Exploring converse molecular mechanisms of anti-HIV-1 antibodies using a synthetic CXCR4 mimic
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91052 Erlangen, Germany. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
(Impact Factor: 2.42).
08/2012; 22(19):6099-102. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.08.035
Different molecular mechanisms of the two broadly neutralizing anti-HIV-1 antibodies b12 and VRC01, as evidenced by their converse effects on the interaction of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 with cellular coreceptors, were demonstrated using a synthetic CXCR4 mimetic peptide (CX4-M1) as coreceptor surrogate. While the interaction of gp120 with CX4-M1 was distinctly enhanced by VRC01, b12 was shown to have the contrary effect, and also to inhibit the VRC01-induced enhancement of gp120 binding to the CXCR4 mimetic peptide.
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ABSTRACT: Chemokines constitute a large family of small proteins that regulate leukocyte trafficking to the site of inflammation by binding to specific cell-surface receptors belonging to the GPCR superfamily. The interactions between N-terminal (Nt-) peptides of these GPCRs and chemokines have been studied extensively using NMR spectroscopy. However, due to lower affinities of peptides representing the three extracellular loops (ECLs) of chemokine receptors to their respective chemokine ligands, information concerning these interactions is scarce. To overcome the low affinity of ECL peptides to chemokines, we linked two or three CCR5 extracellular domains by either biosynthesis in Escherichia coli or by chemical synthesis. Using such chimeras, CCR5 binding to RANTES was followed using 1 H-15 N-HSQC spectra to monitor titration of the chemokine with peptides corresponding to the extracellular surface of the receptor. Nt-CCR5 and ECL2 were found to be the major contributors to CCR5 binding to RANTES, creating a nearly closed ring around this protein by interacting with opposing faces of the chemokine. A RANTES positively charged surface involved in Nt-CCR5 binding resembles the positively charged surface in HIV-1 gp120 formed by the C4 and the base of the V3. The opposing surface on RANTES, composed primarily of β2-β3 hairpin residues, binds ECL2 and was found to be analogous to a surface in the crown of the gp120 V3. The chemical and biosynthetic approaches for linking GPCR surface regions discussed herein should be widely applicable to investigation of interactions of extracellular segments of chemokine receptors with their respective ligands. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.
Available from: Koushik Chandra
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ABSTRACT: Protein-protein interactions (PPI) are essential in every step of the HIV replication cycle. Mapping the interactions between viral and host proteins is a fundamental target for the design and development of new therapeutics. In this review, we focus on rational development of anti-HIV-1 peptides based on mapping viral-host and viral-viral protein interactions all across the HIV-1 replication cycle. We also discuss the mechanism of action, specificity and stability of these peptides, which are designed to inhibit PPI. Some of these peptides are excellent tools to study the mechanisms of PPI in HIV-1 replication cycle and for the development of anti-HIV-1 drug leads that modulate PPI.
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