latency period. Regarding digital cellular telephones, the corresponding results were OR=1.9, 95% CI=1.3-2.7 and OR=3.6, 95% CI=1.7-7.5, respectively. Cordless telephones yielded OR=2.1, 95% CI=1.4-3.0, and with a >10-year latency period, OR=2.9, 95% CI=1.6-5.2. The OR increased with the cumulative number of hours of use and was highest for high-grade astrocytoma. A somewhat increased risk was also found for low-grade astrocytoma and other types of malignant brain tumors, although not significantly so. In multivariate analysis, all three phone types studied showed an increased risk.
Article
The rapid worldwide increase in mobile phone use in the last decade has generated considerable interest in possible carcinogenic effects of radio frequency (RF). Because exposure to RF from phones is localized, if a risk exists it is likely to be greatest for tumours in regions with greatest energy absorption. The objective of the current paper was to characterize the spatial distribution of RF energy in the brain, using results of measurements made in two laboratories on 110 phones used in Europe or Japan. Most (97-99% depending on frequency) appears to be absorbed in the brain hemisphere on the side where the phone is used, mainly (50-60%) in the temporal lobe. The average relative SAR is highest in the temporal lobe (6-15%, depending on frequency, of the spatial peak SAR in the most exposed region of the brain) and the cerebellum (2-10%) and decreases very rapidly with increasing depth, particularly at higher frequencies. The SAR distribution appears to be fairly similar across phone models, between older and newer phones and between phones with different antenna types and positions. Analyses of risk by location of tumour are therefore important for the interpretation of results of studies of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use.
Article
this report. Additional comments. Because the study by Hardell and colleagues encompasses three published papers, additional comments are necessary. The first paper in 1999 covered only cellular phones, whereas the second and third papers published in 2000 and 2001 covered a wide range of exposures in addition to cellular phones. There were few differences between the 2000 and 2001 papers. It is not clear, however, why the emphasis and interpretations of the same cellular phone data by the same authors changed dramatically over the course of two years, especially when three major negative epidemiologic studies were published between the first and the last paper (Muscat et al. 2000; Inskip et al. 2001; Johansen et al. 2001)
Cancer Epidemiology and Pre-vention
  • J F Schottenfeld
  • Fraumeni
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