Article

Defining the developmental parameters of temper loss in young children: Implications for developmental psychopathology

Department of Medical Social Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL Department of Psychology, University of Massachusetts-Boston, Boston, MA Department of Psychiatry, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT Section on Bipolar Spectrum Disorders, Emotion & Development Branch, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health & Human Services, Bethesda, MD.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 6.46). 08/2012; 53(11):1099-108. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02595.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Background:
Temper modulation problems are both a hallmark of early childhood and a common mental health concern. Thus, characterizing specific behavioral manifestations of temper loss along a dimension from normative misbehaviors to clinically significant problems is an important step toward identifying clinical thresholds.

Methods:
Parent-reported patterns of temper loss were delineated in a diverse community sample of preschoolers (n = 1,490). A developmentally sensitive questionnaire, the Multidimensional Assessment of Preschool Disruptive Behavior (MAP-DB), was used to assess temper loss in terms of tantrum features and anger regulation. Specific aims were: (a) document the normative distribution of temper loss in preschoolers from normative misbehaviors to clinically concerning temper loss behaviors, and test for sociodemographic differences; (b) use Item Response Theory (IRT) to model a Temper Loss dimension; and (c) examine associations of temper loss and concurrent emotional and behavioral problems.

Results:
Across sociodemographic subgroups, a unidimensional Temper Loss model fit the data well. Nearly all (83.7%) preschoolers had tantrums sometimes but only 8.6% had daily tantrums. Normative misbehaviors occurred more frequently than clinically concerning temper loss behaviors. Milder behaviors tended to reflect frustration in expectable contexts, whereas clinically concerning problem indicators were unpredictable, prolonged, and/or destructive. In multivariate models, Temper Loss was associated with emotional and behavioral problems.

Conclusions:
Parent reports on a developmentally informed questionnaire, administered to a large and diverse sample, distinguished normative and problematic manifestations of preschool temper loss. A developmental, dimensional approach shows promise for elucidating the boundaries between normative early childhood temper loss and emergent psychopathology.

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    • "First, we assessed child psychopathology and irritability using a comprehensive interview, which allowed us to take into account the intensity, frequency, and duration of irritability. Second, we used a dimensional construct of youth irritability, as the boundaries between clinically significant irritability and normative irritability, particularly in preschoolers, continue to be investigated (Wakschlag et al., 2012). This approach is consistent with the NIMH Research Domain Criteria project, which aims to identify new ways to classify behavior based on dimensional measures of behavior and neurobiological processes (Insel et al., 2010). "
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