Nematode-Trapping Fungi

Current Research in Environmental & Applied Mycology 06/2011; 1(1):1-26.


This manuscript provides an account of nematode-trapping fungi including their taxonomy, phylogeny and evolution. There are four broad groups of nematophagous fungi categorized based on their mechanisms of attacking nematodes. These include 1) nematode-trapping fungi using adhesive or mechanical hyphal traps, 2) endoparasitic fungi using their spores, 3) egg parasitic fungi invading nematode eggs or females with their hyphal tips, and 4) toxin-producing fungi immobilizing nematodes before invasion The account briefly mentions fossil nematode-trapping fungi and looks at biodiversity, ecology and geographical distribution including factors affecting their distribution such as salinity. Nematode-trapping fungi occur in terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats, but rarely occur in extreme environments. Fungal-nematodes interactions are discussed the potential role of nematode-trapping fungi in biological control is briefly reviewed. Although the potential for use of nematode-trapping fungi is high there have been few successes resulting in commercial products.

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Available from: Rajesh Jeewon, Apr 18, 2014
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    • "Fungi are also capable of rapidly altering metabolism and secondary metabolite production in response to environmental conditions such as osmotic stressDuran et al., 2010). Some species of fungi also have mechanisms, such as uniquely shaped hyphae, to trap and degrade microbiota within soils (Hong et al., 2006;Swe et al., 2011). The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of mycofiltration with Stropharia rugoso-annulata, commonly known as the " garden giant " or " wine cap " mushroom, to remove Escherichia coli from stormwater. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pathogens from nonpoint sources are the leading cause of water quality impairments in US surface waters. This study assessed the capacity of basidiomycetous fungal mycelium on cellulosic substrates to remove Escherichia coli from synthetic stormwater under unsaturated vertical-flow conditions. The mycelium of Stropharia rugoso-annulata was tested in mycofiltration columns consisting of 18.6 L containers with mycelium grown on either wood chips or a mixture of wood chips and straw. S. rugoso-annulata mycofiltration columns were loaded with water spiked with 600–900 cfu/100 mL of E. coli at low (0.5 L/min; 0.57 m/d) and high (2.2 L/min; 2.5 m/d) hydraulic loading. Influent and effluent were monitored for thermotolerant coliform and E. coli using the Coliscan membrane filter chromogenic method. Alder wood chips infused with S. rugoso-annulata mycelium yielded a removal rate of around 20% relative to control filters. Wood chip and straw media appeared less effective with substantial net export of bacteria from both mycelium-infused and un-inoculated control media. The un-inoculated control media used in this study commonly exported high concentrations of thermotolerant coliform bacteria. On wood chip-based media, the presence of actively growing mycelium reduced the thermotolerant coliform exports by >90% relative to the control media. The study highlights the limitations of using thermotolerant coliform to assess pathogen removal in cellulose rich ecotechnologies like mycofiltration.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Ecological Engineering
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess antagonism of nematophagous fungi and species producers metabolites and their effectiveness on Haemonchus contortus infective larvae (L 3 ). Assay A assesses the synergistic, additive, or antagonistic effect on the production of spores of fungal isolates of the species Duddingtonia flagrans , Clonostachys rosea , Trichoderma esau , and Arthrobotrys musiformis ; Assay B evaluates in vitro the effect of intercropping of these isolates grown in 2% water-agar (2% WA) on L 3 of H. contortus . D. flagrans (Assay A) produced 5.3 × 10 6 spores and associated with T. esau , A. musiformis , or C. rosea reduced its production by 60.37, 45.28, and 49.05%, respectively. T. esau produced 7.9 × 10 7 conidia and associated with D. flagrans , A. musiformis , or C. rosea reduced its production by 39.24, 82.27, and 96.96%, respectively. A. musiformis produced 7.3 × 10 9 spores and associated with D. flagrans , T. esau , or C. rosea reduced its production by 99.98, 99.99, and 99.98%, respectively. C. rosea produced 7.3 × 10 8 conidia and associated with D. flagrans , T. esau , or A. musiformis reduced its production by 95.20, 96.84, and 93.56%, respectively. These results show evidence of antagonism in the production of spores between predators fungi.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2015
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