Genome Sequence of an Unusual Human G10P[8] Rotavirus Detected in Vietnam

Division of Virology, Kawasaki City Institute of Public Health, Oshima, Kawasaki-ku, Kawasaki-shi, Kanagawa, Japan.
Journal of Virology (Impact Factor: 4.44). 09/2012; 86(18):10236-7. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01588-12
Source: PubMed


A rare human G10P[8] rotavirus with a reassortment between bovine and human viruses was detected from a patient with acute
gastroenteritis in Vietnam. Genetic analysis using complete coding sequences of all segments showed a genomic constellation
of this virus of G10-P[8]-I1-R1-C1-M1-A1-N1-T1-E1-H1. Its VP7 region was genetically related to that of a bovine rotavirus
derived from Australia (strain VICG10.01), whereas all other genes were identical to those of a human rotavirus derived from
Australia (strain Victoria/CK00047). These results indicate a possibility that the reassortment of the rotavirus was caused
by immune escape in Australia and the rotavirus was carried to Vietnam. Additionally, this finding will help further understanding
the evolution of rotaviruses circulating in Vietnam.

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    • "Among the ARoVs, 27 G genotypes and 34 P genotypes are currently recognized, however, the number continues to expand as more as emphasis is placed on RoV surveillance in nonhuman species. Surveillance of circulating RoVs has revealed the presence of uncommon genotypes in humans that are commonly found in domestic animals (Chitambar et al., 2009; Nguyen et al., 2007; Duan et al., 2007; Matsushima et al., 2012), and the presence of viruses with hybrid genome constellations (Park et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2010), suggesting that some ARoVs are able to cross species barriers and contribute to human rotavirus diversity. As part of a larger platform to study zoonotic disease transmission in Vietnam, we surveyed ARoVs in pigs of smallholder farms in the Mekong Delta. "
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    ABSTRACT: Group A rotaviruses (ARoVs) are a common cause of severe diarrhea among children worldwide and the cause of approximately 45% of pediatric hospitalizations for acute diarrhea in Vietnam. ARoVs are known to cause significant economic losses to livestock producers by reducing growth performance and production efficiencies, however little is known about the implications of asymptomatic endemic circulation of ARoV. We aimed to determine the prevalence and predominant circulating genotypes of ARoVs on pig farms in a southern province of Vietnam. We found overall animal-level and farm-level prevalence of 32.7% (239/730) and 74% (77/104), respectively, and identified six different G types and 4 P types in various combinations (G2, G3, G4, G5, G9, G11 and P[6], P[13], P[23], and P[34]). There was no significant association between ARoV infection and clinical disease in pigs, suggesting that endemic asymptomatic circulation of ARoV may complicate rotavirus disease attribution during outbreaks of diarrhea in swine. Sequence analysis of the detected ARoVs suggested homology to recent human clinical cases and extensive genetic diversity. The epidemiological relevance of these findings for veterinary practitioners and to ongoing pediatric ARoV vaccine initiatives in Vietnam merits further study.
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    ABSTRACT: Rotaviruses, a major cause of gastroenteritis in children worldwide accounts for around 0.5 million deaths annually. Owing to their segmented genome and frequently evolving capability, these display a wide variation in their genotypes. In addition to commonly circulating genotypes (G1, G2, G3, G4, G9, P[4] and P[8]), a number of infrequent genotypes are being continuously reported to infect humans. These viral strains exhibit variation from one geographical setting to another in their distribution. Though the introduction of vaccines (RotaTeq and Rotarix) proved to be very effective in declining rotavirus associated morbidity and mortality, the number of infections remained same. Unusual genotypes significantly contribute to the rotavirus associated diarrhoeal burden, may reduce the efficacy of the vaccines in use and hence vaccinated individuals may not be benefited. Vaccine introduction may bring about a notable impact on the distribution and prevalence of these viruses due to selection pressure. Moreover, there is a sudden emergence of G2 and G3 in Brazil and United States, respectively, during the years 2006-2008 post-vaccination introduction; G9 and G12 became predominant during the years 1986 through 1998 before the vaccine introduction and now are commonly prevalent strains; and disparity in the predominance of strains after introduction of vaccines and their natural fluctuations poses a vital question on the impact of vaccines on rotavirus strain circulation. This interplay between vaccines and rotavirus strains is yet to be explored, but it certainly enforces the need to continuously monitor these changes in strains prevalence in a particular region. Furthermore, these fluctuations should be considered while administration or development of a vaccine, if rotavirus associated mortality is ever to be controlled.
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